complex process
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2022 ◽  
Vol 1 (1) ◽  
pp. 113-118

The central question for curating innovative performances by ensembles, which connect to their moment in time and to their audiences, is deciding what to play, and why. What repertoire shall we play? Or perhaps, what shall we arrange? What should we learn and practice, and what should we commission? And underlying these questions is the wonder-filled query: Why? What is the magical combination that informs these choices? I explored these central questions via a two-hour virtual conversation with leaders of three very different ensembles. My starting point for this exploration is that music ensemble leaders are involved in a complex process of making choices in relation to the intention of their ensemble and the time and place of the performance. Even if they do not already use the word, I suggest that curating is what these ensembles are doing. In order to grasp the nature of curation, we can learn a great deal from the process as it develops within an ensemble.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Karen Viskupic ◽  
Brittnee Earl ◽  
Susan E. Shadle

Abstract Background Efforts to achieve improved student outcomes in STEM are critically reliant on the success of reform efforts associated with teaching and learning. Reform efforts include the transformation of course-based practices, community values, and the institutional policies and structures associated with teaching and learning in higher education. Enacting change is a complex process that can be guided by change theories that describe how and why a desired change takes place. We analyzed the utility of a theory-based change model applied in a higher education setting. Our results provide guidance for change efforts at other institutions. Results Use of the CACAO model to guide the transformation of STEM instruction at a large public university resulted in changes to faculty teaching practices and department culture consistent with the vision defined for the project. Such changes varied across STEM departments in accordance with the emergent nature of project activities at the department level. Our application of the CACAO model demonstrates the importance of (1) creating a vision statement (statement of desired change or end-state); (2) attending to different levels of the organization (e.g., individuals, departments, and colleges); (3) working with change agents who are situated to be effective at different organizational levels; and (4) employing strategies to meet the needs and interests of faculty at different stages of adoption with respect to the desired change. Conclusion Our work, which demonstrates the utility of the CACAO model for change and captures its key elements in a matrix, provides a potential foundation for others considering how to frame and study change efforts. It reinforces the value of using change theories to inform change efforts and creates a structure that others can build on and modify, either by applying our CACAO matrix in their own setting or by using the matrix to identify elements that connect to other change theories. We contribute to the growing body of literature which seeks to understand how change theories can be useful and generalizable beyond a single project.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Shiyang Xu ◽  
Senqing Qi ◽  
Haijun Duan ◽  
Juan Zhang ◽  
Miriam Akioma ◽  

The performance of working memory can be improved by the corresponding high-value vs. low-value rewards consciously or unconsciously. However, whether conscious and unconscious monetary rewards boosting the performance of working memory is regulated by the difficulty level of working memory task is unknown. In this study, a novel paradigm that consists of a reward-priming procedure and N-back task with differing levels of difficulty was designed to inspect this complex process. In particular, both high-value and low-value coins were presented consciously or unconsciously as the reward cues, followed by the N-back task, during which electroencephalogram signals were recorded. It was discovered that the high-value reward elicited larger event-related potential (ERP) component P3 along the parietal area (reflecting the working memory load) as compared to the low-value reward for the less difficult 1-back task, no matter whether the reward was unconsciously or consciously presented. In contrast, this is not the case for the more difficult 2-back task, in which the difference in P3 amplitude between the high-value and low-value rewards was not significant for the unconscious reward case, yet manifested significance for the conscious reward processing. Interestingly, the results of the behavioral analysis also exhibited very similar patterns as ERP patterns. Therefore, this study demonstrated that the difficulty level of a task can modulate the influence of unconscious reward on the performance of working memory.

2022 ◽  
Vol 1 (15) ◽  
pp. 267-269
Galina Yushko

A person, being by nature a social being, cannot live out of touch with other people: he must consult, share thoughts, feelings, empathize, seek understanding, etc. Communication is the channel of communication with other people. Communication is a complex process of human interaction. The representatives of various sciences: philosophers, psychologists, linguists, sociologists, cultural scientists, etc. deal with the problem of communication. According to scientists, two-thirds of human communication consists of speech. Linguists study the processes of speech formation and its perception; communicative attitudes; factors that make communication difficult and increase its effectiveness, etc.

2022 ◽  
Hongchang Gu ◽  
Liang Wang ◽  
Xueze Lv ◽  
Weifang Yang ◽  
Yu Chen ◽  

Abstract The regulation of gene expression is a complex process involving organism function and phenotypic diversity, and is caused by cis- and trans- regulation. While prior studies identified the regulatory pattern of the autosome rewiring in hybrids, the role of gene regulation in W sex chromosomes is not clear due to their degradation and sex-limit expression. Here, we developed reciprocal crosses of two chicken breeds, White Leghorn and Cornish Game, which exhibited broad differences of gender-related traits, and assessed the expression of the genes on W chromosome to disentangle the contribution of cis- and trans-factors to expression divergence. We found that there was not appear to be an association between female fecundity and W chromosome gene expression, that 44% of expressed genes had divergent expression between breeds in both tissues, with only 17% of them showing greater expression in White Leghorn. We observed that the proportion of trans-acting genes in W chromosome was higher than cis-regulatory divergence. There were most parental divergence expression genes in muscle, also more heterosis compared with other two tissues. A strong dominant impact of Cornish alleles in brain, while obvious crosses-specific regulatory patterns appeared in liver. Taken together, this work describes the regulatory divergence of W-linked genes between two contrasting breeds and indicates sex chromosomes have a unique regulation and expression mechanism.

Mohamed Haider ◽  
Amr El Sherbeny ◽  
Valeria Pittalà ◽  
Antonino N. Fallica ◽  
Maha Ali Alghamdi ◽  

Lung cancer (LC) is one of the leading causes of cancer occurrence and mortality worldwide. Treatment of patients with advanced and metastatic LC presents a significant challenge as malignant cells use different mechanisms to resist chemotherapy. Drug resistance (DR) is a complex process that occurs due to a variety of genetic and acquired factors. Identifying the mechanisms underlying DR in LC patients and possible therapeutic alternatives for more efficient therapy is a central goal of LC research. Advances in nanotechnology resulted in the development of targeted and multifunctional nanoscale drug constructs. The possible modulation of the components of nanomedicine, their surface functionalization, and encapsulation of various active therapeutics provide promising tools to bypass crucial biological barriers. These attributes enhance the delivery of multiple therapeutic agents directly to the tumor microenvironment (TME), resulting in reversal of LC resistance to anticancer treatment. This review provides a broad framework for understanding the different molecular mechanisms of DR in lung cancer; presents novel nanomedicine therapeutics aimed to improve the efficacy of treatment of various forms of resistant LC; outlines current challenges in using nanotechnology for reversing DR; and discusses the future directions for clinical application of nanomedicine in management of LC resistance.

Yang Li ◽  
Hua Pang

Abstract The understanding of the creation and annihilation dynamics of a magnetic skyrmion is significant due to its potential applications in information storage and spintronics. Although there have been extensive investigations on the annihilation of isolated skyrmion, topological annihilation in periodic skyrmion lattice is a more complex process. We report a micromagnetic simulation study about the annihilation process of a two-dimensional skyrmion triangular lattice triggered by a uniform field HREV of comparable size to the skyrmion, which is opposite to the direction of the background field, revealing two annihilation modes. When the HREV center is within the range of a skyrmion, the neighboring skyrmions annihilate in situ, while the center is between adjacent skyrmions, anti-skyrmion is induced in the interstitial region. Both mechanisms tend to experience the intermediate topological vortex or antivortex structure, and the spin system undergoes a long period of relaxation to reach a stable state after the topological charge is stabilized. Our results present a local annihilation scheme that is easy to achieve in a 2D skyrmion lattice and highlight the role of interaction between skyrmions in the transformation between different kinds of topological defects.

Katie Glover ◽  
Essyrose Mathew ◽  
Giulia Pitzanti ◽  
Erin Magee ◽  
Dimitrios A. Lamprou

AbstractThe treatment strategy required for the effective healing of diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) is a complex process that is requiring several combined therapeutic approaches. As a result, there is a significant clinical and economic burden associated in treating DFU. Furthermore, these treatments are often unsuccessful, commonly resulting in lower-limb amputation. The use of drug-loaded scaffolds to treat DFU has previously been investigated using electrospinning and fused deposition modelling (FDM) 3D printing techniques; however, the rapidly evolving field of bioprinting is creating new opportunities for innovation within this research area. In this study, 3D-bioprinted scaffolds with different designs have been fabricated for the delivery of an antibiotic (levoflocixin) to DFU. The scaffolds were fully characterised by a variety of techniques (e.g. SEM, DSC/TGA, FTIR, and mechanical characterisation), demonstrating excellent mechanical properties and providing sustained drug release for 4 weeks. This proof of concept study demonstrates the innovative potential of bioprinting technologies in fabrication of antibiotic scaffolds for the treatment of DFU. Graphical abstract

Herman Szűcs

Porous materials can be found in numerous areas of life (e. g., applied science, material science), however, the simulation of the fluid flow and transport phenomena through porous media is a significant challenge nowadays. Numerical simulations can help to analyze and understand physical processes and different phenomena in the porous structure, as well as to determine certain parameters that are difficult or impossible to measure directly or can only be determined by expensive and time-consuming experiments. The basic condition for the numerical simulations is the 3D geometric model of the porous material sample, which is the input parameter of the simulation. For this reason, geometry reconstruction is highly critical for pore-scale analysis. This paper introduces a complex process for the preparation of the microstructure's geometry in connection with a coupled FEM-CFD two-way fluid-structure interaction simulation. Micro-CT has been successfully applied to reconstruct both the fluid and solid phases of the used porous material.


La teoría de la relevancia de Sperber y Wilson permite entender los discursos cotidianos, cómicos y poéticos desde un nuevo enfoque. Ya no es necesario pensar en un proceso comunicativo independiente para cada uno de ellos, sino que podemos explicarlos como tipos de uso de un proceso comunicativo complejo. Esta perspectiva nos obliga a reconsiderar algunos conceptos tradicionales de la teoría de la literatura, como no ficción, autoficción o canon. Tomando como base esas premisas, en el presente artículo se propone una definición de la noción de ficción. Abstract: Sperber and Wilson’s Relevance Theory allows us to understand everyday, comical and poetic discourses from a new scope. It is no longer necessary to formulate an independent communicative process for each one of them. On the contrary, they can be explained as different uses of one large and complex process. This perspective forces us to reconsider some traditional Literary Theory concepts, such as nonfiction, autofiction or canon. Taking these premises as a starting point, this article aims to propose a definition of fiction.

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