Modification and functionalization of polymer surface properties is desired in numerous applications, and a standard technique is a treatment with non-equilibrium gaseous plasma. Fluorinated polymers exhibit specific properties and are regarded as difficult to functionalize with polar functional groups. Plasma methods for functionalization of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) are reviewed and different mechanisms involved in the surface modification are presented and explained by the interaction of various reactive species and far ultraviolet radiation. Most authors used argon plasma but reported various results. The discrepancy between the reported results is explained by peculiarities of the experimental systems and illustrated by three mechanisms. More versatile reaction mechanisms were reported by authors who used oxygen plasma for surface modification of PVDF, while plasma sustained in other gases was rarely used. The results reported by various authors are analyzed, and correlations are drawn where feasible. The processing parameters reported by different authors were the gas pressure and purity, the discharge configuration and power, while the surface finish was predominantly determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and static water contact angle (WCA). A reasonably good correlation was found between the surface wettability as probed by WCA and the oxygen concentration as probed by XPS, but there is hardly any correlation between the discharge parameters and the wettability.
Aims: A chiral HPLC–MS/MS method for quantitation of an active metabolite (M2) of abrocitinib was validated in human plasma. Methods: Protein precipitation extraction and normal phase LC with baseline separation of five analytes (abrocitinib; isomeric metabolites M1, M2, M3 and M4) were achieved followed by mass spectrometric quantitation of M2 using positive-mode APCI. Results: With a 5–5000 ng/ml assay range using 100 μl K2EDTA aliquot, the assay provided short (17-min) runtime and robust separation up to approximately 330 injections on one column. Interday and intraday accuracy ranged from ‐6.80% to 13.4%; between-day and within-day precision was ≤10.4%. Conclusion: The method was used in multiple clinical studies, with excellent run passing rate and incurred sample reproducibility.
In this paper, we present an overview of recent approaches in the gas/aerosol-through-plasma (GATP) and liquid plasma methods for synthesizing polymer films and nanoparticles (NPs) using an atmospheric-pressure plasma (APP) technique. We hope to aid students and researchers starting out in the polymerization field by compiling the most commonly utilized simple plasma synthesis methods, so that they can readily select a method that best suits their needs. Although APP methods are widely employed for polymer synthesis, and there are many related papers for specific applications, reviews that provide comprehensive coverage of the variations of APP methods for polymer synthesis are rarely reported. We introduce and compile over 50 recent papers on various APP polymerization methods that allow us to discuss the existing challenges and future direction of GATP and solution plasma methods under ambient air conditions for large-area and mass nanoparticle production.
This paper deals with low-temperature mineralisation of coatings made with titania-siloxane compositions (TSC). Methyltriethoxysilane has been adopted as the precursor for the siloxane, and during its synthesis, an oligomeric siloxane condensate with methyl moieties acting as TiO2 binder has been produced. These methyl moieties, contained in TSC, provide solubility and prevent gelling, but reduce the hydrophilicity of the system, reduce the transfer of electrons and holes generated in the TiO2. In order to avoid these unfavourable effects, TSC mineralisation can be achieved by nonthermal treatment, for example, by using UV-radiation or plasma treatment. Characterisation of the siloxane was performed by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), which showed the size of the siloxane chain. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed a temperature at which the siloxane mineralises to SiO2. Printed layers of two types of TSC with different siloxane contents were studied by a scanning electron microscope (SEM), where a difference in the porosity of the samples was observed. TSC on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass and microscopic glass were treated with non-thermal UV and plasma methods. TSC on FTO glass were tested by voltammetric measurements, which showed that the non-thermally treated layers have better properties and the amount of siloxane in the TSC has a great influence on their efficiency. Samples on microscopic glass were subjected to a photocatalytic decomposition test of the model pollutant Acid orange 7 (AO7). Non-thermally treated samples show higher photocatalytic activity than the raw sample.