southern taiga
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2022 ◽  
Vol 49 (4) ◽  
pp. 91-99
N. P. Matveeva ◽  
E. A. Tretyakov ◽  
A. S. Zelenkov

We describe 15 burials at the Vodennikovo-1 group of mounds in the northern Kurgan Region, on the Middle Iset River, relevant to migration processes during the Early Middle Ages. On the basis of numerous parallels from contemporaneous sites in the Urals and Western Siberia, the cemetery is dated to the late 7th and 8th centuries. Most of single and collective burials are inhumations in rectangular pits with a northwestern orientation, with vessels, decorated by carved or pricked designs, placed near the heads. These features, typical of the Early Medieval Bakalskaya culture of the Tobol and Ishim basins, are also observed at the Pereyma and Ust-Suerskoye-1 cemeteries in the same area. However, there are innovations such as inlet burials, those in blocks of solid wood and plank coffi ns, western orientation of the deceased, and placing vessels next to the burial pits. These features attest to a different tradition, evidenced by cemeteries of the Potchevash culture in the Tobol and Ishim basins (Okunevo III, Likhacheva, and Vikulovskoye). Also, Potchevash and Bakalskaya vessels co-occur at Vodennikovo-1, and some of them (jugs with comb and grooved designs) are typologically syncretic. To date, this is the westernmost cemetery of the Potchevash culture, suggestive of a migration of part of the southern taiga population from the Ishim and Tobol area to the Urals.

Anna Grenaderova ◽  
Pavel Mandryka ◽  
Wang Xiaokun ◽  
Polina Senotrusova ◽  

The article presents the results of a comprehensive interdisciplinary analysis of archaeological and palaeoecological data. The aim of the study was to identify climatic changes in the habitat and their impact on the formation of the palaeoeconomics of the ancient population, on the expansion or reduction of the area of archaeological cultures with foraging and producing economy. Based on the analysis of palaeosignals obtained by a complex of methods (pollen, botanical analysis of peat, charcoal analysis, determination of the ash content of sediments), the following intervals of changing conditions were identified: 7400—6800 calibrated years before present (cal. BP) — humidity reduction, 4850—4400 cal. BP — an increase in humidity, 3850—3150 cal. BP — decrease in humidity, 3150—2000 cal. BP — stable humid, with 1600 cal. BP — moisture reduction, 1250—700 cal. BP — minimal moisture. Changes in conditions are consistent with changes in the boundaries of the subzone of the southern taiga and forest-steppe, as well as with the range of cultures of Siberian hunters, fishers, gatherers and pastoralists. The results can be projected over the entire Siberian region.

M.A. Grachev ◽  
A.S. Zelenkov ◽  
A.V. Sleptsova

The paper presents the materials of the Great Migration Period from the Omsk Irtysh region, obtained during the excavations of the Krasnoyarsky-IV burial ground. In total, eight burial mounds with 13 burials were examined in 2009 by the expedition of the Omsk State Pedagogical University led by M.A. Grachev. The aim of this work is to determine regional features and chronology of the Krasnoyarsky-IV burial complexes , as well as some details of the historical and cultural development of the local population in the transitional period from the Iron Age to the early Middle Ages. The research methodology is based on comparative and typological analyses of the material complexes, morphological and constructional specifics of the burials, and on anthropological studies, including methods of odontology. According to the results of the study, the chronological interval of the functioning of the necropolis spans the end of the 4th — first decades of the 6th centuries A.D., which corresponds with the appea-rance of the Karym type monuments in the territory of the southern taiga of Western Siberia. The signs of artificial skull deformation, erection of small embankments, cremations, and Eastern-European and Central Asian imports suggest involvement of the Karym population in the epochal historical and cultural processes, as well as contacts with neighboring forest-steppe and southern taiga cultures of the Ural-Siberian region. Characteristics associated with the heritage of the cultures of the Early Iron Age, particularly, the Sargatka and Kulayka Cultures, were noted: orientation of the buried; location of the goods in the grave; ornamental and morphological features of the ware; and specific types of bronze decorations. The symbiosis of innovations and traditions of the previous epoch is partly confirmed by the anthropological characteristics in the ratio of the longitudinal and transverse diameters of the crowns of the permanent lower first molars.

2021 ◽  
Vol 928 (1) ◽  
pp. 012014
E K Vishnyakova

Abstract On the base of experiments there were recorded the greatest mass losses of Sphagnum fuscum samples flat palsa mires in the first year of experiment, in the following years decay rate decreased significantly (from 24 % to 16 %). On middle taiga bogs there was observed decay rate increasing over the third year while on southern taiga bogs Sphagnum fuscum was decomposed almost evenly over three years. On ridges of ridge-hollow complex of middle taiga and southern taiga mass losses under destruction were greater than those in ryams. The most dynamic decomposition was recorded for forest-steppe ryam with decay mass losses over three years of 56% average.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (6) ◽  
pp. 31-38
K.I. Voevodina ◽  
R.R. Absalyamov ◽  
S.L. Absalyamova ◽  

The study of berry crops was carried out on the territory of forest areas located in the southern taiga forests in the European part of the Russian Federation, in the taiga zone and in the area of coniferous-broadleaved (mixed) forests of the European part of the Russian Federation as well as in the zone of coniferous-broadleaved forests. By establishing circular plots in the prevailing types of forest, the dominant berry crops were determined such as cranberries (Vaccinium vítis-idaéa L.), blueberries (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and wild strawberries (Fragaria vesca L.). The dependence of their yield on the age and the stand density was revealed. The biological, commercial and economic reserves of berry resources are calculated. It is established that there are sufficient volumes for harvesting berries in the studied forest areas. Recommendations on the rational and sustainable use of these resources are given.

2021 ◽  
Vol 937 (3) ◽  
pp. 032118
T Zheleznova ◽  
A Zubalii ◽  
L Malovichko

Abstract Western Siberia is an interesting polygon for studying the patterns of territorial variability of zonal forest formations and their animal population. Forests covering more than 60% of the territory are undergoing significant anthropogenic transformation due to the activities of the oil-and-gas industry, large-scale deforestation and fires. All this makes it very relevant to study the spatial differentiation of ornithocomplexes, as well as natural and anthropogenic environmental factors that determine it. The data was collected during the period of 1996-2010 using the route bird census method in 64 landscape forest plots with a total length of over a thousand km, in the valleys of large tributaries of the Ob River (the Chulym, Ket, Vasyugan and Tym Rivers). The total abundance of birds, the composition of the dominant species in terms of population density, and the species richness depending on the zoning (middle and southern taiga subzones), the species composition of tree stands, the terrain, and the degree of anthropogenic transformation of the environment by forest cutting and fires of forest ornithocomplexes, are discussed.

2021 ◽  
Vadim Mamkin ◽  
Vitaly Avilov ◽  
Dmitry Ivanov ◽  
Andrey Varlagin ◽  
Julia Kurbatova

Abstract. Climate warming in high latitudes impacts CO2 sequestration of northern peatlands through the changes in both production and decomposition processes. The response of the net CO2 fluxes between ecosystems and the atmosphere to the climate change and weather anomalies can vary across the forest and non-forest peatlands. To better understand the differences in CO2 dynamics at forest and non-forest boreal peatlands induced by changes in environmental conditions the estimates of interannual variability of the net ecosystem exchange (NEE), total ecosystem respiration (TER) and gross primary production (GPP) was obtained at two widespread peatland ecosystems – paludified spruce forest and adjacent ombrotrophic bog in the southern taiga of west Russia using 6-year of paired eddy covariance flux measurements. The period of measurements (2015–2020) was characterized by both positive and negative annual and growing season air temperature and precipitation anomalies. Flux measurements showed that in spite of the lower growing season TER (332…339 gC∙m−2) and GPP (442…464 gC∙m−2) rates the bog had a lower NEE (−132…−108) than the forest excepting the warmest and the wettest year of the period and was a sink of atmospheric CO2 in the selected years while the forest was a CO2 sink or source between years depending on the environmental conditions. Growing season NEE at the forest site was between −142 and 28 gC∙m−2, TER between 1135 and 1366 gC∙m−2 and GPP between 1207 and 1462 gC∙m−2. Annual NEE at the forest was between −62 and 145 gC∙m−2, TER between 1429 and 1652 gC∙m−2 and GPP between 1345 and 1566 gC∙m−2 respectively. Anomalously warm winter with sparse and thin snow cover lead to the increased GPP as well as lower NEE in early spring at forest and to the increased spring TER at the bog. Also, the shifting of the compensation point to the earlier dates at the forest and to the later dates at the bog following the warmest winter of the period was detected. This study suggest that the warming in winter can increase CO2 uptake of the paludified spruce forests of southern taiga in non-growing season.

С.В. Залесов ◽  
В.В. Фомин ◽  
Е.П. Платонов ◽  
Г.А. Годовалов ◽  
К.А. Башегуров ◽  

На основе баз данных лесорастительных материалов проанализированы таксационные показатели насаждений, произрастающих на территории карбонового научно-исследовательского по- лигона, расположенного в Уральском учебно-опытном лесхозе (УУОл) Уральского государственного лесотехнического университета (УГлТУ). Отмечается, что основными лесными формациями на поли- гоне являются сосняки и березняки. Доля насаждений с доминированием в составе древостоев других пород-лесообразователей невелика. Помимо сосны обыкновенной (Pinus sylvestris L.) и березы повислой (Betula pendula Roth.), другие виды произрастают, как правило, в примеси с указанными. Среди дре- востоев преобладают среднеполнотные спелые и перестойные насаждения. большинство древостоев характеризуется относительно высокими классами бонитета. Насаждения, произрастающие на террито- рии полигона, относятся к 13 типам леса, что свидетельствует о разнообразии лесорастительных усло- вий. В целом можно отметить, что видовое разнообразие древесных пород и лесорастительных условий на карбоновом научно-исследовательском полигоне УУОл УГлТУ обеспечивает возможность изучения широкого спектра вопросов депонирования углерода лесными экосистемами в условиях подзоны южной тайги Урала. The taxation indicators of plantations growing on the territory of the carbonic research polygon located in the Ural educational experimental forest enterorize (UEEF) of the Ural State Forest Engineering University were analyzed on the base of the forestry materials database. It is noted that the main forest formations on the polygons are pine and birch forest stands. The share of stands with other species of forest formers dominating in composition of forest stands is small. In addition to scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.), other species usually grow in admixtures with the specified. Among the stands mature and over mature stands of average density prevails. Most of the stands are characterized by relatively high bonitet classes. Plantations growing on the territory of the polygon belong to 13 types of forest, which indicates a variety of forest growing conditions. In general, it can be noted that the species diversity of tree species and forest growing conditions at the carboniferous research sity (UEEF) provides an opportunity to study a wide range of problems of carbon deposing forest ecosystems in conditions of the Southern Taiga subzone in the Urals.

2021 ◽  
Vol 901 (1) ◽  
pp. 012025
N V Kosolapova ◽  
Yu V Gudovskikh ◽  
T L Egoshina ◽  
A V Kislitsyna ◽  
E A Luginina

Abstract The article presents materials on the ecological and phytocenotic characteristics of Dactylorhiza fuchsii (Druce) Soo in the southern and middle taiga phytocenoses of the Kirov region. In the course of the study, the typical habitats of the species were established. Vegetation analysis carried out using phytoindication scales by D.N. Tsyganov (1983), made it possible to establish fragments of ecological niches in the conditions of the southern and middle taiga. It was found that in the middle taiga phytocenoses, the species is more sensitive to changes in soil factors given by the researcher than in the southern taiga. Analysis of vegetation in terms of hemerobicity indicates the relative resistance of the species to anthropogenic impact.

2021 ◽  
Vol 901 (1) ◽  
pp. 012039
I A Trofimov ◽  
L S Trofimova ◽  
E P Yakovleva ◽  
D M Teberdiev ◽  
A A Kutuzova ◽  

Abstract According to the data of the agro-landscape and ecological zoning of Eastern Siberia and the Far East, conducted by the authors, the spatial distribution of biological and ecological patterns in the East Sayan Mountain province was established. The province is located in the Eastern Sayan mountain system within the Southern Taiga zone. Its area is 17022.5 thousand hectares. Mountains occupy 76% of the province’s territory, plains – 24%. In the structure of land forests occupy more than 68% of the area of the province . Other land (mainly rocks and glaciers) occupies 20%. Under water is 3.4% of the area, swamps occupy 2.8%. Shrubs occupy less than 1%, mountain deer pastures – 0.8% of the area of the province. Agricultural land occupies 4.5% of the total area of the province. Including arable land – 0.9%, pastures – 2.6%, hayfields – 1%. The structure of natural forage lands (NFL) is dominated by mountain pastures on mountain soils (76%). The plains and foothills of the province are dominated by dry southern taiga meadows (13%). Floodplain meadows (5%) and swampy meadows (5%) are also represented. The ecological state of the province’s landscapes is good and satisfactory. In particular, NFL – good and satisfactory, forests – good and satisfactory, mountain deer pastures – good. The ecological state of arable land is tense. The established patterns are the necessary information basis for the development and implementation of innovative technologies for sustainable agricultural development, rational nature management and environmental protection in the East Sayan Mountain Province of Eastern Siberia and the Far East.

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