Innovative engineering design for biologically active hydroxyapatites requires enhancing both mechanical and physical properties, along with biocompatibility, by doping with appropriate chemical elements. Herein, the purpose of this investigation was to evaluate and elucidate the model of naturally occurring hydroxyapatite and the effects of doped trace elements on the function of normal human fibroblasts, representing the main cells of connective tissues. The substrates applied (geological apatites with hexagonal prismatic crystal habit originated from Slyudyanka, Lake Baikal, Russia (GAp) and from Imilchil, The Atlas Mountains, Morocco (YAp)) were prepared from mineral natural apatite with a chemical composition consistent with the building blocks of enamel and enriched with a significant F− content. Materials in the form of powders, extracts and single-crystal plates have been investigated. Moreover, the effects on the function of fibroblasts cultured on the analyzed surfaces in the form of changes in metabolic activity, proliferation and cell morphology were evaluated. Apatite plates were also evaluated for cytotoxicity and immune cell activation capacity. The results suggest that a moderate amount of F− has a positive effect on cell proliferation, whereas an inhibitory effect was attributed to the Cl− concentration. It was found that for (100) GAp plate, fibroblast proliferation was significantly increased, whereas for (001) YAp plate, it was significantly reduced, with no cytotoxic effect and no immune response from macrophages exposed to these materials. The study of the interaction of fibroblasts with apatite crystal surfaces provides a characterization relevant to medical applications and may contribute to the design of biomaterials suitable for medical applications and the evaluation of their bioavailability.
Platinum complexes are used in chemotherapy, primarily as antineoplastic agents. In this study, we assessed the cytotoxic and cytostatic properties of a set of osmium(II), ruthenium(II), iridium(III) and rhodium(III) half-sandwich-type complexes with bidentate monosaccharide ligands. We identified 5 compounds with moderate to negligible acute cytotoxicity but with potent long-term cytostatic activity. These structure-activity relationship studies revealed that: 1) osmium(II) p-cymene complexes were active in all models, while rhodium(III) and iridium(III) Cp* complexes proved largely inactive; 2) the biological effect was influenced by the nature of the central azole ring of the ligands—1,2,3-triazole was the most effective, followed by 1,3,4-oxadiazole, while the isomeric 1,2,4-oxadiazole abolished the cytostatic activity; 3) we found a correlation between the hydrophobic character of the complexes and their cytostatic activity: compounds with O-benzoyl protective groups on the carbohydrate moiety were active, compared to O-deprotected ones. The best compound, an osmium(II) complex, had an IC50 value of 0.70 µM. Furthermore, the steepness of the inhibitory curve of the active complexes suggested cooperative binding; cooperative molecules were better inhibitors than non-cooperative ones. The cytostatic activity of the active complexes was abolished by a lipid-soluble antioxidant, vitamin E, suggesting that oxidative stress plays a major role in the biological activity of the complexes. The complexes were active on ovarian cancer, pancreatic adenocarcinoma, osteosarcoma and Hodgkin’s lymphoma cells, but were inactive on primary, non-transformed human fibroblasts, indicating their applicability as potential anticancer agents.
Adhesions frequently occur postoperatively, causing morbidity. In this noninterventional observational cohort study, we enrolled patients who presented for repeat abdominal surgery, after a history of previous abdominal myomectomy, from March 1998 to June 20210 at St. Vincent’s Catholic Medical Centers. The primary outcome of this pilot study was to compare adhesion rates, extent, and severity in patients who were treated with intraperitoneal triamcinolone acetonide during the initial abdominal myomectomy (n = 31) with those who did not receive any antiadhesion interventions (n = 21), as documented on retrospective chart review. Adhesions were blindly scored using a standard scoring system. About 32% of patients were found to have adhesions in the triamcinolone group compared to 71% in the untreated group (p < 0.01). Compared to controls, adhesions were significantly less in number (0.71 vs. 2.09, p < 0.005), severity (0.54 vs. 1.38, p < 0.004), and extent (0.45 vs. 1.28, p < 0.003). To understand the molecular mechanisms, human fibroblasts were incubated in hypoxic conditions and treated with triamcinolone or vehicle. In vitro studies showed that triamcinolone directly prevents the surge of reactive oxygen species triggered by 2% hypoxia and prevents the increase in TGF-β1 that leads to the irreversible conversion of fibroblasts to an adhesion phenotype. Triamcinolone prevents the increase in reactive oxygen species through alterations in mitochondrial function that are HIF-1α-independent. Controlling mitochondrial function may thus allow for adhesion-free surgery and reduced postoperative complications.
Fibroblast activation protein (FAP) is expressed in the microenvironment of most human epithelial tumors. 68Ga-labeled FAP inhibitors based on the cyanopyrrolidine structure (FAPI) are currently used for the detection of the tumor microenvironment by PET imaging. This research aimed to design, synthesize and preclinically evaluate a new FAP inhibitor radiopharmaceutical based on the 99mTc-((R)-1-((6-hydrazinylnicotinoyl)-D-alanyl) pyrrolidin-2-yl) boronic acid (99mTc-iFAP) structure for SPECT imaging. Molecular docking for affinity calculations was performed using the AutoDock software. The chemical synthesis was based on a series of coupling reactions of 6-hidrazinylnicotinic acid (HYNIC) and D-alanine to a boronic acid derivative. The iFAP was prepared as a lyophilized formulation based on EDDA/SnCl2 for labeling with 99mTc. The radiochemical purity (R.P.) was verified via ITLC-SG and reversed-phase radio-HPLC. The stability in human serum was evaluated by size-exclusion HPLC. In vitro cell uptake was assessed using N30 stromal endometrial cells (FAP positive) and human fibroblasts (FAP negative). Biodistribution and tumor uptake were determined in Hep-G2 tumor-bearing nude mice, from which images were acquired using a micro-SPECT/CT. The iFAP ligand (Ki = 0.536 nm, AutoDock affinity), characterized by UV-Vis, FT-IR, 1H–NMR and UPLC-mass spectroscopies, was synthesized with a chemical purity of 92%. The 99mTc-iFAP was obtained with a R.P. >98%. In vitro and in vivo studies indicated high radiotracer stability in human serum (>95% at 24 h), specific recognition for FAP, high tumor uptake (7.05 ± 1.13% ID/g at 30 min) and fast kidney elimination. The results found in this research justify additional dosimetric and clinical studies to establish the sensitivity and specificity of the 99mTc-iFAP.
A number of pyrrolo[2,3-c]pyridines, pyrrolo[3,2-d]pyrimidines and pyrazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidines were designed and synthesized as antiproliferative agents. The target compounds possessed selected substituents in analogous positions on the central scaffold that allowed the extraction of interesting SARs. The cytotoxic activity of the new derivatives was evaluated against prostatic (PC-3) and colon (HCT116) cell lines, and the most potent analogues showed IC50 values in the nM to low µM range, while they were found to be non-toxic against normal human fibroblasts (WI-38). Flow cytometric analysis of DNA content revealed that the most promising derivative 14b caused a statistically significant accumulation of PC-3 cells at G2/M phase and induced apoptosis in PC-3 cells.
Alcea setosa A. (Malvaceae) is a wild plant that grows in Jordan and have several traditional medicinal uses. This study aims to collect and chemically analyze the methanolic extract from Alcea setosa A. from Jordan and to evaluate its cytotoxic and antioxidant activity against human breast cancer cells (T47D), colorectal adenocarcinoma cells (CACO2), and normal human fibroblasts (MRC5). The extract was extracted by methanol solvent and analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer. Cell viability was assessed using trypan blue, neutral red, and MTT assays, and antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH scavenging activity assay. A total of 290 compounds, 12 among which were identified when compared to available standards, the extract contained six flavons derivatives, Two fatty acids, one ketone derivative, one flavonol derivative, one organic acid, and one coumarin derivative. The results also revealed that the IC50 values of the viability assays were higher among normal cells compared to the human cancer cell lines, and the viability inhibition was significant at higher concentrations compared to untreated cells. Nevertheless, moderate antioxidant activity was observed for the extract in the DPPH scavenging activity test. To sum up, this study indicates that samples of A. setosa collected from Jordan is likely to be an effective antioxidant, is optimistically potential to be utilized in breast and colon cancers treatment due to its preferential cytotoxicity against cancer cells.
The present study reports a specific method for preparation of silver-modified anodic alumina substrates intended for biomaterial applications. Al2O3 coatings were obtained by anodization of technically pure aluminum alloy in sulfuric acid electrolyte. Silver deposition into the pores of the anodic structures was carried out employing in situ thermal reduction for different time periods. The obtained coatings were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), potentiodynamic scanning after 168 h in 3.5% NaCl solution and bioassays with human fibroblast and NIH/3T3 cell lines. The modified alumina substrates demonstrated better biocompatibility compared to the control anodic Al2O3 pads indicated by increased percent cell survival following in vitro culture with human and mouse fibroblasts. The Ag-deposition time did not affect considerably the biocompatibility of the investigated anodic layers. SEM analyses indicated that mouse NIH/3T3 cells and human fibroblasts adhere to the silver-coated alumina substrates retaining normal morphology and ability to form cell monolayer. Therefore, the present studies demonstrate that silver coating of anodic alumina substrates improves their biocompatibility and their eventual biomedical application.
AbstractDevelopmental disorders characterized by small body size have been linked to CDK5RAP2 loss-of-function mutations, but the mechanisms underlying which remain obscure. Here, we demonstrate that knocking down CDK5RAP2 in human fibroblasts triggers premature cell senescence that is recapitulated in Cdk5rap2an/an mouse embryonic fibroblasts and embryos, which exhibit reduced body weight and size, and increased senescence-associated (SA)-β-gal staining compared to Cdk5rap2+/+ and Cdk5rap2+/an embryos. Interestingly, CDK5RAP2-knockdown human fibroblasts show increased p53 Ser15 phosphorylation that does not correlate with activation of p53 kinases, but rather correlates with decreased level of the p53 phosphatase, WIP1. Ectopic WIP1 expression reverses the senescent phenotype in CDK5RAP2-knockdown cells, indicating that senescence in these cells is linked to WIP1 downregulation. CDK5RAP2 interacts with GSK3β, causing increased inhibitory GSK3β Ser9 phosphorylation and inhibiting the activity of GSK3β, which phosphorylates β-catenin, tagging β-catenin for degradation. Thus, loss of CDK5RAP2 decreases GSK3β Ser9 phosphorylation and increases GSK3β activity, reducing nuclear β-catenin, which affects the expression of NF-κB target genes such as WIP1. Consequently, loss of CDK5RAP2 or β-catenin causes WIP1 downregulation. Inhibition of GSK3β activity restores β-catenin and WIP1 levels in CDK5RAP2-knockdown cells, reducing p53 Ser15 phosphorylation and preventing senescence in these cells. Conversely, inhibition of WIP1 activity increases p53 Ser15 phosphorylation and senescence in CDK5RAP2-depleted cells lacking GSK3β activity. These findings indicate that loss of CDK5RAP2 promotes premature cell senescence through GSK3β/β-catenin downregulation of WIP1. Premature cell senescence may contribute to reduced body size associated with CDK5RAP2 loss-of-function.
The study evaluated the effects of essential oil from Cymbopogon martini (CMEO) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human fibroblasts. Samples were collected in Monte Verde, Minas Gerais, Brazil and analyzed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. The fibroblasts were cultured in a monolayer using Iscove's medium and stimulated by LPS (1 μg/mL) and incubated for 24 h at 37°C. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT assay and collagen concentration by Sirius red. Collagenase activity, hyaluronic acid, and the concentrations of IL-1β; IL-6; MCP-1 (CCL2), and MIP-1-α (CCL3) were evaluated. The effect of CMEO on the expression of mRNA and the secretion of enzymes in fibroblasts were evaluated by RT-qPCR and ELISA, respectively. CMEO was cytotoxic against fibroblasts, in which 10 μg/mL inhibited 50% of cell viability. When treated with CMEO, the fibroblasts produced more collagen and hyaluronic acid than control cells. When stimulated by LPS, fibroblasts exhibited higher production of IL-6, IL-1β, MCP-1, and MIP-1α than control cells. The study demonstrated the effects of CMEO on the modulation of mediators related to inflammation and decreasing the mRNA and secretion levels of metalloproteinases, revealing to be a promising candidate for anti-aging effects and wound healing treatments.
We report on effects of low-dose exposures of accelerated protons delivered at high-dose rate (HDR) or a simulated solar-particle event (SPE) like low-dose rate (LDR) on immediate DNA damage induction and processing, survival and in vitro transformation of low passage NFF28 apparently normal primary human fibroblasts. Cultures were exposed to 50, 100 and 1,000 MeV monoenergetic protons in the Bragg entrance/plateau region and cesium-137 γ rays at 20 Gy/h (HDR) or 1 Gy/h (LDR). DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) and clustered DNA damages (containing oxypurines and abasic sites) were measured using transverse alternating gel electrophoresis (TAFE) and immunocytochemical detection/scoring of colocalized γ-H2AX pS139/53BP1 foci, with their induction being linear energy transfer (LET) dependent and dose-rate sparing observed for the different damage classes. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for cell survival after proton irradiation at both dose-rates ranged from 0.61–0.73. Transformation RBE values were dose-rate dependent, ranging from ∼1.8–3.1 and ∼0.6–1.0 at low doses (≤30 cGy) for HDR and LDR irradiations, respectively. However peak transformation frequencies were significantly higher (1.3–7.3-fold) for higher doses of 0.5–1 Gy delivered at SPE-like LDR. Cell survival and transformation frequencies measured after low-dose 500 MeV/n He-4, 290 MeV/n C-12 and 600 MeV/n Si-28 ion irradiations also showed an inverse dose-rate effect for transformation at SPE-like LDR. This work demonstrates the existence of inverse dose-rate effects for proton and light-ion-induced postirradiation cell survival and in vitro transformation for space mission-relevant doses and dose rates.