Negative Regulator
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2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (11) ◽  
Author(s):  
Bingyan Li ◽  
Guang Zhang ◽  
Zhongyu Wang ◽  
Yang Yang ◽  
Chenfeng Wang ◽  
...  

AbstractThe c-Myc oncoprotein plays a prominent role in cancer initiation, progression, and maintenance. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are recently emerging as critical regulators of the c-Myc signaling pathway. Here, we report the lncRNA USP2-AS1 as a direct transcriptional target of c-Myc. Functionally, USP2-AS1 inhibits cellular senescence and acts as an oncogenic molecule by inducing E2F1 expression. Mechanistically, USP2-AS1 associates with the RNA-binding protein G3BP1 and facilitates the interaction of G3BP1 to E2F1 3′-untranslated region, thereby leading to the stabilization of E2F1 messenger RNA. Furthermore, USP2-AS1 is shown as a mediator of the oncogenic function of c-Myc via the regulation of E2F1. Together, these findings suggest that USP2-AS1 is a negative regulator of cellular senescence and also implicates USP2-AS1 as an important player in mediating c-Myc function.


eLife ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
Author(s):  
Tomasz Radaszkiewicz ◽  
Michaela Nosková ◽  
Kristína Gömöryová ◽  
Olga Vondálová Blanářová ◽  
Katarzyna Anna Radaszkiewicz ◽  
...  

RNF43 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase and known negative regulator of WNT/β-catenin signaling. We demonstrate that RNF43 is also a regulator of noncanonical WNT5A-induced signaling in human cells. Analysis of the RNF43 interactome using BioID and immunoprecipitation showed that RNF43 can interact with the core receptor complex components dedicated to the noncanonical Wnt pathway such as ROR1, ROR2, VANGL1, and VANGL2. RNF43 triggers VANGL2 ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation and clathrin-dependent internalization of ROR1 receptor and inhibits ROR2 activation. These activities of RNF43 are physiologically relevant and block pro-metastatic WNT5A signaling in melanoma. RNF43 inhibits responses to WNT5A, which results in the suppression of invasive properties of melanoma cells. Furthermore, RNF43 prevented WNT5A-assisted development of resistance to BRAF V600E and MEK inhibitors. Next, RNF43 acted as melanoma suppressor and improved response to targeted therapies in vivo. In line with these findings, RNF43 expression decreases during melanoma progression and RNF43-low patients have a worse prognosis. We conclude that RNF43 is a newly discovered negative regulator of WNT5A-mediated biological responses that desensitizes cells to WNT5A.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (11) ◽  
Author(s):  
Yan Li ◽  
Na Zhang ◽  
Chao Ma ◽  
Wenwen Xu ◽  
Guiyuan Jin ◽  
...  

AbstractAging is a natural and progressive process characterized by an increased frequency of age-related diseases such as cancer. But its mechanism is unclear. TNFAIP8L2 (Tipe2) is an important negative regulator for homeostasis through inhibiting TLR and TCR signaling. Our work reveals that Tipe2 might have dual function by regulating senescence. One side, the overexpression of Tipe2 in CRC cells could induce typical senescent phenotype, especially exposure to oxidative stress. Tipe2 inhibits telomerase activity by regulating c-Myc and c-Est-2 binding to the hTERT promotor. Interestingly, Tipe2 KO mice treated with D-Gal showed a less serious inverse of CD4:CD8 ratio, a lower percentage of Treg compared to WT. Besides, Tipe2 KO mice were more tolerant to the initiation of AOM/DSS-induced CRC, accompanied by a lower level of Treg within IEL. Therefore, specific antibodies against CD25 effectively ameliorate tumorigenesis. These data suggest strongly that the overexpressed Tipe2 suppresses tumor cells proliferation and survival, but endogenous Tipe2 promotes the initiation of tumorigenesis when exposure to dangerous environment such as AOM/DSS-related inflammation.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Fabien P CHEVALIER ◽  
Julie RORTEAU ◽  
Sandra FERRARO ◽  
Lisa S MARTIN ◽  
Alejandro GONZALEZ-TORRES ◽  
...  

Chronological aging is characterized by an alteration of the genes regulatory network. In human skin, epidermal keratinocytes fail to differentiate properly with aging, leading to the weakening of the epidermal function. MiR-30a is particularly overexpressed with epidermal aging, but the downstream molecular mechanisms are still uncovered. The aim of this study was to decipher the effects of miR-30a overexpression in the human epidermis, with a focus on keratinocyte differentiation. We formally identified the mitophagy receptor BNIP3L as a direct target of miR-30a. Using a 3D organotypic model of reconstructed human epidermis overexpressing miR-30a, we observed a strong reduction of BNIP3L expression in the granular layer. In human epidermal sections of skin biopsies from donors of different ages, we observed a similar pattern of BNIP3L decrease with aging. Moreover, human primary keratinocytes undergoing differentiation in vitro also showed a decreased expression of BNIP3L with age, together with a retention of mitochondria. Moreover, aging is associated with altered mitochondrial metabolism in primary keratinocytes, including decreased ATP-linked respiration. Thus, miR-30a is a negative regulator of programmed mitophagy during keratinocytes terminal differentiation, impairing epidermal homeostasis with aging.


BMC Genomics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Nguyen Hoai Nguyen ◽  
Benny Jian Rong Sng ◽  
Hock Chuan Yeo ◽  
In-Cheol Jang

Abstract Background Plants grown under shade are exposed to low red/far-red ratio, thereby triggering an array of altered phenotypes called shade avoidance syndrome (SAS). Shade negatively influences plant growth, leading to a reduction in agricultural productivity. Understanding of SAS is crucial for sustainable agricultural practices, especially for high-density indoor farming. Brassicaceae vegetables are widely consumed around the world and are commonly cultivated in indoor farms. However, our understanding of SAS in Brassicaceae vegetables and their genome-wide transcriptional regulatory networks are still largely unexplored. Results Shade induced common signs of SAS, including hypocotyl elongation and reduced carotenoids/anthocyanins biosynthesis, in two different Brassicaceae species: Brassica rapa (Choy Sum and Pak Choy) and Brassica oleracea (Kai Lan). Phenotype-assisted transcriptome analysis identified a set of genes induced by shade in these species, many of which were related to auxin biosynthesis and signaling [e.g. YUCCA8 (YUC8), YUC9, and INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID INDUCIBLE (IAAs)] and other phytohormones signaling pathways including brassinosteroids and ethylene. The genes functioning in plant defense (e.g. MYB29 and JASMONATE-ZIM-DOMAIN PROTEIN 9) as well as in biosynthesis of anthocyanins and glucosinolates were repressed upon shade. Besides, each species also exhibited distinct SAS phenotypes. Shade strongly reduced primary roots and elongated petioles of B. oleracea, Kai Lan. However, these SAS phenotypes were not clearly recognized in B. rapa, Choy Sum and Pak Choy. Some auxin signaling genes (e.g. AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 19, IAA10, and IAA20) were specifically induced in B. oleracea, while homologs in B. rapa were not up-regulated under shade. Contrastingly, shade-exposed B. rapa vegetables triggered the ethylene signaling pathway earlier than B. oleracea, Kai Lan. Interestingly, shade induced the transcript levels of LONG HYPOCOTYL IN FAR-RED 1 (HFR1) homolog in only Pak Choy as B. rapa. As HFR1 is a key negative regulator of SAS in Arabidopsis, our finding suggests that Pak Choy HFR1 homolog may also function in conferring higher shade tolerance in this variety. Conclusions Our study shows that two Brassicaceae species not only share a conserved SAS mechanism but also exhibit distinct responses to shade, which will provide comprehensive information to develop new shade-tolerant cultivars that are suitable for high-density indoor farms.


2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (21) ◽  
pp. 11479
Author(s):  
Haidong Ding ◽  
Ying Qian ◽  
Yifang Fang ◽  
Yurong Ji ◽  
Jiarong Sheng ◽  
...  

Calmodulin-like (CML) proteins are primary calcium sensors and function in plant growth and response to stress stimuli. However, so far, the function of plant CML proteins, including tomato, is still unclear. Previously, it was found that a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) CML, here named SlCML39, was significantly induced by high temperature (HT) at transcription level, but its biological function is scarce. In this study, the characteristics of SlCML39 and its role in HT tolerance were studied. SlCML39 encodes a protein of 201 amino acids containing four EF hand motifs. Many cis-acting elements related to plant stress and hormone response appear in the promoter regions of SlCML39. SlCML39 is mainly expressed in the root, stem, and leaf and can be regulated by HT, cold, drought, and salt stresses as well as ABA and H2O2. Furthermore, heterologous overexpression of SlCML39 reduces HT tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana at the germination and seedling growth stages. To better understand the molecular mechanism of SlCML39, the downstream gene network regulated by SlCML39 under HT was analyzed by RNA-Seq. Interestingly, we found that many genes involved in stress responses as well as ABA signal pathway are down-regulated in the transgenic seedlings under HT stress, such as KIN1, RD29B, RD26, and MAP3K18. Collectively, these data indicate that SlCML39 acts as an important negative regulator in response to HT stress, which might be mediated by the ABA signal pathway.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yue Hu ◽  
Lihuan Liu ◽  
Xifeng Lu

The renin–angiotensin system (RAS) is crucially involved in the physiology and pathology of all organs in mammals. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which is a homolog of ACE, acts as a negative regulator in the homeostasis of RAS. ACE2 has been proven to be the receptor of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which caused the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. As SARS-CoV-2 enters the host cells through binding of viral spike protein with ACE2 in humans, the distribution and expression level of ACE2 may be critical for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Growing evidence shows the implication of ACE2 in pathological progression in tissue injury and several chronic conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease; this suggests that ACE2 is essential in the progression and clinical prognosis of COVID-19 as well. Therefore, we summarized the expression and activity of ACE2 under various conditions and regulators. We further discussed its potential implication in susceptibility to COVID-19 and its potential for being a therapeutic target in COVID-19.


Author(s):  
Juan He ◽  
Guanmin Jiang ◽  
Xing Li ◽  
Qiang Xiao ◽  
Yingying Chen ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Nitin Raj ◽  
Mengxiong Wang ◽  
Jose A Seoane ◽  
Nancie A Moonie ◽  
Janos Demeter ◽  
...  

The p53 transcription factor, encoded by the most frequently mutated gene in human cancer, plays a critical role in tissue homeostasis in response to stress signals. The mechanisms through which p53 promotes downstream tumor suppressive gene expression programs remain, however, only superficially understood. Here, we used tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry to reveal new components of the p53 response. This approach uncovered Mettl3, a component of the m6A RNA methyltransferase complex (MTC), as a p53-interacting protein. Analysis of Mettl3-deficient cells revealed that Mettl3 promotes p53 protein stabilization and target gene expression in response to DNA damage. Mettl3 acts in part by competing with the p53 negative regulator, Mdm2, for binding to the p53 transactivation domains to promote methyltransferase-independent stabilization of p53. In addition, Mettl3 relies on its catalytic activity to augment p53 responses, with p53 recruiting Mettl3 to p53 target genes to co-transcriptionally direct m6A modification of p53 pathway transcripts to enhance their expression. Mettl3 also promotes p53 activity downstream of oncogenic signals in vivo, in both allograft and autochthonous lung adenocarcinoma models, suggesting cooperative action of p53 and Mettl3 in tumor suppression. Accordingly, we found in diverse human cancers that mutations in MTC components perturb expression of p53 target genes and that MTC mutations are mutually exclusive with TP53 mutations, suggesting that the MTC enhances the p53 transcriptional program in human cancer. Together, these studies reveal a fundamental role for Mettl3 in amplifying p53 signaling through protein stabilization and epitranscriptome regulation.


2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (21) ◽  
pp. 11376
Author(s):  
Mahamat Babagana ◽  
Lorin R. Brown ◽  
Hannah Z. Slabodkin ◽  
Julia V. Kichina ◽  
Eugene S. Kandel

Hyperactivity of serine-threonine kinase AKT is one of the most common molecular abnormalities in cancer, where it contributes to poor outcomes by facilitating the growth and survival of malignant cells. Despite its well-documented anti-apoptotic effects, hyperactivity of AKT is also known to be stressful to a cell. In an attempt to better elucidate this phenomenon, we observed the signs of proteotoxic stress in cells that harbor hyperactive AKT or have lost its principal negative regulator, PTEN. The activity of HSF1 was predictably elevated under these circumstances. However, such cells proved more sensitive to various regimens of heat shock, including the conditions that were well-tolerated by syngeneic cells without AKT hyperactivity. The sensitizing effect of hyperactive AKT was also seen in HSF1-deficient cells, suggesting that the phenomenon does not require the regulation of HSF1 by this kinase. Notably, the elevated activity of AKT was accompanied by increased levels of XBP1, a key component of cell defense against proteotoxic stress. Interestingly, the cells harboring hyperactive AKT were also more dependent on XBP1 for their growth. Our observations suggest that proteotoxic stress conferred by hyperactive AKT represents a targetable vulnerability, which can be exploited by either elevating the stress above the level tolerated by such cells or by eliminating the factors that enable such tolerance.


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