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2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 129-146
Author(s):  
E. D. Frolova ◽  
V. S. Beliaeva ◽  
A. A. Ishukov ◽  
A. A. Frolov

At its present stage of internationalization of education, its architecture and forms have changed. The study of these aspects requires an integrated approach. Increasing the volume of exports of educational services remains a priority for Russia, which, according to the authors, does not realize its educational export potential sufficiently. The purpose of the article is to reveal the features of the current stage of internationalization of higher education through the compilation of its complex characteristics by a set of cross-sections, to interpret the calculations obtained in a new way, to identify new facts and factors affecting the development trend and to develop proposals for Russia as an exporter of educational services. The main sources used were the statistical databases of the WTO, the EEC of the EAEU. Analytical approach, comparative and statistical analysis were used. As a result, the authors found confirmation of the continuing trend of growth in global spending on education, the volume of investments in the global market of educational services, an increase in the number of foreign students, and the preservation of Russia's share in the number of foreign students. The authors also identified new characteristics of the global educational services market, such as: the acceleration of the growth rate of global exports of educational services, the decline in the share of the United States and the growth of the share of the UAE in the global educational services market, the transformation of Asian countries from donors to recipient countries of educational services.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262595
Author(s):  
Megersa Tesfaye Boke ◽  
Semu Ayalew Moges ◽  
Zeleke Agide Dejen

Ethiopia unveiled homegrown economic reform agenda aimed to achieve a lower-middle status by 2030 and sustain its economic growth to achieve medium-middle and higher-middle status by 2040 and 2050 respectively. In this study, we evaluated the optimal renewable energy mix for power generation and associated investment costs for the country to progressively achieve upper-middle-income countries by 2050. Two economic scenarios: business as usual and Ethiopia’s homegrown reform agenda scenario were considered. The study used an Open Source energy Modeling System. The model results suggest: if projected power demand increases as anticipated in the homegrown reform agenda scenario, Ethiopia requires to expand the installed power capacity to 31.22GW, 112.45GW and 334.27GW to cover the current unmet and achieve lower, medium and higher middle-income status by 2030, 2040 and 2050 respectively. The Ethiopian energy mix continues to be dominated by hydropower and starts gradually shifting to solar and wind energy development towards 2050 as a least-cost energy supply option. The results also indicate Ethiopia needs to invest about 70 billion US$ on power plant investments for the period 2021–2030 to achieve the lower-middle-income electricity per capita consumption target by 2030 and staggering cumulative investment in the order of 750 billion US$ from 2031 to 2050 inclusive to achieve upper-middle-income electricity consumption rates by 2050. Ethiopia has enough renewable energy potential to achieve its economic target. Investment and financial sourcing remain a priority challenge. The findings could be useful in supporting decision-making concerning socio-economic development and investment pathways in the country.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Mikyung Lee ◽  
Hyeonkyeong Lee ◽  
Ki Jun Song ◽  
Young-Me Lee

Abstract This secondary data analysis study aimed to examine the changes in physical activities (PAs) over time (2009-2017) in the same participants and to determine an association between changes in PA and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in early older adults (n=994) using data from the Korea Health Panel Survey. The HRQoL was measured using the EuroQol quality-of-life system and the amount of PA were grouped to 4 activity levels (remained inactive, became inactive, became active, and remained active). The association of changes in PA over 8 years with HRQoL was examined using logistic regression analysis while controlling for socioeconomic and behavioral factors. The total PA decreased from 1,859.72±1,760.01 MET-minutes in 2009 to 1,264.80 ±1,251.14 MET-minutes in 2017 (P < 0.001). In 2017, 142 (14.3%) remained inactive, whereas 419 (42.2%) remained active. The participants who remained inactive at early old age were more likely to be at the lowest 10% HRQoL of the sample (odds ratio = 1.95, 95% confidence interval = 1.09–3.48). This indicates that educating middle-aged adults who are relatively inactive must be a priority in order to maintain and improve PA, enhance HRQoL, and maximize the benefits of PA in old age.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261953
Author(s):  
Paula Zamorano ◽  
Paulina Muñoz ◽  
Manuel Espinoza ◽  
Alvaro Tellez ◽  
Teresita Varela ◽  
...  

During recent years, multimorbidity has taken relevance because of the impact of causes in the system, people, and their families, which has been a priority in the health care plan. Interventions strategies and their implementation are still an emerging topic. In this context, Centro de Innovación en Salud ANCORA UC, together with Servicio de Salud Metropolitano Sur Oriente, implemented as a pilot study High-Risk Multimorbidity Integrated Care strategy. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of this strategy in terms of health services utilization and mortality. A cohort study was conducted with high-risk patients with multimorbidity, stratified by ACG®, intervened between April 2017 and December 2019. The studied population was 3,933 patients who belonged to similar size and location primary care centers. The impact analysis was performed used generalized linear models. Results showed that intervened patients had a significantly lower incidence in mortality (OR 0.56; 95% CI 0.40–0.77), hospital admissions, length of stay, and the number of hospital emergency consultancies. With the proper barriers and facilitators of a real context intervention, the implementation process allowed the systematization and consolidation of the intervention provided in this study. The training for new roles and the constant implementation support from the Centro de Innovación en Salud ANCORA UC team were essential in the progress and success of the intervention. A complete description of the high-risk intervention strategy is provided to contribute to this emerging topic and facilitate its scale-up. We can conclude that this complex intervention was feasible to be implemented in a real context. The Ministry of Health has taken the systematization and consolidation of the conditions for the national scale-up.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (4) ◽  
pp. 384-399
Author(s):  
O. V. Kozhevinа ◽  
L. A. Belyaevskaya-Plotnik

The article is a continuation of a number of scientifc studies conducted by the authors within the framework of government assignments and grants, dedicated to identifying the relationship between the economic security of territories and the development of "green" entrepreneurship on them.Purpose: of the study is to model the assessment of the state of economic security of territories under various conditions of the transition to "green" entrepreneurship, taking into account the action of external and internal factors. "Green" entrepreneurship is a priority area for the development of Russian regions, consistent with the achievement of Russia's national strategic goals for the period up to 2030.Methods: in this work, cross-factor modeling and the method of integral analysis are used to calculate the composite index of the state of economic security and its structural components, taking into account the development of "green" entrepreneurship, supplemented by the method of a priori ranking of factors to assess the contribution of each component and justify the priority the selected factors affecting the level of economic security of the regions.Results: a three-component cross-factor model for assessing the state of economic security in certain regions of the Russian Federation (Moscow Region, Leningrad Region, Sverdlovsk Region, Novosibirsk Region, Altai Territory, Krasnodar Territory) had been calculated and tested. The regions were ranked according to the value of each of the components, as well as separately according to the aggregate level of economic security. The necessity of stimulating the development of "green" entrepreneurship in each of the analyzed regions. Have been substantiated and stimulating and discouraging factors that have an impact on the level of economic security, taking into account "green" entrepreneurship, pointwise in each subject, have been identifed.Conclusions and Relevance: the proposed approach to assessing the impact of the identifed factors on the level of economic security of the regions, taking into account the development of "green" entrepreneurship on the basis of the developed cross-factor model, made it possible to build a rating of territories and identify stimulating and discouraging factors in their development. On the basis of which to determine the tools for influencing the economic security in a separate entity.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261917
Author(s):  
Olivia Hawkins ◽  
Anna Mae Scott ◽  
Amy Montgomery ◽  
Bevan Nicholas ◽  
Judy Mullan ◽  
...  

Background Social and behavioural drivers of inappropriate antibiotic use contribute to antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Recent reports indicate the Australian community consumes more than twice the defined daily doses (DDD) of antibiotics per 1000 population than in Sweden, and about 20% more than in the United Kingdom (UK). We compare measures of public knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) surrounding AMR in Australia, the UK and Sweden against the policy approaches taken in these settings to address inappropriate antibiotic use. Methods National antimicrobial stewardship policies in Australia, Sweden, and the UK were reviewed, supplemented by empirical studies of their effectiveness. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Web of Science and CINAHL databases for primary studies of the general public’s KAP around antibiotic use and AMR in each setting (January 1 2011 until July 30 2021). Where feasible, we meta-analysed data on the proportion of participants agreeing with identical or very similar survey questions, using a random effects model. Results Policies in Sweden enact tighter control of community antibiotic use; reducing antibiotic use through public awareness raising is not a priority. Policies in the UK and Australia are more reliant on practitioner and public education to encourage appropriate antibiotic use. 26 KAP were included in the review and 16 were meta-analysable. KAP respondents in Australia and the UK are consistently more likely to report beliefs and behaviours that are not aligned with appropriate antibiotic use, compared to participants in similar studies conducted in Sweden. Conclusions Interactions between public knowledge, attitudes and their impacts on behaviours surrounding community use of antibiotics are complex and contingent. Despite a greater focus on raising public awareness in Australia and the UK, neither antibiotic consumption nor community knowledge and attitudes are changing significantly. Clearly public education campaigns can contribute to mitigating AMR. However, the relative success of policy approaches taken in Sweden suggests that practice level interventions may also be required to activate prescribers and the communities they serve to make substantive reductions in inappropriate antibiotic use.


Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 389
Author(s):  
Lauro Bucchi ◽  
Margherita Pizzato ◽  
Stefano Rosso ◽  
Stefano Ferretti

The aim of this review was an update of vulvar cancer incidence rates and trends and of all known and putative risk factors for the disease. The most recent incidence data were sought from official sources (WHO Cancer Incidence in Five Continents). To obtain an estimate of time trends in some areas, we compared data from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents with the few available studies that measured incidence using comparable methods. With respect to risk factors, a systematic PubMed search identified 1585 relevant articles published between 1980 and 2021. Abstracts and full texts were screened. Sixty-nine eligible original cohort and case-control studies were selected. Information was extracted using a PRISMA predesigned form. Nineteen risk factors, or risk factor categories, were investigated by two or more original studies. Solitary, unreplicated studies addressed the putative role of eight more factors. Recent advances have provided further evidence supporting the carcinogenic model centred on human papillomavirus infection with different defects of the immune function. Conversely, the model centred on the role of vulvar lichen sclerosus and the often associated differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia has continued to be epidemiologically understudied. More research on the association between these two conditions and vulvar cancer is a priority.


Author(s):  
Takaaki Miyata ◽  
Takayasu Mizushima ◽  
Nobuyuki Miyamoto ◽  
Takahiro Yamada ◽  
Koji Hase ◽  
...  

Abstract Dietary factors, affect Akkermansia muciniphila (AM) abundance in the colon, have attracted attention, driven by the inverse correlation between AM abundance and metabolic disorders. We prepared skate-skin mucin (SM), porcine stomach mucin (PM), and rat gastrointestinal mucin (RM). SM contained more sulfated sugars and threonine than PM or RM. Rats were fed a control diet or diets including SM, PM, or RM (15 g/kg), or SM (12 g/kg) from five different threonine contents for 14 d. Cecal total bacteria and AM were less and more numerous, respectively, in SM-fed rats than the others, but SM did not affect microbial species-richness. Low-threonine SM did not induce AM proliferation. The in vitro fermentation with human feces showed that the rate of AM increase was greater with SM than PM. Collectively, heavy SM sulfation facilitates a priority supply of SM-derived amino sugars and threonine that promotes AM proliferation in rats and human feces.


Author(s):  
T. Verulava ◽  
N. Galogre

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 disease can affect women at any stage of pregnancy, and newborns could become infected with SARS-CoV-2 through vertical or horizontal transmission. Little is known about SARS-CoV-2 infection in neonates born to mothers with COVID-19. Experts emphasize the importance of ensuring the safety of newborns without compromising the benefits of early contact with the mother. The aim of the study was to investigate the epidemiological characteristics of newborns born to mothers infected with SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: Observational, prospective cohort study was conducted in the intensive care unit of the perinatal center (Georgia). Information was collected by reviewing and personal observations of medical histories of newborns born to mothers infected with SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: The study included 38 newborns with suspected (n = 16; 42.1%) and confirmed (n = 22; 57.9%) COVID-19 infection cases, treated in the neonatal intensive care unit. The study did not reveal the risk of vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection and confirmed a fairly large rate of horizontal transmission of infection (n = 25; 66%). Skin-to-skin mother care was performed in 68.7% of newborns, 26.3% received exclusive maternal or donated breast milk during hospital stay. CONCLUSION: Prevention of horizontal transmission of infection in newborns should be a priority. It is recommended skin-to-skin mother care and maternal or donated breast milk during hospital stay, taking into account the health of the mother and the newborn, following the rules of hygiene and use of the mask by the infected mother.


2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (4) ◽  
pp. 102-109
Author(s):  
M. M. Zheleznov ◽  
O. I. Karasev ◽  
D. A. Rakov ◽  
E. A. Shitov

Reduction in travel time is one of the eloquent trends in transport developments. It is consistent with the desire of leading transport companies to create conditions to increase traffic speeds.The objective of the article is to analyse prospects and drivers for development of high-speed rail transportation as of a priority transport segment characterised by best safety rates and environmental friendliness as compared to other types of transportation.The review of core parameters of HSR is suggested to show features of its global development.Ecological friendliness, encouragement of labour and other mobility of people, of innovative technology development of railways and interconnected industries are most relevant as universal drivers of HSR development.Constraints due to substantial investment needs, long payback period, necessity to implement additional side projects to develop interrelated transport infrastructure to obtain more tangible economic and social effects, to provide for sufficient passenger flow at the initial or further stages of HSR operation were considered as main deterrents.The factors, their parameters, assessment of their priority ranking when making decisions on construction or development of HSR are determined in each country by transport development strategies, current economic conditions, and a set of other factors. 


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