β amyloid
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Matthieu Lilamand ◽  
François Mouton-Liger ◽  
Emmanuelle Di Valentin ◽  
Marta Sànchez Ortiz ◽  
Claire Paquet

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most frequent age-related neurodegenerative disorder, with no curative treatment available so far. Alongside the brain deposition of β-amyloid peptide and hyperphosphorylated tau, neuroinflammation triggered by the innate immune response in the central nervous system, plays a central role in the pathogenesis of AD. Glucose usually represents the main fuel for the brain. Glucose metabolism has been related to neuroinflammation, but also with AD lesions. Hyperglycemia promotes oxidative stress and neurodegeneration. Insulinoresistance (e.g., in type 2 diabetes) or low IGF-1 levels are associated with increased β-amyloid production. However, in the absence of glucose, the brain may use another fuel: ketone bodies (KB) produced by oxidation of fatty acids. Over the last decade, ketogenic interventions i.e., ketogenic diets (KD) with very low carbohydrate intake or ketogenic supplementation (KS) based on medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) consumption, have been studied in AD animal models, as well as in AD patients. These interventional studies reported interesting clinical improvements in animals and decrease in neuroinflammation, β-amyloid and tau accumulation. In clinical studies, KS and KD were associated with better cognition, but also improved brain metabolism and AD biomarkers. This review summarizes the available evidence regarding KS/KD as therapeutic options for individuals with AD. We also discuss the current issues and potential adverse effects associated with these nutritional interventions. Finally, we propose an overview of ongoing and future registered trials in this promising field.

Marine Drugs ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
pp. 75
Elisabete Lima ◽  
Jorge Medeiros

The incidence of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), increases continuously demanding the urgent development of anti-Alzheimer’s agents. Marine organisms (MO) have to create their own defenses due to the adverse environment where they live and so synthesize several classes of compounds, such as akaloids, to defend themselves. Therefore, the identification of marine natural products with neuroprotective effects is a necessity. Being that AD is not only a genetic but also an environmental complex disease, a treatment for AD remains to discover. As the major clinical indications (CI) of AD are extracellular plaques formed by β-amyloid (Aβ) protein, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) formed by hyper phosphorylated τ-protein, uncommon inflammatory response and neuron apoptosis and death caused by oxidative stress, alkaloids that may decrease CI, might be used against AD. Most of the alkalolids with those properties are derivatives of the amino acid tryptophan mainly with a planar indole scaffold. Certainly, alkaloids targeting more than one CI, multitarget-directed ligands (MTDL), have the potential to become a lead in AD treatment. Alkaloids to have a maximum of activity against CI, should be planar and contain halogens and amine quaternization.

Neurology ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 10.1212/WNL.0000000000013299
Pontus Tideman ◽  
Erik Stomrud ◽  
Antoine Leuzy ◽  
Niklas Mattsson-Carlgren ◽  
Sebastian Palmqvist ◽  

Background and Objectives:The neuropathological changes underlying Alzheimer´s disease (AD) start before overt cognitive symptoms arise, but it is not well-known how they relate to the first subtle cognitive changes. The objective for this study was to examine the independent associations of the AD hallmarks β-amyloid (Aβ), tau, and neurodegeneration with different cognitive domains in cognitively unimpaired (CU) individuals.Methods:In this cross-sectional study, CU participants from the prospective BioFINDER-2 study were included. All had CSF biomarkers (Aβ42 and P-tau181), MRI (cortical thickness of AD-susceptible regions), Aβ-PET (neocortical uptake), tau-PET (entorhinal uptake), and cognitive test data for i) memory, ii) executive function, iii) verbal function, iv), and visuospatial function. Multivariable linear regression models were performed, using either CSF Aβ42, P-tau181 and cortical thickness or Aβ-PET, tau-PET, and cortical thickness, as predictors of cognitive function. The results were validated in an independent cohort (ADNI).Results:316 CU participants were included from the BioFINDER-2 study. Abnormal Aβ-status was independently associated with the executive measure, regardless of modality (CSF Aβ42 β=0.128, p=0.024; Aβ-PET β=0.124, p=0.049), while tau was independently associated with memory (CSF P-tau181 β=0.132, p=0.018; tau-PET β=0.189, p=0.002). Cortical thickness was independently associated with the executive measure and verbal fluency in both models (p=0.005-0.018). To examine the relationships in the earliest stage of preclinical AD, only participants with normal biomarkers of tau and neurodegeneration were included (n=217 CSF-based; n=246 PET-based). Again, Aβ-status was associated with executive function (CSF Aβ42, β=0.189, p=0.005; Aβ-PET, β=0.146, p=0.023), but not with other cognitive domains. The results were overall replicated in the ADNI cohort (n=361).Discussion:These findings suggest that Aβ is independently associated with worse performance on an executive measure but not with memory performance, which instead is associated with tau pathology. This may have implications for early preclinical AD screening and outcome measures in AD trials targeting Aβ pathology.

2022 ◽  
Vol 000 (000) ◽  
pp. 000-000
Xiao-Juan Wang ◽  
Yong-Qiang Xue ◽  
He-Ling Zhang ◽  
Ying Yu ◽  
Peng Liu

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 629
Xiangli Zhao ◽  
Sadaf Hasan ◽  
Benjamin Liou ◽  
Yi Lin ◽  
Ying Sun ◽  

Neurodegenerative diseases are debilitating impairments that affect millions of people worldwide and are characterized by progressive degeneration of structure and function of the central or peripheral nervous system. Effective biomarkers for neurodegenerative diseases can be used to improve the diagnostic workup in the clinic as well as facilitate the development of effective disease-modifying therapies. Progranulin (PGRN) has been reported to be involved in various neurodegenerative disorders. Hence, in the current study we systematically compared the inflammation and accumulation of typical neurodegenerative disease markers in the brain tissue between PGRN knockout (PGRN KO) and wildtype (WT) mice. We found that PGRN deficiency led to significant neuron loss as well as activation of microglia and astrocytes in aged mice. Several characteristic neurodegenerative markers, including α-synuclein, TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43), Tau, and β-amyloid, were all accumulated in the brain of PGRN-deficient mice as compared to WT mice. Moreover, higher aggregation of lipofuscin was observed in the brain tissue of PGRN-deficient mice compared with WT mice. In addition, the autophagy was also defective in the brain of PGRN-deficient mice, indicated by the abnormal expression level of autophagy marker LC3-II. Collectively, comprehensive assays support the idea that PGRN plays an important role during the development of neurodegenerative disease, indicating that PGRN might be a useful biomarker for neurodegenerative diseases in clinical settings.

2022 ◽  
Vol Publish Ahead of Print ◽  
Dongyu Fan ◽  
Huiyun Li ◽  
Dongwan Chen ◽  
Yang Chen ◽  
Xu Yi ◽  

2022 ◽  
Habbanakuppe D. Preetham ◽  
Umashankara Muddegowda ◽  
Kothanahally S. Sharath Kumar ◽  
Shobith Rangappa ◽  
Kanchugarakoppal S. Rangappa

The Analyst ◽  
2022 ◽  
Kawin Khachornsakkul ◽  
Anongnat Tiangtrong ◽  
Araya Suwannasom ◽  
Wuttichai Sangkharoek ◽  
Opor Jamjumrus ◽  

We report on the first development of a simple distance-based β-amyloid (Aβ) protein quantification using paper-based devices (dPADs) to screen for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and to subsequently follow up on...

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document