synthesis methods
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2022 ◽  
Vol 48 ◽  
pp. 103871
Priyanka Lamba ◽  
Parul Singh ◽  
Pankaj Singh ◽  
Pushpa Singh ◽  
Bharti ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 160-171
Nitin Kumar ◽  
Vinod Kumar ◽  
Yogita Chowdhary

In this review article, we discussed old to new synthetic methods used for the preparation of 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydrocarbazole (THCz) based on reported literature. Around the worldwide, various researchers energetically reported new synthetic methods for tetrahydrocarbazoles preparation using conventional method or microwave method or use of catalyst. This review will be helpful to synthetic and medicinal chemist to find selective method for the preparation of 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydrocarbazoles with good percentage yield and less time. This review will also useful to medicinal chemist to design new biologically active tetrahydrocarbazoles based on reported synthetic methods.

Nanomaterials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 277
Miral Al Sharabati ◽  
Rana Sabouni ◽  
Ghaleb A. Husseini

Metal−organic frameworks (MOFs) are a novel class of porous hybrid organic−inorganic materials that have attracted increasing attention over the past decade. MOFs can be used in chemical engineering, materials science, and chemistry applications. Recently, these structures have been thoroughly studied as promising platforms for biomedical applications. Due to their unique physical and chemical properties, they are regarded as promising candidates for disease diagnosis and drug delivery. Their well-defined structure, high porosity, tunable frameworks, wide range of pore shapes, ultrahigh surface area, relatively low toxicity, and easy chemical functionalization have made them the focus of extensive research. This review highlights the up-to-date progress of MOFs as potential platforms for disease diagnosis and drug delivery for a wide range of diseases such as cancer, diabetes, neurological disorders, and ocular diseases. A brief description of the synthesis methods of MOFs is first presented. Various examples of MOF-based sensors and DDSs are introduced for the different diseases. Finally, the challenges and perspectives are discussed to provide context for the future development of MOFs as efficient platforms for disease diagnosis and drug delivery systems.

Marine Drugs ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
pp. 69
Dawei Yu ◽  
Jiayao Feng ◽  
Huimin You ◽  
Shipeng Zhou ◽  
Yan Bai ◽  

Chitosan obtained from abundant marine resources has been proven to have a variety of biological activities. However, due to its poor water solubility, chitosan application is limited, and the degradation products of chitosan oligosaccharides are better than chitosan regarding performance. Chitosan oligosaccharides have two kinds of active groups, amino and hydroxyl groups, which can form a variety of derivatives, and the properties of these derivatives can be further improved. In this review, the key structures of chitosan oligosaccharides and recent studies on chitosan oligosaccharide derivatives, including their synthesis methods, are described. Finally, the antimicrobial and antitumor applications of chitosan oligosaccharides and their derivatives are discussed.

M. Salah ◽  
Soad Yehia ◽  
Rania T. Ali

Abstract Background Nourishment plants during the field time is a must; to have healthy, high productive and self-propagating plants. The trendy nano-fertilizers came to the front in modernized agriculture seeking for minimizing the soil suffocation with other chemical fertilizers in the bulk size. Nano-fertilizers may represent a way out of shot as they are completely absorbed by plant due to their small size, also it magnifies the benefit to the plant due to its high surface area. Nano-fertilizers are introduced via different way of synthesis methods. In this work, three of new nanocomposites are prepared in nano form via Gamma irradiation from Cobalt 60 source at irradiation dose 5 KGy. These composites which can supply plants with P, Zn elements needs to be revised for their safety usage in agriculture. Methodology Three compounds; Zinc oxide, phosphorous and the mixed Zinc–phosphorous elements were prepared in nano-composite forms coated with PVP as a shell and then characterized by HR-TEM, UV and FT-IR to emphasize their new sizes and shapes, then, they were examined for their cytotoxicity in three concentrations (0.5, 1 and 2%) on Vicia faba plants; after 3 h of direct roots treatment. Cytotoxicity test concerned the mitotic index, phase index, abnormal mitosis and the type of the aberrations at each phase. Results The three tested NPs exerted mito-accelerating effect on root meristematic cells. However, concentration‐dependent genotoxicity was also an evident. Conclusion The three examined nano-composites may recommend to be used in the lowest examined concentrations to minimize its harm effect on the plant cell and keep their benefits to the environment. It also recommended to count the Zn/P mix NPs over ZN or P separately as it induces an intermediating cytogenetic effect on mitosis apparatus of Vicia faba plant. Graphical Abstract

Sanjay Upadhyay ◽  
Om Prakash Pandey

Abstract In this review, we summarize the latest research progress on Mo2C based materials for various electrochemical applications. It starts with discussing the different synthesis methods and the tactics for modifying the physicochemical characteristics of Mo2C. In addition, the variables that influence the morphology and electrochemical performance of Mo2C have been explored. The synthesis methods are examined based on their tricks, benefits, and drawbacks, including solid-gas, solid-solid, solid-liquid, and some other processes (chemical vapor deposition, Sonochemical, microwave-assisted, plasma, etc.). Methods that are safe, cost-effective, environmentally friendly, and suited for large-scale production of Mo2C are given special consideration. The solid-solid reaction is found to be a facile and cost-effective method to synthesize Mo2C structures having high surface area and small particle size. Also, the various electrochemical applications of Mo2C are reviewed. Mo2C is an extremely active and durable electrocatalyst mainly for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). The electrochemical parameters such as activity, stability, etc., are examined and described in detail. The possible ways to improve the electrochemical performance of Mo2C are discussed. Finally, the difficulties in developing Mo2C nanostructures that are suited for energy storage and conversion applications are discussed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-17
Yang Tu ◽  
Wei Peng ◽  
Jun Wang ◽  
QingHong Hao ◽  
Yang Wang ◽  

Background. Acupuncture is a commonly used complementary treatment for flaccid hemiplegia caused by stroke, but evidences from previous randomized trials were inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture in a comprehensive synthesis. Methods. We searched literature from eight databases from their inception to December 2020. We included randomized controlled trials of acupuncture for the treatment of flaccid hemiplegia following stroke. The meta-analysis was carried out using Review Manager 5.3 and Stata 16.0. The main indicator was the Fugl-Meyer Assessment scale. The modified Barthel Index scale, Quality Of Life Assessment scale, Mini-Mental State Examination scale, Berg Balance Scale, Neurological Deficit Assessment scale, and the treatment effective rate were used to measure the secondary indicators. Adverse events from individual studies were used to determine safety. Results. Our search returned 7624 records, of which 27 studies involving a total of 1,293 patients fulfilled our inclusion criteria. To be noted, our results indicated that significant improvements in the scores of the primary indicator showed better clinical scores among the three groups with acupuncture than without acupuncture: acupuncture compared with rehabilitation, 13.53 (95% CI 11.65–14.41, P < 0.01 ); acupuncture plus rehabilitation compared with rehabilitation, 9.84 (95% CI 6.45–13.24, P < 0.01 , I2 = 98%); and acupuncture plus Western medicine therapy compared with Western medicine, 16.86 (95% CI 15.89–17.84, P < 0.01 , I2 = 38%), and the secondary indicators showed the same tendency. Conclusion. Acupuncture was effective and safe in the patients with flaccid hemiplegia after stroke, although there was high heterogeneity between studies.

Tijjani Mustapha ◽  
Norashiqin Misni ◽  
Nur Raihana Ithnin ◽  
Abdullahi Muhammad Daskum ◽  
Ngah Zasmy Unyah

Silver nanoparticles are one of the most extensively studied nanomaterials due to their high stability and low chemical reactivity in comparison to other metals. They are commonly synthesized using toxic chemical reducing agents which reduce metal ions into uncharged nanoparticles. However, in the last few decades, several efforts were made to develop green synthesis methods to avoid the use of hazardous materials. The natural biomolecules found in plants such as proteins/enzymes, amino acids, polysaccharides, alkaloids, alcoholic compounds, and vitamins are responsible for the formation of silver nanoparticles. The green synthesis of silver nanoparticles is an eco-friendly approach, which should be further explored for the potential of different plants to synthesize nanoparticles. In the present review we describe the green synthesis of nanoparticles using plants, bacteria, and fungi and the role of plant metabolites in the synthesis process. Moreover, the present review also describes some applications of silver nanoparticles in different aspects such as antimicrobial, biomedicine, mosquito control, environment and wastewater treatment, agricultural, food safety, and food packaging.

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (01) ◽  
Angelica Gutiérrez Franco ◽  
Abraham Nehemías Meza Rocha ◽  
Rosendo Lozada Morales ◽  
Andrea Guadalupe Martínez López ◽  
Julio César Tinoco ◽  

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