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2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 935
Preetiman Kaur ◽  
Shivani Sharma ◽  
Fawziah M. Albarakaty ◽  
Anu Kalia ◽  
Mohamed M. Hassan ◽  

Industrialization and technological advancements have led to the exploitation of natural resources and the production of hazardous wastes, including electronic waste (E-waste). The traditional physical and chemical techniques used to combat E-waste accumulation have inherent drawbacks, such as the production of harmful gases and toxic by-products. These limitations may be prudently addressed by employing green biological methods, such as biosorption and bioleaching. Therefore, this study was aimed at evaluating the biosorption and bioleaching potential of seven microbial cultures using E-waste (printed circuit board (PCB)) as a substrate under submerged culture conditions. The cut pieces of PCB were incubated with seven microbial cultures in liquid broth conditions in three replicates. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) analysis of the culture biomass and culture filtrates was performed to evaluate and screen the better-performing microbial cultures for biosorption and bioleaching potentials. The best four cultures were further evaluated through SEM, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) studies to identify the possible culture that can be utilized for the biological decontamination of E-waste. The study revealed the highest and differential ability of Pleurotus florida and Pseudomonas spp. for biosorption and bioleaching of copper and iron. This can be attributed to bio-catalysis by the laccase enzyme. For both P. florida and Pseudomonas spp. on the 20th day of incubation, laccase exhibited higher specific activity (6.98 U/mg and 5.98 U/mg, respectively) than other microbial cultures. The biomass loaded with Cu2+ and Fe2+ ions after biosorption was used for the desorption process for recovery. The test cultures exhibited variable copper recovery efficiencies varying between 10.5 and 18.0%. Protein characterization through SDS-PAGE of four promising microbial cultures exhibited a higher number of bands in E-waste as compared with microbial cultures without E-waste. The surface topography studies of the E-waste substrate showed etching, as well as deposition of vegetative and spore cells on the surfaces of PCB cards. The EDX studies of the E-waste showed decreases in metal element content (% wt/% atom basis) on microbial treatment from the respective initial concentrations present in non-treated samples, which established the bioleaching phenomenon. Therefore, these microbial cultures can be utilized to develop a biological remediation method to manage E-waste.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Krzysztof Górecki ◽  
Przemysław Ptak ◽  
Barbara Dziurdzia

Purpose This paper presents the results of the investigations of LED modules soldered with the use of different soldering pastes. Design/methodology/approach The tested power LED modules are soldered using different solder pastes and soldering processes. Thermal parameters of the performed modules are tested using indirect electrical methods. The results of measurements obtained for different modules are compared and discussed. Findings It was shown that the soldering process visibly influences the results of measurements of optical and thermal parameters of LED modules. For example, values of thermal resistance of these modules and the efficiency of conversion of electrical energy into light differ between each other even by 15%. Practical implications The obtained results of investigations can be usable for designers of the assembly process of power LED modules. Originality/value This paper shows the investigations results in the area of effective assembly of power LEDs to the metal core printed circuit board (MCPCB) using different soldering pastes (REL22, REL61, LMPA-Q6, OM-5100, OM-338-PT, M8, OM-340, CVP-390). It was shown that the best thermal and optical properties of these modules are obtained for the OM5100 paste by Alpha Assembly.

Д.А. Пухов ◽  
А.В. Суворин ◽  
Д.В. Васильченко ◽  
М.А. Ромащенко

В современном мире при стремлении человечества к миниатюризации электротехнической и радиоэлектронной продукции без потери технических характеристик устройств, наряду с их расширением одной из значимых проблем является влияние электромагнитных помех на стабильное функционирование устройств. Представлены модули калибровки, используемые в программно-аппаратном комплексе (ПАК), который позволяет произвести оценку влияния электромагнитных помех (ЭМП) на электронные средства. Практическое искажение сигналов неизбежно, так как причиной помех может стать взаимное влияние элементов печатной платы (ПП) друг на друга, а также конфигурация самого рисунка дорожек ПП и её топологии. Рассматриваются модули, позволяющие выявить ряд ошибок по ранее полученным результатам и обеспечить калибровку комплекса с целью повышения точности оценки влияния самоиндукции и импеданса линии передач на вносимые искажения сигнала при различных конфигурациях трассировки печатной платы. Применение данного программно-аппаратного комплекса позволяет значительно сократить время, необходимое на разработку устройства и комплекс испытаний, что, в свою очередь, снижает финансовую нагрузку на выпуск единицы продукции, поскольку позволяет выявить недостатки устройств на стадии макетирования электротехнической продукции In the modern world, with the desire of all mankind to miniaturize electrical products without loss of power, one of the significant problems is the influence of electromagnetic interference on the stable functioning of devices. This article presents the calibration modules used in the software and hardware complex (SHC), which allows one to assess the influence of electromagnetic interference (EMI) on electronic means. The practical distortion of signals is inevitable since the cause of interference can be their mutual influence on each other, as well as the configuration of the printed circuit board pattern itself. The paper considers modules that allow identifying a number of errors based on previously obtained results and providing calibration of the complex in order to increase the accuracy of estimating the effect of self-induction and transmission line impedance on the introduced signal distortion in various configurations of the PCB trace. The use of this software and hardware complex can significantly reduce the development time and conduct tests that require financial costs since it allows one to conduct a number of experiments at the stage of prototyping electrical products

Micromachines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 123
Junzhe Shen ◽  
Tian Qiang ◽  
Minjia Gao ◽  
Yangchuan Ma ◽  
Junge Liang ◽  

In this paper, a bandpass filter (BPF) was developed utilizing GaAs-based integrated passive device technology which comprises an asymmetrical spiral inductor and an interleaved array capacitor, possessing two tuning modes: coarse-tuning and fine-tuning. By altering the number of layers and radius of the GaAs substrate metal spheres, capacitance variation from 0.071 to 0.106 pF for coarse-tuning, and of 0.0015 pF for fine-tuning, can be achieved. Five air bridges were employed in the asymmetrical spiral inductor to save space, contributing to a compact chip area of 0.015λ0 × 0.018λ0. The BPF chip was installed on the printed circuit board artwork with Au bonding wire and attached to a die sink. Measured results demonstrate an insertion loss of 0.38 dB and a return loss of 21.5 dB at the center frequency of 2.147 GHz. Furthermore, under coarse-tuning mode, variation in the center frequency from 1.956 to 2.147 GHz and transmission zero frequency from 4.721 to 5.225 GHz can be achieved. Under fine-tuning mode, the minimum tuning value and the average tuning value of the proposed BPF can be accurate to 1.0 MHz and 4.7 MHz for the center frequency and 1.0 MHz and 12.8 MHz for the transmission zero frequency, respectively.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 503
Barzan Tabei ◽  
Akihiro Ametani ◽  
Aniruddha M. Gole ◽  
Behzad Kordi

This paper presents an accurate quasi-analytical approximation of frequency-dependent ac resistance of single rectangular conductors. In this work, first, a two-dimensional analytical ac resistance of rectangular conductors is derived. Unlike circular conductors, where current density distributes evenly in each layer of the conductor’s cross-section, the edge effect is involved for rectangular conductors. Due to the edge effect, one cannot define an accurate boundary condition for solving the two-dimensional partial differential equation of magnetic field or current density of rectangular conductors. Hence, the calculated two-dimensional analytical current density result is not accurate and is modified and fitted on FEM simulation, taking the conductor’s thickness into account using the least-square problem to improve its accuracy. Unlike numerical approaches, the proposed method yields an easy-to-use formula applicable to industrial applications in different fields. Contrary to the one-dimensional approach, which is only valid for very thin rectangular conductors, this method takes edge effect into account and can be used for any thickness (from square to very thin rectangular conductors). The proposed method can be used in applications where an accurate ac resistance of rectangular conductors over a wide frequency range is required, such as white-box modeling of power transformers and interpreting its frequency response analysis (FRA), and calculating the resistance of electric machine winding, busbars, and printed circuit board traces.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 9
Thomas Guenther ◽  
Kai Werum ◽  
Ernst Müller ◽  
Marius Wolf ◽  
André Zimmermann

Thermosonic wire bonding is a well-established process. However, when working on advanced substrate materials and the associated required metallization processes to realize innovative applications, multiple factors impede the straightforward utilization of the known process. Most prominently, the surface roughness was investigated regarding bond quality in the past. The practical application of wire bonding on difficult-to-bond substrates showed inhomogeneous results regarding this quality characteristic. This study describes investigations on the correlation among the surface roughness, profile peak density and bonding quality of Au wire bonds on thermoplastic and thermoset-based substrates used for high-frequency (HF) applications and other high-end applications. FR4 PCB (printed circuit board flame resitant class 4) were used as references and compared to HF-PCBs based on thermoset substrates with glass fabric and ceramic filler as well as technical thermoplastic materials qualified for laser direct structuring (LDS), namely LCP (liquid crystal polymer), PEEK (polyether ether ketone) and PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene). These LDS materials for HF applications were metallized using autocatalytic metal deposition to enable three-dimensional structuring, eventually. For that purpose, bond parameters were investigated on the mentioned test substrates and compared with state-of-the-art wire bonding on FR4 substrates as used for HF applications. Due to the challenges of the limited thermal conductivity and softening of such materials under thermal load, the surface temperatures were matched up by thermography and the adaptation of thermal input. Pull tests were carried out to determine the bond quality with regard to surface roughness. Furthermore, strategies to increase reliability by the stitch-on-ball method were successfully applied.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 640
Cher-Ming Tan ◽  
Hsiao-Hi Chen ◽  
Jing-Ping Wu ◽  
Vivek Sangwan ◽  
Kun-Yen Tsai ◽  

A printed circuit board (PCB) is an essential element for practical circuit applications and its failure can inflict large financial costs and even safety concerns, especially if the PCB failure occurs prematurely and unexpectedly. Understanding the failure modes and even the failure mechanisms of a PCB failure are not sufficient to ensure the same failure will not occur again in subsequent operations with different batches of PCBs. The identification of the root cause is crucial to prevent the reoccurrence of the same failure. In this work, a step-by-step approach from customer returned and inventory reproduced boards to the root cause identification is described for an actual industry case where the failure is a PCB burn-out. The failure mechanism is found to be a conductive anodic filament (CAF) even though the PCB is CAF-resistant. The root cause is due to PCB de-penalization. A reliability verification to assure the effectiveness of the corrective action according to the identified root cause is shown to complete the case study. This work shows that a CAF-resistant PCB does not necessarily guarantee no CAF and PCB processes can render its CAF resistance ineffective.

Qianru Zhang ◽  
Meng Zhang ◽  
Chinthaka Gamanayake ◽  
Chau Yuen ◽  
Zehao Geng ◽  

AbstractWith the improvement of electronic circuit production methods, such as reduction of component size and the increase of component density, the risk of defects is increasing in the production line. Many techniques have been incorporated to check for failed solder joints, such as X-ray imaging, optical imaging and thermal imaging, among which X-ray imaging can inspect external and internal defects. However, some advanced algorithms are not accurate enough to meet the requirements of quality control. A lot of manual inspection is required that increases the specialist workload. In addition, automatic X-ray inspection could produce incorrect region of interests that deteriorates the defect detection. The high-dimensionality of X-ray images and changes in image size also pose challenges to detection algorithms. Recently, the latest advances in deep learning provide inspiration for image-based tasks and are competitive with human level. In this work, deep learning is introduced in the inspection for quality control. Four joint defect detection models based on artificial intelligence are proposed and compared. The noisy ROI and the change of image dimension problems are addressed. The effectiveness of the proposed models is verified by experiments on real-world 3D X-ray dataset, which saves the specialist inspection workload greatly.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Daniel Straubinger ◽  
Attila Toth ◽  
Viktor Kerek ◽  
Zsolt Czeczei ◽  
Andras Szabo ◽  

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to study the solder beading phenomenon (referring to larger-sized solder balls) of surface-mounted electrolytic capacitors. Solder beading could induce failures by violating the minimal electrical clearance on the printed circuit board (PCB). In modern lead-free reflow soldering, especially in high-reliability industries, such as automotive, aeroplane and aerospace, detecting and preventing such defects is essential in reliable and cost-effective manufacturing. Design/methodology/approach The large size of the involved components may block the view of automatic optical inspection; therefore, X-ray inspection is necessary. To detect the failure mode, X-ray imaging, cross-section grinding, optical microscopy and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy were used. High-resolution noncontact profilometry and optical microscopy were used to analyse component designs. The surface mounting process steps were also analysed to reveal their dependence on the issue. Test methods were designed and performed to reveal the behaviour of the solder paste (SP) during the reflow soldering process and to emphasise the component design relevance. Findings It was found that the reduction of SP volume only reduces the failure rate but does not solve the problem. Results show that excessive component placement pressure could induce solder beading. Statistical analysis revealed that differences between distinct components had the highest effect on the solder beading rate. Design aspects of solder beading-prone components were identified and discussed as the primary source of the problem. Practical implications The findings can be applied in surface-mount technology production, where the total failure count and resulting failure costs could be reduced according to the findings. Originality/value This paper shows that component design aspects such as the low distance between the underside of the component and the PCB and blocked proper outgassing of volatile compounds of the SP can be root causes of solder beading under surface-mounted electrolytic capacitors.

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