Line Of Sight
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2021 ◽  
Nelson Tabiryan ◽  
David Roberts ◽  
Zhi Liao ◽  
Elena Ouskova ◽  
Justin Sigley ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (2) ◽  
pp. 91-95
Kirill S. Kupriyanov ◽  
Vladimir V. Pereverzentsev

The task of determining the radiation situation, including neutron and gamma-quantum flux density, radiation spectrum, specific volumetric activity of radioactive gases in the air, etc. behind the protective composition having inhomogeneities, has always been important in matters of radiation safety. One of the ways to solve the problem of determining gamma radiation fluxes was to divide the total ionizing radiation flux into four components: line-of-sight (LOS), leakage, line-of-sight albedo, and leakage albedo, and obtain an analytical solution for each component. The first three components have been studied in detail in relation to simple geometries and there are analytical solutions for them, but there is no such a solution for the last component. The authors of this work have derived an analytical representation for the leakage albedo component, which, in contrast to numerical methods (such as Monte Carlo methods), makes it possible to analyze the effect of inhomogeneities in protective compositions on the radiation environment as well as to quickly obtain estimated values of fluxes and dose rates. Performing a component-by-component comparison, it becomes possible to single out the most significant mechanisms of the dose load formation behind the nuclear reactor protection, to draw conclusions about the effectiveness of design solutions in the protection design and to improve the protection at significantly lower computational costs. Finally, the authors present calculations for the four components of the total ionizing radiation flux for various parameters of the cylindrical inhomogeneity in the reactor protection. Based on the obtained values, conclusions are made about the importance of taking into account the leakage albedo component in the formation of the radiation situation behind the core vessel.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Mads Peter Heide-Jørgensen ◽  
Susanna B. Blackwell ◽  
Outi M. Tervo ◽  
Adeline L. Samson ◽  
Eva Garde ◽  

One of the last pristine marine soundscapes, the Arctic, is exposed to increasing anthropogenic activities due to climate-induced decrease in sea ice coverage. In this study, we combined movement and behavioral data from animal-borne tags in a controlled sound exposure study to describe the reactions of narwhals, Monodon monoceros, to airgun pulses and ship noise. Sixteen narwhals were live captured and instrumented with satellite tags and Acousonde acoustic-behavioral recorders, and 11 of them were exposed to airgun pulses and vessel sounds. The sound exposure levels (SELs) of pulses from a small airgun (3.4 L) used in 2017 and a larger one (17.0 L) used in 2018 were measured using drifting recorders. The experiment was divided into trials with airgun and ship-noise exposure, intertrials with only ship-noise, and pre- and postexposure periods. Both trials and intertrials lasted ∼4 h on average per individual. Depending on the location of the whales, the number of separate exposures ranged between one and eight trials or intertrials. Received pulse SELs dropped below 130 dB re 1 μPa2 s by 2.5 km for the small airgun and 4–9 km for the larger airgun, and background noise levels were reached at distances of ∼3 and 8–10.5 km, respectively, for the small and big airguns. Avoidance reactions of the whales could be detected at distances >5 km in 2017 and >11 km in 2018 when in line of sight of the seismic vessel. Meanwhile, a ∼30% increase in horizontal travel speed could be detected up to 2 h before the seismic vessel was in line of sight. Applying line of sight as the criterion for exposure thus excludes some potential pre-response effects, and our estimates of effects must therefore be considered conservative. The whales reacted by changing their swimming speed and direction at distances between 5 and 24 km depending on topographical surroundings where the exposure occurred. The propensity of the whales to move towards the shore increased with increasing exposure (i.e., shorter distance to vessels) and was highest with the large airgun used in 2018, where the whales moved towards the shore at distances of 10–15 km. No long-term effects of the response study could be detected.

Sensors ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (12) ◽  
pp. 4209
Kemeng Bai ◽  
Jianzhong Wang ◽  
Hongfeng Wang

Pupil segmentation is critical for line-of-sight estimation based on the pupil center method. Due to noise and individual differences in human eyes, the quality of eye images often varies, making pupil segmentation difficult. In this paper, we propose a pupil segmentation method based on fuzzy clustering of distributed information, which first preprocesses the original eye image to remove features such as eyebrows and shadows and highlight the pupil area; then the Gaussian model is introduced into global distribution information to enhance the classification fuzzy affiliation for the local neighborhood, and an adaptive local window filter that fuses local spatial and intensity information is proposed to suppress the noise in the image and preserve the edge information of the pupil details. Finally, the intensity histogram of the filtered image is used for fast clustering to obtain the clustering center of the pupil, and this binarization process is used to segment the pupil for the next pupil localization. Experimental results show that the method has high segmentation accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. It can accurately segment the pupil when there are interference factors such as light spots, light reflection, and contrast difference at the edge of the pupil, which is an important contribution to improving the stability and accuracy of the line-of-sight tracking.

Universe ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (6) ◽  
pp. 202
Mikhail Piotrovich ◽  
Stanislava Buliga ◽  
Tinatin Natsvlishvili

Based on the spectropolarimetric data of 33 Seyfert type 1 galaxies observed with the BTA-6m telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory, we estimated the magnetic field values at the event horizon of the supermassive black hole BH and the exponents of the power-law dependence s of the magnetic field on the radius. We used the model of optically thick geometrically thin Shakura–Sunyaev accretion disk. The average value of logBH[G] was found to be ∼4, which is in good agreement with the results obtained by other methods. The average value of s is s≈1.7, and its distribution maximum span is in the range od 1.85<s<2.0. This is a rather interesting result, since s=5/4 is usually adopted in calculations for Shakura–Sunyaev accretion disks. In addition, for two objects PG 1545+210 and 2MASX J06021107+2828382, the measured degree of polarization is greater than the maximum possible value at the angle between the line of sight and the axis of the accretion disk i=45°. It was concluded that for these objects the angle should be closer to i=60°.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (6) ◽  
pp. 4375-4402
Didier Bruneau ◽  
Jacques Pelon

Abstract. Global wind profile measurement has, for a long time, been a first priority for numerical weather prediction. The demonstration, from ground-based observations, that a double-edge Fabry–Pérot interferometer could be efficiently used for deriving wind profiles from the molecular scattered signal in a very large atmospheric vertical domain has led to the choice of the direct detection technique in space and the selection of the Atmospheric Dynamics Mission (ADM)-Aeolus by the European Space Agency (ESA) in 1999. ADM-Aeolus was successfully launched in 2018, after the technical issues raised by the lidar development had been solved, providing the first global wind profiles from space in the whole troposphere. Simulated and real-time assimilation of the projected horizontal wind information was able to confirm the expected improvements in the forecast score, validating the concept of a wind profiler using a single line-of-sight lidar from space. The question is raised here about consolidating the results gained from ADM-Aeolus mission with a potential operational follow-on instrument. Maintaining the configuration of the instrument as close as possible to the one achieved (UV emission lidar with a single line of sight), we revisit the concept of the receiver by replacing the arrangement of the Fizeau and Fabry–Pérot interferometers with a unique quadri-channel Mach–Zehnder (QMZ) interferometer, which relaxes the system's operational constraints and extends the observation capabilities to recover the radiative properties of clouds. This ability to profile wind and cloud/aerosol radiative properties enables the meeting of the two highest priorities of the meteorological forecasting community regarding atmospheric dynamics and radiation. We discuss the optimization of the key parameters necessary in the selection of a high-performance system, as based on previous work and development of our airborne QMZ lidar. The selected optical path difference (3.2 cm) of the QMZ leads to a very compact design, allowing the realization of a high-quality interferometer and offering a large field angle acceptance. Performance simulation of horizontal wind speed measurements with different backscatter profiles shows results in agreement with the targeted ADM-Aeolus random errors, using an optimal 45∘ line-of-sight angle. The Doppler measurement is, in principle, unbiased by the atmospheric conditions (temperature, pressure, and particle scattering) and only weakly affected by the instrument calibration errors. The study of the errors arising from the uncertainties in the instrumental calibration and in the modeled atmospheric parameters used for the backscattered signal analysis shows a limited impact under realistic conditions. The particle backscatter coefficients can be retrieved with uncertainties better than a few percent when the scattering ratio exceeds 2, such as in the boundary layer and in semi-transparent clouds. Extinction coefficients can be derived accordingly. The chosen design further allows the addition of a dedicated channel for aerosol and cloud polarization analysis.

Galaxies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (2) ◽  
pp. 42
Claudia M. Raiteri ◽  
Massimo Villata

Active galactic nuclei come in many varieties. A minority of them are radio-loud, and exhibit two opposite prominent plasma jets extending from the proximity of the supermassive black hole up to megaparsec distances. When one of the relativistic jets is oriented closely to the line of sight, its emission is Doppler beamed and these objects show extreme variability properties at all wavelengths. These are called “blazars”. The unpredictable blazar variability, occurring on a continuous range of time-scales, from minutes to years, is most effectively investigated in a multi-wavelength context. Ground-based and space observations together contribute to give us a comprehensive picture of the blazar emission properties from the radio to the γ-ray band. Moreover, in recent years, a lot of effort has been devoted to the observation and analysis of the blazar polarimetric radio and optical behaviour, showing strong variability of both the polarisation degree and angle. The Whole Earth Blazar Telescope (WEBT) Collaboration, involving many tens of astronomers all around the globe, has been monitoring several blazars since 1997. The results of the corresponding data analysis have contributed to the understanding of the blazar phenomenon, particularly stressing the viability of a geometrical interpretation of the blazar variability. We review here the most significant polarimetric results achieved in the WEBT studies.

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