Proteomics Analysis
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2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Kazuma Higashisaka ◽  
Sonoko Takeya ◽  
Haruhiko Kamada ◽  
Masanori Obana ◽  
Makiko Maeda ◽  

Abstract Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has few objective symptoms, and it is difficult to make an early diagnosis by using existing methods. Therefore, new biomarkers enabling diagnosis of renal dysfunction at an early stage need to be developed. Here, we searched for new biomarkers of CKD by focusing on kidney-derived proteins that could sensitively reflect that organ’s disease state. Methods To identify candidate marker proteins, we performed a proteomics analysis on renal influx and efflux blood collected from the same individual. Results Proteomics analysis revealed 662 proteins in influx blood and 809 in efflux. From these identified proteins, we selected complement C1q as a candidate; the plasma C1q level was significantly elevated in the renal efflux of donors. Moreover, the plasma concentration of C1q in a mouse model of diabetic nephropathy was significantly increased, in association with increases in blood glucose concentration and urinary protein content. Importantly, we demonstrated that the tendency of C1q to increase in the plasma of CKD patients was correlated with a decrease in their estimated glomerular filtration rate. Conclusion Overall, our results indicate that our approach of focusing on kidney-derived proteins is useful for identifying new CKD biomarkers and that C1q has potential as a biomarker of renal function.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Min Zhang ◽  
Yiping Xie ◽  
Shasha Li ◽  
Xiaojian Ye ◽  
Yibiao Jiang ◽  

Although mycobacterial proteins in exosomes from peripheral serum of patients with tuberculosis (TB) have been identified, other exact compositions of exosomes remain unknown. In the present study, a comprehensive proteomics analysis of serum exosomes derived from patients with active TB (ATB) was performed. Exosomes from patients with ATB were characterized using nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and western blotting analysis. Then identified protein components were quantified by label-free proteomics and were determined via bioinformatics analysis. A total of 123 differential proteins were identified in ATB serum exosomes and analyzed with Gene Ontology (GO) analysis. Among these proteins heat shock protein70 (HSP70), CD81, major histocompatibility complex-I (MHC-I ) and tumor susceptibility gene101 (TSG101) were present in exosomes of ATB and normal individuals confirmed via western blotting. In addition, among identified exosomal proteins lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) increased significantly, but CD36 and MHC-I decreased significantly in ATB exosomes. Meanwhile, MHC-I was down-expressed in serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of ATB, but interestingly CD36 was down-regulated in serum and up-expressed in PBMCs of ATB patients validated with ELISA and flow cytometry. CD36 was up-regulated by M. tuberculosis H37Ra infection in macrophages and suppressed in exosomes from H37Ra infected macrophages detected by western blotting. This study provided a comprehensive description of the exosome proteome in the serum of patients with ATB and revealed certain potential biomarkers associated with TB infection.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-21
Guozuo Wang ◽  
Xiaomei Zeng ◽  
Shengqiang Gong ◽  
Shanshan Wang ◽  
Anqi Ge ◽  

Objective. To explore the mechanism of edaravone in the treatment of oxidative stress in rats with cerebral infarction based on quantitative proteomics technology. Method. The modified Zea Longa intracavitary suture blocking method was utilized to make rat CI model. After modeling, the rat was intragastrically given edaravone for 7 days, once a day. After the 7-day intervention, the total proteins of serum were extracted. After proteomics analysis, the differentially expressed proteins are analyzed by bioinformatics. Then chemoinformatics methods were used to explore the biomolecular network of edaravone intervention in CI. Result. The neurological scores and pathological changes of rats were improved after the intervention of edaravone. Proteomics analysis showed that in the model/sham operation group, 90 proteins in comparison group were upregulated, and 26 proteins were downregulated. In the edaravone/model group, 21 proteins were upregulated, and 41 proteins were downregulated. Bioinformatics analysis and chemoinformatics analysis also show that edaravone is related to platelet activation and aggregation, oxidative stress, intercellular adhesion, glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, iron metabolism, hypoxia, inflammatory chemokines, their mediated signal transduction, and so on. Conclusion. The therapeutic mechanism of edaravone in the treatment of CI may involve platelet activation and aggregation, oxidative stress, intercellular adhesion, glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, iron metabolism, hypoxia, and so on. This study revealed the serum protein profile of edaravone in the treatment of cerebral infarction rats through serum TMT proteomics and discovered the relevant mechanism of edaravone regulating iron metabolism in cerebral infarction, which provides new ideas for the study of edaravone intervention in cerebral infarction and also provides reference information for future research on the mechanism of edaravone intervention in iron metabolism-related diseases.

2022 ◽  
Guan Wang ◽  
Mengyuan Li ◽  
Shuo Yu ◽  
Mengqi Guan ◽  
Shiqi Ma ◽  

Objective: To explore the proteomics profiles of hepatocytes of mice treated with acupuncture for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods: We used a Tandem mass tag (TMT)-based quantitative proteomics approach to identify proteins with potential molecular mechanisms associated with acupuncture interventions for T2DM with NAFLD. Results: Acupuncture effectively improved body weight, blood glucose, and insulin levels in T2DM with NAFLD mouse models and reversed steatosis within hepatocytes. Quantitative TMT- based proteomics analysis identified a total of 4710 quantifiable proteins and 1226 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in the model control group (MCG) compared to the normal control group (NCG). The Acupuncture Treatment Group (ATG) presented in 122 DEPs compared to the MCG group. We performed a bioinformatics analysis, which revealed that DEPs enriched in the KEGG pathway after acupuncture treatment were mainly involved in the PPAR signalling pathway, fatty acid biosynthesis, fatty acid metabolism, fatty acid elongation, fat digestion, and absorption. We used parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) technology to explore the association of aldehyde oxidase 1 (Aox1), acyl-coenzyme A thioesterase 2 (Acot2), perilipin-2 (Plin2), acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (Acc), NADP-dependent malic enzyme (Me1), fatty acid synthase (Fasn), ATP-citrate synthase (Acly), fatty acid binding protein (Fabp2) with lipid synthesis, fatty acid oxidation and hepatocyte steatosis. Conclusions: Our results show that acupuncture can regulate the protein expression of T2DM in the NAFLD mice model, and can effectively improve hepatocyte steatosis, and has potential benefits for the clinical treatment of this disease.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 541
Priya Kulkarni ◽  
Abhay Harsulkar ◽  
Anne-Grete Märtson ◽  
Siim Suutre ◽  
Aare Märtson ◽  

Introduction: Osteophytes are a prominent feature of osteoarthritis (OA) joints and one of the clinical hallmarks of the disease progression. Research on osteophytes is fragmentary and modes of its contribution to OA pathology are obscure. Aim: To elucidate the role of osteophytes in OA pathology from a perspective of molecular and cellular events. Methods: RNA-seq of fully grown osteophytes, collected from tibial plateau of six OA patients revealed patterns corresponding to active extracellular matrix re-modulation and prominent participation of mast cells. Presence of mast cells was further confirmed by immunohistochemistry, performed on the sections of the osteophytes using anti-tryptase alpha/beta-1 and anti-FC epsilon RI antibodies and the related key up-regulated genes were validated by qRT-PCR. To test the role of OA synovial fluid (SF) in mast cell maturation as proposed by the authors, hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and ThP1 cells were cultured in a media supplemented with 10% SF samples, obtained from various grades of OA patients and were monitored using specific cell surface markers by flow cytometry. Proteomics analysis of SF samples was performed to detect additional markers specific to mast cells and inflammation that drive the cell differentiation and maturation. Results: Transcriptomics of osteophytes revealed a significant upregulation of mast cells specific genes such as chymase 1 (CMA1; 5-fold) carboxypeptidase A3 (CPA3; 4-fold), MS4A2/FCERI (FCERI; 4.2-fold) and interleukin 1 receptor-like 1 (IL1RL1; 2.5-fold) indicating their prominent involvement. (In IHC, anti-tryptase alpha/beta-1 and anti- FC epsilon RI-stained active mast cells were seen populated in cartilage, subchondral bone, and trabecular bone.) Based on these outcomes and previous learnings, the authors claim a possibility of mast cells invasion into osteophytes is mediated by SF and present in vitro cell differentiation assay results, wherein ThP1 and HSCs showed differentiation into HLA-DR+/CD206+ and FCERI+ phenotype, respectively, after exposing them to medium containing 10% SF for 9 days. Proteomics analysis of these SF samples showed an accumulation of mast cell-specific inflammatory proteins. Conclusions: RNA-seq analysis followed by IHC study on osteophyte samples showed a population of mast cells resident in them and may further accentuate inflammatory pathology of OA. Besides subchondral bone, the authors propose an alternative passage of mast cells invasion in osteophytes, wherein OA SF was found to be necessary and sufficient for maturation of mast cell precursor into effector cells.

2021 ◽  
Kyota Yasuda ◽  
Tomonobu M. Watanabe ◽  
Myeong-Gyun Kang ◽  
Jeong Kon Seo ◽  
Hyun-Woo Rhee ◽  

Fused in sarcoma (FUS) undergoes liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) to form granules in cells, leading to pathogenic aggregations that cause neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Proteomics analysis revealed that FUS granules contain valosin-containing protein (VCP), a member of the AAA family ATPase. Confocal microscopy images showed that VCP co-localized in the FUS granules in cells. This study demonstrates that VCP in granules has a two-faced role in FUS granulation: VCP stabilizes de novo FUS granules, while VCP present in the granules for extended periods dissolves them. This VCP function relies on its ATPase activity to consume ATP in granules. VCP stabilizes de novo FUS by reducing intragranular ATP concentrations to a range below the cytosolic concentration. VCP continually consumes ATP during its stay in the granules, which eventually lowers ATP concentrations to a range that destabilizes the granules. VCP, therefore, acts as a timer to limit the residence of FUS granules in cells and thereby prohibits the FUS fibrillization that occurs in persistent granules. VCP ATPase activity plays a role in FUS granule turnover.

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