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2022 ◽  
Vol 548 ◽  
pp. 151683
Xin Dang ◽  
Zohaib Noor ◽  
Yuan-Qiu He ◽  
Yong-Kian Lim ◽  
Yang Zhang ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Maria da Graça Morais Martin ◽  
Vitor Ribeiro Paes ◽  
Ellison Fernando Cardoso ◽  
Carlos Eduardo Borges Passos Neto ◽  
Cristina Takami Kanamura ◽  

Abstract Background Brain abnormalities are a concern in COVID-19, so we used minimally invasive autopsy (MIA) to investigate it, consisting of brain 7T MR and CT images and tissue sampling via transethmoidal route with at least three fragments: the first one for reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis and the remaining fixed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Two mouse monoclonal anti-coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies were employed in immunohistochemical (IHC) reactions. Results Seven deceased COVID-19 patients underwent MIA with brain MR and CT images, six of them with tissue sampling. Imaging findings included infarcts, punctate brain hemorrhagic foci, subarachnoid hemorrhage and signal abnormalities in the splenium, basal ganglia, white matter, hippocampi and posterior cortico-subcortical. Punctate brain hemorrhage was the most common finding (three out of seven cases). Brain histological analysis revealed reactive gliosis, congestion, cortical neuron eosinophilic degeneration and axonal disruption in all six cases. Other findings included edema (5 cases), discrete perivascular hemorrhages (5), cerebral small vessel disease (3), perivascular hemosiderin deposits (3), Alzheimer type II glia (3), abundant corpora amylacea (3), ischemic foci (1), periventricular encephalitis foci (1), periventricular vascular ectasia (1) and fibrin thrombi (1). SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected with RT-PCR in 5 out of 5 and IHC in 6 out 6 patients (100%). Conclusions Despite limited sampling, MIA was an effective tool to evaluate underlying pathological brain changes in deceased COVID-19 patients. Imaging findings were varied, and pathological features corroborated signs of hypoxia, alterations related to systemic critically ill and SARS-CoV-2 brain invasion.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Xiaorui Liu ◽  
Lingling Xie ◽  
Zhixu Fang ◽  
Li Jiang

We investigated the existence and potential pathogenicity of a SLC9A6 splicing variant in a Chinese boy with Christianson Syndrome (CS), which was reported for the first time in China. Trio whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed in the proband and his parents. Multiple computer prediction tools were used to evaluate the pathogenicity of the variant, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis and cDNA sequencing were performed to verify the RNA splicing results. The patient presented with characteristic features of CS: global developmental delay, seizures, absent speech, truncal ataxia, microcephaly, ophthalmoplegia, smiling face and hyperkinesis with electrical status epilepticus during sleep (ESES) detected in an electroencephalogram (EEG). A SLC9A6 splicing variant was identified by WES and complete skipping of exon 10 was confirmed by RT-PCR. This resulted in altered gene function and was predicted to be pathogenic. ESES observed early in the disease course is considered to be a significant feature of CS with the SLC9A6 variant. Combined genetic analysis at both the DNA and RNA levels is necessary to confirm the pathogenicity of this variant and its role in the clinical diagnosis of CS.

Insects ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 97
Xudong Zhao ◽  
Yishu Geng ◽  
Tianyi Hu ◽  
Yongang Zhao ◽  
Suling Yang ◽  

The relative quantification of gene expression is mainly achieved through reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR); however, its reliability and precision rely on proper data normalization using one or more optimal reference genes. Hyphantria cunea (Drury) has been an invasive pest of forest trees, ornamental plants, and fruit trees in China for many years. Currently, the molecular physiological role of reference genes in H. cunea is unclear, which hinders functional gene study. Therefore, eight common reference genes, RPS26, RPL13, UBI, AK, RPS15, EIF4A, β-actin, α-tub, were selected to evaluate levels of gene expression stability when subjected to varied experimental conditions, including developmental stage and gender, different tissues, larvae reared on different hosts and different larval density. The geNorm, BestKeeper, ΔCt method, and NormFinder statistical algorithms were used to normalize gene transcription data. Furthermore, the stability/suitability of these candidates was ranked overall by RefFinder. This study provides a comprehensive evaluation of reference genes in H. cunea and could help select reference genes for other Lepidoptera species.

PeerJ ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. e12796
Yulian Jiao ◽  
Hu Zeng ◽  
Haitao Xia ◽  
Yueying Wang ◽  
Jinwang Wang ◽  

Background The clumping bamboo Bambusa oldhamii Munro, known as “green bamboo”, is famous for its edible bamboo shoots and fast-growing timber. The green and yellow striped-culm B. oldhamii variety, named B. oldhamii f. revoluta W.T. Lin & J. Y. Lin, is an attractive system for researching the culm color variation of B. oldhamii. Methods Millions of clean reads were generated and assembled into 604,900 transcripts, and 383,278 unigenes were acquired with RNA-seq technology. The quantification of ABA, IAA, JA, GA1, GA3, GA4, and GA7 was performed using HPLC–MS/MS platforms. Results Differential expression analysis showed that 449 unigenes were differentially expressed genes (DEGs), among which 190 DEGs were downregulated and 259 DEGs were upregulated in B. oldhamii f. revoluta. Phytohormone contents, especially GA1 and GA7, were higher in B. oldhamii. Approximately 21 transcription factors (TFs) were differentially expressed between the two groups: the bZIP, MYB, and NF-YA transcription factor families had the most DEGs, indicating that those TFs play important roles in B. oldhamii culm color variation. RNA-seq data were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR analysis of the selected genes; moreover, phytohormone contents, especially those of ABA, GA1 and GA7, were differentially accumulated between the groups. Our study provides a basal gene expression and phytohormone analysis of B. oldhamii culm color variation, which could provide a solid fundamental theory for investigating bamboo culm color variation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yi-Xuan Deng ◽  
Wen-Ge He ◽  
Hai-Jun Cai ◽  
Jin-Hai Jiang ◽  
Yuan-Yuan Yang ◽  

Osteoporosis is a common systemic bone disease caused by the imbalance between osteogenic activity and osteoclastic activity. Aged women are at higher risk of osteoporosis, partly because of estrogen deficiency. However, the underlying mechanism of how estrogen deficiency affects osteoclast activity has not yet been well elucidated. In this study, GSE2208 and GSE56815 datasets were downloaded from GEO database with 25 PreH BMD women and 25 PostL BMD women in total. The RRA algorithm determined 38 downregulated DEGs and 30 upregulated DEGs. Through GO analysis, we found that downregulated DEGs were mainly enriched in myeloid cell differentiation, cytokine-related functions while upregulated DEGs enriched in immune-related biological processes; pathways like Notch signaling and MAPK activation were found in KEGG/Rectome pathway database; a PPI network which contains 66 nodes and 91 edges was constructed and three Modules were obtained by Mcode; Correlation analysis helped us to find highly correlated genes in each module. Moreover, three hub genes FOS, PTPN6, and CTSD were captured by Cytohubba. Finally, the hub genes were further confirmed in blood monocytes of ovariectomy (OVX) rats by real-time PCR assay. In conclusion, the integrative bioinformatics analysis and real-time PCR analysis were utilized to offer fresh light into the role of monocytes in premenopausal osteoporosis and identified FOS, PTPN6, and CTSD as potential biomarkers for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

Plants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 190
Michael Ackah ◽  
Liangliang Guo ◽  
Shaocong Li ◽  
Xin Jin ◽  
Charles Asakiya ◽  

Drought stress remains one of the most detrimental environmental cues affecting plant growth and survival. In this work, the DNA methylome changes in mulberry leaves under drought stress (EG) and control (CK) and their impact on gene regulation were investigated by MethylRAD sequencing. The results show 138,464 (37.37%) and 56,241 (28.81%) methylation at the CG and CWG sites (W = A or T), respectively, in the mulberry genome between drought stress and control. The distribution of the methylome was prevalent in the intergenic, exonic, intronic and downstream regions of the mulberry plant genome. In addition, we discovered 170 DMGs (129 in CG sites and 41 in CWG sites) and 581 DMS (413 in CG sites and 168 in CWG sites). Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis indicates that phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, spliceosome, amino acid biosynthesis, carbon metabolism, RNA transport, plant hormone, signal transduction pathways, and quorum sensing play a crucial role in mulberry response to drought stress. Furthermore, the qRT-PCR analysis indicates that the selected 23 genes enriched in the KEGG pathways are differentially expressed, and 86.96% of the genes share downregulated methylation and 13.04% share upregulation methylation status, indicating the complex link between DNA methylation and gene regulation. This study serves as fundamentals in discovering the epigenomic status and the pathways that will significantly enhance mulberry breeding for adaptation to a wide range of environments.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Nikita Potemkin ◽  
Sophie M. F. Cawood ◽  
Jackson Treece ◽  
Diane Guévremont ◽  
Christy J. Rand ◽  

AbstractRNA sequencing offers unprecedented access to the transcriptome. Key to this is the identification and quantification of many different species of RNA from the same sample at the same time. In this study we describe a novel protocol for simultaneous detection of coding and non-coding transcripts using modifications to the Ion Total RNA-Seq kit v2 protocol, with integration of QIASeq FastSelect rRNA removal kit. We report highly consistent sequencing libraries can be produced from both frozen high integrity mouse hippocampal tissue and the more challenging post-mortem human tissue. Removal of rRNA using FastSelect was extremely efficient, resulting in less than 1.5% rRNA content in the final library. We identified > 30,000 unique transcripts from all samples, including protein-coding genes and many species of non-coding RNA, in biologically-relevant proportions. Furthermore, the normalized sequencing read count for select genes significantly negatively correlated with Ct values from qRT-PCR analysis from the same samples. These results indicate that this protocol accurately and consistently identifies and quantifies a wide variety of transcripts simultaneously. The highly efficient rRNA depletion, coupled with minimized sample handling and without complicated and high-loss size selection protocols, makes this protocol useful to researchers wishing to investigate whole transcriptomes.

Jun-Hyung Lim ◽  
Sang Hwan Nam ◽  
Jongwoo Kim ◽  
Nam Hoon Kim ◽  
Gun-Soo Park ◽  

Abstract In this study, a three-stage bioaerosol sampler with a sampling flow rate of 170 L/min was designed and fabricated for sampling the bioaerosols released during human breathing and coughing, and its performance was evaluated. The sampler was constructed using a cyclone separator with a cutoff size of 2.5 µm as a preseparator, a multi-nozzle virtual impactor with a cutoff size of 0.34 µm as an aerosol concentrator, and a BioSampler, which is a commercial product, for collecting bioaerosols in a collection fluid. The collection efficiency of the sampler was evaluated through simulations and experiments. Only particles with sizes of 0.1-4 µm were selectively collected in the collection fluid. Bacteriophage bioaerosols were sampled using the developed sampler and ACD-200 Bobcat sampler, which is a commercial product. The amounts of collected bacteriophages were compared using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. The sampling performance of the developed sampler was similar to that of the ACD-200 Bobcat sampler. Moreover, the developed sampler showed its ability to sample bioaerosols of a specific size-range and collect them directly in a collection fluid for the PCR analysis. Therefore, the developed sampler is expected to be useful for indoor environmental monitoring by effectively sampling the bioaerosols released indoors during human breathing and coughing.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yang Yang ◽  
Wei Zhou ◽  
Xiuqi Xu ◽  
Xianxiu Ge ◽  
Fei Wang ◽  

Substance P contributes to the pathogenesis of pain by acting on NK-1R, specialized sensory neurons that detect noxious stimuli. Aprepitant, an antagonist of NK-1R, is widely used to treat chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. In this study, we used LPS-stimulated BV-2 microglia cell line and animal models of inflammatory pain to explore the analgesic effect of aprepitant on inflammatory pain and its underlying mechanism. The excitability of DRG neurons were measured using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. The behavioral tests were measured and the morphological changes on inflamed paw sections were determined by HE staining. Changes in the expressions of cytokine were measured by using real-time quantitative PCR analysis and ELISA method. Immunofluorescence and western blotting were used to detect the microglia activation and MAPK. Aprepitant treatment significantly inhibited the excitability of DRG neurons. The pain behavior and the paw tissues inflammatory damage were significantly relived after the administration of aprepitant compared to formalin group. Aprepitant significantly suppressed the activation of microglia, phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAPK, as well as the mRNA and protein expressions of MCP-1, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β, in vivo and in vitro. The LPS-induced over-translocation into nucleus of NF-κBp65 was down-regulated following aprepitant treatment in BV-2 cells. The present study suggests that aprepitant attenuates inflammatory pain in mice via suppressing the phosphorylation of JNK and p38, and inhibiting the NF-κB signaling pathway.

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