Cell Recruitment
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Camryn L. Johnson ◽  
Lance Riley ◽  
Matthew R. Bersi ◽  
MacRae F. Linton ◽  
W. David Merryman

OBJECTIVE: Inflammation caused by infiltrating macrophages and T cells promotes plaque growth in atherosclerosis. Cadherin-11 (CDH11) is a cell-cell adhesion protein implicated in several fibrotic and inflammatory diseases. Much of the research on CDH11 concerns its role in fibroblasts, although its expression in immune cells has been noted as well. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of CDH11 on the atherosclerotic immune response. APPROACH AND RESULTS: In vivo studies of atherosclerosis indicated an increase in Cdh11 in plaque tissue. However, global loss of Cdh11 resulted in increased atherosclerosis and inflammation. It also altered the immune response in circulating leukocytes, decreasing myeloid cell populations and increasing T cell populations, suggesting possible impaired myeloid migration. Bone marrow transplants from Cdh11-deficient mice resulted in similar immune cell profiles. In vitro examination of Cdh11-/- macrophages revealed reduced migration, despite upregulation of a number of genes related to locomotion. Flow cytometry revealed an increase in CD3+ and CD4+ helper T cell populations in the blood of both the global Cdh11 loss and the bone marrow transplant animals, possibly resulting from increased expression by Cdh11-/-macrophages of major histocompatibility complex class II molecule genes, which bind to CD4+ T cells for coordinated activation. CONCLUSIONS: CDH11 fundamentally alters the immune response in atherosclerosis, resulting in part from impaired macrophage migration and altered macrophage-induced T cell activation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (18) ◽  
pp. 9729
Neil Marr ◽  
Richard Meeson ◽  
Elizabeth F. Kelly ◽  
Yongxiang Fang ◽  
Mandy J. Peffers ◽  

The interfascicular matrix (IFM) binds tendon fascicles and contains a population of morphologically distinct cells. However, the role of IFM-localised cell populations in tendon repair remains to be determined. The basement membrane protein laminin-α4 also localises to the IFM. Laminin-α4 is a ligand for several cell surface receptors, including CD146, a marker of pericyte and progenitor cells. We used a needle injury model in the rat Achilles tendon to test the hypothesis that the IFM is a niche for CD146+ cells that are mobilised in response to tendon damage. We also aimed to establish how expression patterns of circulating non-coding RNAs alter with tendon injury and identify potential RNA-based markers of tendon disease. The results demonstrate the formation of a focal lesion at the injury site, which increased in size and cellularity for up to 21 days post injury. In healthy tendon, CD146+ cells localised to the IFM, compared with injury, where CD146+ cells migrated towards the lesion at days 4 and 7, and populated the lesion 21 days post injury. This was accompanied by increased laminin-α4, suggesting that laminin-α4 facilitates CD146+ cell recruitment at injury sites. We also identified a panel of circulating microRNAs that are dysregulated with tendon injury. We propose that the IFM cell niche mediates the intrinsic response to injury, whereby an injury stimulus induces CD146+ cell migration. Further work is required to fully characterise CD146+ subpopulations within the IFM and establish their precise roles during tendon healing.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Matheus B. Carneiro ◽  
Nathan C. Peters

Intracellular phagosomal pathogens represent a formidable challenge for innate immune cells, as, paradoxically, these phagocytic cells can act as both host cells that support pathogen replication and, when properly activated, are the critical cells that mediate pathogen elimination. Infection by parasites of the Leishmania genus provides an excellent model organism to investigate this complex host-pathogen interaction. In this review we focus on the dynamics of Leishmania amazonensis infection and the host innate immune response, including the impact of the adaptive immune response on phagocytic host cell recruitment and activation. L. amazonensis infection represents an important public health problem in South America where, distinct from other Leishmania parasites, it has been associated with all three clinical forms of leishmaniasis in humans: cutaneous, muco-cutaneous and visceral. Experimental observations demonstrate that most experimental mouse strains are susceptible to L. amazonensis infection, including the C57BL/6 mouse, which is resistant to other species such as Leishmania major, Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania infantum. In general, the CD4+ T helper (Th)1/Th2 paradigm does not sufficiently explain the progressive chronic disease established by L. amazonensis, as strong cell-mediated Th1 immunity, or a lack of Th2 immunity, does not provide protection as would be predicted. Recent findings in which the balance between Th1/Th2 immunity was found to influence permissive host cell availability via recruitment of inflammatory monocytes has also added to the complexity of the Th1/Th2 paradigm. In this review we discuss the roles played by innate cells starting from parasite recognition through to priming of the adaptive immune response. We highlight the relative importance of neutrophils, monocytes, dendritic cells and resident macrophages for the establishment and progressive nature of disease following L. amazonensis infection.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Alessandro Mormino ◽  
Giovanni Bernardini ◽  
Germana Cocozza ◽  
Nicoletta Corbi ◽  
Claudio Passananti ◽  

Several types of cancer grow differently depending on the environmental stimuli they receive. In glioma, exposure to an enriched environment (EE) increases the overall survival rate of tumor-bearing mice, acting on the cells that participate to define the tumor microenvironment. In particular, environmental cues increase the microglial production of interleukin (IL)-15 which promotes a pro-inflammatory (antitumor) phenotype of microglia and the cytotoxic activity of natural killer (NK) cells, counteracting glioma growth, thus representing a virtuous mechanism of interaction between NK cells and microglia. To mimic the effect of EE on glioma, we investigated the potential of creating engineered microglia as the source of IL-15 in glioma. We demonstrated that microglia modified with recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (rAAV2) carrying IL-15 (rAAV2-IL-15), to force the production of IL-15, are able to increase the NK cells viability in coculture. Furthermore, the intranasal delivery of rAAV2-IL-15 microglia triggered the interplay with NK cells in vivo, enhancing NK cell recruitment and pro-inflammatory microglial phenotype in tumor mass of glioma-bearing mice, and ultimately counteracted tumor growth. This approach has a high potential for clinical translatability, highlighting the therapeutic efficacy of forced IL-15 production in microglia: the delivery of engineered rAAV2-IL-15 microglia to boost the immune response paves the way to design a new perspective therapy for glioma patients.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (17) ◽  
pp. 9609
Carla Cunha ◽  
Catarina Leite Pereira ◽  
Joana R. Ferreira ◽  
Cláudia Ribeiro-Machado ◽  
Sibylle Grad ◽  

Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration involves a complex cascade of events, including degradation of the native extracellular matrix, loss of water content, and decreased cell numbers. Cell recruitment strategies for the IVD have been increasingly explored, aiming to recruit either endogenous or transplanted cells. This study evaluates the IVD therapeutic potential of a chemoattractant delivery system (HAPSDF5) that combines a hyaluronan-based thermoreversible hydrogel (HAP) and the chemokine stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1). HAPSDF5 was injected into the IVD and was combined with an intravenous injection of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) in a pre-clinical in vivo IVD lesion model. The local and systemic effects were evaluated two weeks after treatment. The hydrogel by itself (HAP) did not elicit any adverse effect, showing potential to be administrated by intradiscal injection. HAPSDF5 induced higher cell numbers, but no evidence of IVD regeneration was observed. MSCs systemic injection seemed to exert a role in IVD regeneration to some extent through a paracrine effect, but no synergies were observed when HAPSDF5 was combined with MSCs. Overall, this study shows that although the injection of chemoattractant hydrogels and MSC recruitment are feasible approaches for IVD, IVD regeneration using this strategy needs to be further explored before successful clinical translation.

María Berenice Soria-Ortiz ◽  
Pamela Reyes-Ortega ◽  
Ataúlfo Martínez-Torres ◽  
Daniel Reyes-Haro

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are pervasive neurodevelopmental conditions detected during childhood when delayed language onset and social deficits are observed. Children diagnosed with ASD frequently display sensorimotor deficits associated with the cerebellum, suggesting a dysfunction of synaptic circuits. Astroglia are part of the tripartite synapses and postmortem studies reported an increased expression of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in the cerebellum of ASD patients. Astroglia respond to neuronal activity with calcium transients that propagate to neighboring cells, resulting in a functional response known as a calcium wave. This form of intercellular signaling is implicated in proliferation, migration, and differentiation of neural precursors. Prenatal exposure to valproate (VPA) is a preclinical model of ASD in which premature migration and excess of apoptosis occur in the internal granular layer (IGL) of the cerebellum during the early postnatal period. In this study we tested calcium wave propagation in the IGL of mice prenatally exposed to VPA. Sensorimotor deficits were observed and IGL depolarization evoked a calcium wave with astrocyte recruitment. The calcium wave propagation, initial cell recruitment, and mean amplitude of the calcium transients increased significantly in VPA-exposed mice compared to the control group. Astrocyte recruitment was significantly increased in the VPA model, but the mean amplitude of the calcium transients was unchanged. Western blot and histological studies revealed an increased expression of GFAP, higher astroglial density and augmented morphological complexity. We conclude that the functional signature of the IGL is remarkably augmented in the preclinical model of autism.

2021 ◽  
Vol 218 (11) ◽  
Julie C.F. Rappe ◽  
Katja Finsterbusch ◽  
Stefania Crotta ◽  
Matthias Mack ◽  
Simon L. Priestnall ◽  

Cytokine-mediated immune-cell recruitment and inflammation contribute to protection in respiratory virus infection. However, uncontrolled inflammation and the “cytokine storm” are hallmarks of immunopathology in severe infection. Cytokine storm is a broad term for a phenomenon with diverse characteristics and drivers, depending on host genetics, age, and other factors. Taking advantage of the differential use of virus-sensing systems by different cell types, we test the hypothesis that specifically blocking TLR7-dependent, immune cell–produced cytokines reduces influenza-related immunopathology. In a mouse model of severe influenza characterized by a type I interferon (IFN-I)–driven cytokine storm, TLR7 antagonist treatment leaves epithelial antiviral responses unaltered but acts through pDCs and monocytes to reduce IFN-I and other cytokines in the lung, thus ameliorating inflammation and severity. Moreover, even in the absence of IFN-I signaling, TLR7 antagonism reduces inflammation and mortality driven by monocyte-produced chemoattractants and neutrophil recruitment into the infected lung. Hence, TLR7 antagonism reduces diverse types of cytokine storm in severe influenza.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Ines Malenica ◽  
Julien Adam ◽  
Stéphanie Corgnac ◽  
Laura Mezquita ◽  
Edouard Auclin ◽  

AbstractTGF-β is secreted in the tumour microenvironment in a latent, inactive form bound to latency associated protein and activated by the integrin αV subunit. The activation of latent TGF-β by cancer-cell-expressed αV re-shapes the tumour microenvironment, and this could affect patient responses to PD-1-targeting therapy. Here we show, using multiplex immunofluorescence staining in cohorts of anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1-treated lung cancer patients, that decreased expression of cancer cell αV is associated with improved immunotherapy-related, progression-free survival, as well as with an increased density of CD8+CD103+ tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes. Mechanistically, tumour αV regulates CD8 T cell recruitment, induces CD103 expression on activated CD8+ T cells and promotes their differentiation to granzyme B-producing CD103+CD69+ resident memory T cells via autocrine TGF-β signalling. Thus, our work provides the underlying principle of targeting cancer cell αV for more efficient PD-1 checkpoint blockade therapy.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (3) ◽  
pp. 54
Tobias Plowman ◽  
Dimitris Lagos

The highly infectious severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged as the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in late 2019, igniting an unprecedented pandemic. A mechanistic picture characterising the acute immunopathological disease in severe COVID-19 is developing. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) constitute the transcribed but un-translated portion of the genome and, until recent decades, have been undiscovered or overlooked. A growing body of research continues to demonstrate their interconnected involvement in the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 development by regulating several of its pathological hallmarks: cytokine storm syndrome, haemostatic alterations, immune cell recruitment, and vascular dysregulation. There is also keen interest in exploring the possibility of host–virus RNA–RNA and RNA–RBP interactions. Here, we discuss and evaluate evidence demonstrating the involvement of short and long ncRNAs in COVID-19 and use this information to propose hypotheses for future mechanistic and clinical studies.

2021 ◽  
Kerry L Hilligan ◽  
Sivaranjani Namasivayam ◽  
Chad S Clancy ◽  
Danielle O'Mard ◽  
Sandra D Oland ◽  

Early events in the host response to SARS-CoV-2 are thought to play a major role in determining disease severity. During pulmonary infection, the virus encounters both myeloid and epithelioid lineage cells that can either support or restrict pathogen replication as well as respond with host protective versus detrimental mediators. In addition to providing partial protection against pediatric tuberculosis, vaccination with bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) has been reported to confer non-specific resistance to unrelated pulmonary pathogens, a phenomenon attributed to the induction of long-lasting alterations within the myeloid cell compartment. Here we demonstrate that prior intravenous, but not subcutaneous, administration of BCG protects human-ACE2 transgenic mice against lethal challenge with SARS-CoV-2 and results in reduced viral loads in non-transgenic animals infected with an alpha variant. The observed increase in host resistance was associated with reductions in SARS-CoV-2-induced tissue pathology, inflammatory cell recruitment and cytokine production that multivariate analysis revealed to be only partially related to diminished viral load. We propose that this protection stems from BCG-induced alterations in the composition and function of the pulmonary cellular compartment that impact the innate response to the virus and the ensuing immunopathology.

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