Subsidiary Cell
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2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Laura Serna

Stomata arose about 400 million years ago when plants left their aquatic environment. The last step of stomatal development is shared by all plant groups, and it implies a symmetrical cell division from the guard mother cell (GMC) to produce two guard cells (GCs) flanking a pore. In Arabidopsis, the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor MUTE controls this step, upregulating cell-cycle regulators of the GMC division, and immediately afterward, repressors of theses regulators like FAMA and FOUR LIPS. Recently, three grass MUTE orthologs (BdMUTE from Brachypodium distachyon, OsMUTE from rice, and ZmMUTE from maize) have been identified and characterized. Mutations in these genes disrupt GMC fate, with bdmute also blocking GC morphogenesis. However, because these genes also regulate subsidiary cell recruitment, which takes place before GMC division, their functions regulating GMC division and GC morphogenesis could be an indirect consequence of that inducing the recruitment of subsidiary cells. Comprehensive data evaluation indicates that BdMUTE, and probably grass MUTE orthologs, directly controls GMC fate. Although grass MUTE proteins, whose genes are expressed in the GMC, move between cells, they regulate GMC fate from the cells where they are transcribed. Grass MUTE genes also regulate GC morphogenesis. Specifically, OsMUTE controls GC shape by inducing OsFAMA expression. In addition, while SCs are not required for GMC fate progression, they are for GC maturation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Mutiara K. Pitaloka ◽  
Emily L. Harrison ◽  
Christopher Hepworth ◽  
Samart Wanchana ◽  
Theerayut Toojinda ◽  

Rice (Oryza sativa) is a water-intensive crop, and like other plants uses stomata to balance CO2 uptake with water-loss. To identify agronomic traits related to rice stomatal complexes, an anatomical screen of 64 Thai and 100 global rice cultivars was undertaken. Epidermal outgrowths called papillae were identified on the stomatal subsidiary cells of all cultivars. These were also detected on eight other species of the Oryza genus but not on the stomata of any other plant species we surveyed. Our rice screen identified two cultivars that had “mega-papillae” that were so large or abundant that their stomatal pores were partially occluded; Kalubala Vee had extra-large papillae, and Dharia had approximately twice the normal number of papillae. These were most accentuated on the flag leaves, but mega-papillae were also detectable on earlier forming leaves. Energy dispersive X-Ray spectrometry revealed that silicon is the major component of stomatal papillae. We studied the potential function(s) of mega-papillae by assessing gas exchange and pathogen infection rates. Under saturating light conditions, mega-papillae bearing cultivars had reduced stomatal conductance and their stomata were slower to close and re-open, but photosynthetic assimilation was not significantly affected. Assessment of an F3 hybrid population treated with Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola indicated that subsidiary cell mega-papillae may aid in preventing bacterial leaf streak infection. Our results highlight stomatal mega-papillae as a novel rice trait that influences gas exchange, stomatal dynamics, and defense against stomatal pathogens which we propose could benefit the performance of future rice crops.

2021 ◽  
Debamalya Chatterjee ◽  
Kameron Wittmeyer ◽  
Tzuu-fen Lee ◽  
Jin Cui ◽  
Neela H Yennawar ◽  

Abstract Maize (Zea mays L.) Ufo1-1 is a spontaneous dominant mutation of the unstable factor for orange1 (ufo1). We recently cloned ufo1, which is a Poaceae specific gene expressed solely during seed development in maize. Here we have characterized Ufo1-1 and a loss-of-function Ds insertion allele (ufo1-Dsg) to decipher the role of ufo1 in maize. We found that both ufo1 mutant alleles impact sugars and hormones, and have defects in the basal endosperm transfer layer (BETL) and adjacent cell types. The Ufo1-1 BETL had reduced cell elongation and cell wall ingrowth, resulting in cuboidal shaped transfer cells. In contrast, the ufo1-Dsg BETL cells showed a reduced overall size with abnormal wall ingrowth. Expression analysis identified the impact of ufo1 on several genes essential for BETL development. The overexpression of Ufo1-1 in various tissues leads to ectopic phenotypes, including abnormal cell organization and stomata subsidiary cell defects. Interestingly, pericarp and leaf transcriptomes also showed that as compared to wild type, Ufo1-1 had ectopic expression of endosperm development-specific genes. This study shows that Ufo1-1 impacts the expression patterns of a wide range of genes involved in various developmental processes.

2019 ◽  
Vol 31 (6) ◽  
pp. 1328-1343 ◽  
Hai Wang ◽  
Shijuan Yan ◽  
Hongjia Xin ◽  
Wenjie Huang ◽  
Hao Zhang ◽  

2016 ◽  
Vol 76 (3) ◽  
pp. 708-717 ◽  
T. D. Leandro ◽  
R. T. Shirasuna ◽  
T. S. Filgueiras ◽  
V. L. Scatena

Abstract Bambusoideae is a diverse subfamily that includes herbaceous (Olyreae) and woody (Arundinarieae and Bambuseae) bamboos. Species within Bambusae are particularly difficult to identify due to their monocarpic lifecycle and the often long durations between mass flowering events; whereas the herbaceous bamboos are pluricarpic, but often are found with no reproductive structures. The leaf blade anatomy of 16 sympatric species of native Brazilian bamboos (Olyreae and Bambuseae) from the Atlantic Rainforest was studied in order to detect useful features for their identification. All the studied species share the following features: epidermis with a single stratum of cells; adaxial bulliform cells; mesophyll with arm cells, rosette cells, and fusoid cells; and collateral vascular bundles. Herbaceous bamboos share two features: papillae scattered on the abaxial surface and parallel-sided arrays of bulliform cells; whereas woody bamboos share: centrally organized papillae and fan-shaped arrays of bulliform cells. Also within the woody bamboos, intercostal fibers and a midrib with only one vascular bundle (simple midrib) characterize the subtribe Arthrostylidiinae; whereas a midrib with more than one vascular bundle (complex midrib) and a stomatal apparatus with two pappilae per subsidiary cell characterize the subtribe Chusqueinae. There are also diagnostic features for the sampled species, such as: papillae shape, and the outline and structure of the midrib. An identification key for all the studied species is provided based on the anatomical features.

2012 ◽  
Vol 24 (11) ◽  
pp. 4313-4313 ◽  
Kathleen L. Farquharson

2008 ◽  
Vol 65 (11) ◽  
pp. 863-875 ◽  
Panagiotis Apostolakos ◽  
Emmanuel Panteris ◽  
Basil Galatis

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