Encryption Algorithms
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2022 ◽  
Vol 26 (4) ◽  
pp. 559-572
Ibrahim Alattar ◽  
Abdul Monem S. Rahma

This paper has been developed to compare encryption algorithms based on individual magic squares and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each algorithm or method. Where some positions of the magic square are assigned to the key and the remaining positions are assigned to the message, then the rows, columns and diagonals are summed and these results are as ciphertext and in the process of decryption the equations are arranged and solved by Gauss elimination metod. All algorithms were applied to encrypte the text and images, as well as using both GF(P) and GF(28), and the speed and complexity were calculated. The speed of MS9 by using GF(P) is 15.09085 Millie Second, while by using GF(28) it will be 18.94268 Millie Second, and the complexity is the value of the ASCII code raised to the exponent of the number of message locations multiplied by the value of the prime number raised to the exponent of the number of key locations.

Harminder Kaur ◽  
Sharavan Kumar Pahuja

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have significantly impacted healthcare applications by giving the possibility of monitoring the patient’s physiological parameters using different sensors. The use of WSN and the wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) offers possible solutions for monitoring the health parameters in remote areas. On the other hand, the use of wireless communication medium and information security is the primary concern in WBANs. Because WBANs use the different small sensors placed on the human body to collect the physiological data. They need resource and computational restrictions, thus, building the use of complex and advanced encryption algorithms infeasible. It is essential in the WBAN to monitor and transmit the data to provide reliable and secure communication. Wrong and incomplete information can create difficulties in patient health which can be sometimes more dangerous. This gives the motivation to make such security protocols or algorithms to achieve high security in WBANs. So, the research has been currently focused on reliable communication between the doctor and patient, routing algorithms, and the data’s security by using various new technologies. This paper discusses the different security threats and solutions for designing healthcare applications and routing and layer attacks. Furthermore, the paper has been focused on the Data Distribution Service Models for data security. The paper also includes artificial intelligence and machine learning algorithms in healthcare implemented by various companies.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (2) ◽  
pp. 55-68
Seyed Ghorashi

The Internet of Things (IoT) and Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) devices are prone to security vulnerabilities, especially when they are resource-constrained. Lightweight cryptography is a promising encryption concept for IoT and WSN devices, that can mitigate these vulnerabilities. For example, Klein encryption is a lightweight block cipher, which has achieved popularity for the trade-off between performance and security. In this paper, we propose one novel method to enhance the efficiency of the Klein block cipher and the effects on the Central Processing Unit (CPU), memory usage, and processing time. Furthermore, we evaluate another approach on the performance of the Klein encryption iterations. These approaches were implemented in the Python language and ran on the Raspberry PI 3. We evaluated and analyzed the results of two modified encryption algorithms and confirmed that two enhancing techniques lead to significantly improved performance compared to the original algorithm

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (2) ◽  
pp. 21-30
Ahmida ABIODUN ◽  
Olanrewaju LAWAL ◽  
Oyediran OYEBIYI ◽  
Odiete JOSEPH ◽  

Data security is a key aspect of today’s communication trend and growth. Various mechanisms have been developed to achieve this security. One is cryptography, which represents a most effective method of enhancing security and confidentiality of data. In this work, a hybrid based 136bit key algorithm involving a sequential combination of XOR (Exclusive –Or) encryption and AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) algorithm to enhance the security strength is developed. The hybrid algorithm performance is matched with XOR encryption and AES algorithm using encryption and decryption time, throughput of encryption, space complexity and CPU process time.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 2
Sam Banani ◽  
Surapa Thiemjarus ◽  
Kitti Wongthavarawat ◽  
Nattapong Ounanong

Pervasive sensing with Body Sensor Networks (BSNs) is a promising technology for continuous health monitoring. Since the sensor nodes are resource-limited, on-node processing and advertisement of digested information via BLE beacon is a promising technique that can enable a node gateway to communicate with more sensor nodes and extend the sensor node’s lifetime before requiring recharging. This study proposes a Dynamic Light-weight Symmetric (DLS) encryption algorithm designed and developed to address the challenges in data protection and real-time secure data transmission via message advertisement. The algorithm uses a unique temporal encryption key to encrypt each transmitting packet with a simple function such as XOR. With small additional overhead on computational resources, DLS can significantly enhance security over existing baseline encryption algorithms. To evaluate its performance, the algorithm was utilized on beacon data encryption over advertising channels. The experiments demonstrated the use of the DLS encryption algorithm on top of various light-weight symmetric encryption algorithms (i.e., TEA, XTEA, PRESENT) and a MD5 hash function. The experimental results show that DLS can achieve acceptable results for avalanche effect, key sensitivity, and randomness in ciphertexts with a marginal increase in the resource usage. The proposed DLS encryption algorithm is suitable for implementation at the application layer, is light and energy efficient, reduces/removes the need for secret key exchange between sensor nodes and the server, is applicable to dynamic message size, and also protects against attacks such as known plaintext attack, brute-force attack, replaying attack, and differential attack.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 447-455
Samsul Arifin ◽  
Indra Bayu Muktyas ◽  
Puguh Wahyu Prasetyo ◽  
Abdul Azis Abdillah

One of the encryption algorithms is the Hill Cipher. The square key matrix in the Hill Cipher method must have an inverse modulo. The unimodular matrix is one of the few matrices that must have an inverse. A unimodular matrix can be utilized as a key in the encryption process. This research aims to demonstrate that there is another approach to protect text message data. Symmetric cryptography is the sort of encryption utilized. A Bernoulli Map is used to create a unimodular matrix. To begin, the researchers use an identity matrix to generate a unimodular matrix. The Bernoulli Map series of real values in (0,1) is translated to integers between 0 and 255. The numbers are then inserted into the unimodular matrix's top triangular entries. To acquire the full matrix as the key, the researchers utilize Elementary Row Operations. The data is then encrypted using modulo matrix multiplication.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-15
Farah Tawfiq Abdul Hussien ◽  
Abdul Monem S. Rahma ◽  
Hala Bahjat Abdul Wahab

Providing security for transmitted data through the e-commerce environment requires using a fast and high secure encryption algorithm. Balancing between the speed and the security degree is a problem that many of the encryption algorithms suffer from. Increasing the security degree requires increasing the level of complexity which results in increasing encryption time. On the other hand, increasing the algorithm speed may reduce the complexity degree which affects the security level. This paper aims to design an encryption algorithm that balances time and complexity (speed and security). This is done by suggesting a security environment that depends on creating and providing an agent software to be settled into each customer device that manages the purchase and security process without customer interference. The suggested encryption algorithm is applied within this environment. Several modifications are performed on the AES encryption algorithm. The AES was chosen due to its performance (security and speed), which makes it suitable for encrypting transmitted data over the Internet. These modifications involve adding preprocessing steps (padding and zigzag), eliminating Sub Byte step, and reducing the number of rounds. The experimental results showed that the suggested algorithm provides more security and speed in the encryption and decryption process. The randomness degree has increased by 29.5%. The efficiency is increased because the encryption and decryption times are reduced, as is the CPU usage. The throughput for the suggested algorithm is increased by 10% for the encryption process and is increased by 9.3% for the decryption process.

Symmetry ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 17
Wanying Dai ◽  
Xiangliang Xu ◽  
Xiaoming Song ◽  
Guodong Li

The data space for audio signals is large, the correlation is strong, and the traditional encryption algorithm cannot meet the needs of efficiency and safety. To solve this problem, an audio encryption algorithm based on Chen memristor chaotic system is proposed. The core idea of the algorithm is to encrypt the audio signal into the color image information. Most of the traditional audio encryption algorithms are transmitted in the form of noise, which makes it easy to attract the attention of attackers. In this paper, a special encryption method is used to obtain higher security. Firstly, the Fast Walsh–Hadamar Transform (FWHT) is used to compress and denoise the signal. Different from the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), FWHT has good energy compression characteristics. In addition, compared with that of the triangular basis function of the Fast Fourier Transform, the rectangular basis function of the FWHT can be more effectively implemented in the digital circuit to transform the reconstructed dual-channel audio signal into the R and B layers of the digital image matrix, respectively. Furthermore, a new Chen memristor chaotic system solves the periodic window problems, such as the limited chaos range and nonuniform distribution. It can generate a mask block with high complexity and fill it into the G layer of the color image matrix to obtain a color audio image. In the next place, combining plaintext information with color audio images, interactive channel shuffling can not only weaken the correlation between adjacent samples, but also effectively resist selective plaintext attacks. Finally, the cryptographic block is used for overlapping diffusion encryption to fill the silence period of the speech signal, so as to obtain the ciphertext audio. Experimental results and comparative analysis show that the algorithm is suitable for different types of audio signals, and can resist many common cryptographic analysis attacks. Compared with that of similar audio encryption algorithms, the security index of the algorithm is better, and the efficiency of the algorithm is greatly improved.

Nabilah Hani Abughazalah ◽  
Majid Khan

In this age of internet communication, the security of digital information is one of the main issues. The privacy of data depends upon the encryption using some secure algorithm. The selection of robust cryptosystems to ensure confidentiality is a major concern to decrease the risk of cryptographic attacks. In this article, we have implemented a grey theory-based decision-making technique for the election of a robust cryptosystem that complies with all the cryptographic parameters. Six different already proposed encryption algorithms are selected as the alternatives of the decision-making problem and the parameters concerned for the decision are entropy, correlation coefficient, the number of pixels changing rate (NPCR), unified average changing intensity (UACI). The algorithm ranked as first by using grey-based decision-making method can be utilized for secure data encryption.

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