Growing Conditions
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Savita . ◽  
Devender Chahal ◽  
Arvind Malik ◽  
Sarita Devi

Background: The present investigation was carried out during the cropping season of year 2019-20 to find out the most suitable growing condition as well as variety of Asiatic lily for the production of bulbs/bulblets under Hisar (Haryana) conditions. Methods: The experiment was laid out in RBD (factorial) with three replications and twelve treatment combinations, comprising of three growing conditions (polyhouse of 200 µ, green shade-net of 50% shade and open field) and four varieties (Courier White, Tresor, Nova Lux and Red Stone). Result: These varieties of Asiatic lily when grown under polyhouse performed better in some parameters resulting in early bulb sprouting, maximum plant height and number of leaves/plant and the minimum days upto harvesting of bulbs, however, in other parameters viz. leaf length and width, weight of bulbs/plant, diameter of bulb and number of bulblets/plant, the shade-net condition was observed to be better than polyhouse. Overall, Tresor performed better, resulting in early bulb sprouting (5.11 days), minimum days (236.56) upto harvesting of bulbs and the maximum plant height (89.01 cm), number of leaves/plant (64.08), leaf length (9.50 cm), diameter of bulb (3.91 cm) and number of bulblets/plant (2.99) and it was followed by Red Stone which produced maximum weight of bulbs/plant (59.03 g) and observed next to Tresor in most of the parameters. Tresor grown under polyhouse took minimum days (231) upto the harvesting of bulbs, produced maximum plant height (115.13 cm) and number of leaves/plant (69.67) and it was closely followed by Red Stone grown under same condition. Further, under the shade-net, Red Stone produced maximum weight of bulbs/plant (65.30 g) followed by Tresor (63.93 g), while the maximum number of bulblets/plant (3.90) were produced by Tresor followed by Red Stone (3.44). Henceforth, Tresor and Red Stone when grown under polyhouse performed better in vegetative parameters and when grown under shade-net performed better in bulb parameters than the other combinations of growing conditions and varieties.

Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (9) ◽  
pp. 1788
Lauren E. Redpath ◽  
Marcia Gumpertz ◽  
James R. Ballington ◽  
Nahla Bassil ◽  
Hamid Ashrafi

Blueberries (Vaccinium spp.) comprise a broad range of perennial woody species. Introgression of native species into cultivated germplasm has adapted Vaccinium germplasm to a range of climates and growing conditions for cultivated blueberry. Genetic differences signify phenotypic variance that is observed among blueberry accessions. In addition, variability in geographic and climatic growing conditions between environments or within the same environment across different years may further affect fruit and plant phenotypic expression. As a result, a phenotype is a function of genetic background (G), environment (E), and their interaction (G × E). In addition, other temporally regulated factors such as year (Y) and harvest time (H) impact plant and fruit quality phenotypic variation. Our research aimed to assess the genotypic performance of five blueberry cultivars, including ‘Echota’, ‘O’Neal’, ‘Reveille’, ‘Summit’, and ‘Sunrise’. The selected cultivars were phenotyped for various fruit quality-related traits over two sequential harvests in two years and two locations. Our results indicated that genotype was a significant source of variation for most phenotypic characteristics. Further, the effect of Y × H and G × Y × H significantly affected the majority of studied phenotypic traits. Within the studied genotypes, ‘Reveille’ and ‘O’Neal’ phenotypic stability were consistent across locations and years; additionally, ‘Summit’ phenotypic characteristics were stable across years, environments, and harvests. Clonal plant replicates within a genotype, harvest, and environment, in addition to individual fruit measures, were the most significant sources of variability.

2021 ◽  
Vol 848 (1) ◽  
pp. 012120
E V Dubrovskaya ◽  
S N Golubev ◽  
A Yu Muratova ◽  
N N Pozdnyakova ◽  
A D Bondarenkova ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 99 (8) ◽  
pp. 55-63
R. Vozhegova ◽  
A. Tyschenko ◽  
O. Tyschenko ◽  
O. Piliars'ka ◽  
N. Gal'chenko

В.В. ФОМИН ◽  

Проведен анализ подходов к классификации типов леса в России, Европейском союзе и странах Се- верной Америки по следующим позициям: содержание понятия основных классификационных единиц лесных типологий: тип условий местопроизрастания и тип леса; особенности выделения их границ; при- знаки (характеристики), используемые для определения типа условий местопроизрастания; характеристи- ки фитоценозов, используемых для определения типа леса; возможности учета сукцессионной динамики лесных насаждений и влияния антропогенных факторов; уровень внедрения в производство и регионы, в которых они используются. В рамках российского подхода представление о типе леса трансформиро- валось от его понимания с точки зрения его однородности в пространстве (сходство участков по внеш- нему облику и набору характеристик) до однородности во времени (при классифицировании приоритет отдан генезису лесных насаждений и процессам развития). Приведены результаты анализа особенностей европейских классификаций местообитаний (EUNIS), растительности (EVS) и типов леса (EFT), а также краткая характеристика основных североамериканских лесных типологий: классификация типов место- обитаний, биоклиматическая классификация экосистем, описание экологических участков. The analysis of approaches to the classifi cation of forest types in Russia, the European Union and the countries of North America is carried out according to the following positions: the content of the concept of the main classifi cation units of forest typologies: the type of growing conditions and the type of forest; features of their boundaries revealing; characteristics used to determine the type of growing conditions; characteristics of phytocoenoses used to determine the type of forest; the possibility of taking into account the successional dynamics of forest stands and the infl uence of anthropogenic factors; the level of introduction into the industry and the regions in which they are used. Within the framework of the Russian approach, the idea of the type of forest was transformed from uniformity in space (similarity of forest sites, stands and understorey vegatation) to uniformity in time (priority is given in genesis and development processes). The results of the analysis of the features of the habitat classifi cations (EUNIS), vegetation (EVS) and forest types (EFT) on the Pan-European level are presented, as well as a brief description of the main North American forest typologies: Habitat Type Classifi cations, Biogeoclimatic Ecosystem Classifi cation, Ecological Site Description.

Land ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (8) ◽  
pp. 827
Marcos Jiménez Martínez ◽  
Christine Fürst

West African land use systems have been experiencing one of the fastest transformations in the world over recent decades. The Sudanian savanna is an interesting example, as it hosts the cultivation of some crops typical of the Guinean savanna as well as some of the Sahel. Therefore, this region is likely to experience further changes in its crop portfolio over the next decades due to crop migration processes responding to environmental change. Simulation approaches can guide the development of agricultural production strategies that contribute to sustainably optimize both food and fuel production. This study used crop models already available in the APSIM platform to simulate plant production and the soil water and nutrient cycles of plots cultivated with groundnut, millet, sorghum, maize, and rice on three (two upland and one lowland) soil fertility classes and subjected to five levels of management (conventional tillage without residue incorporated to the soil and nor fertilizer application; conventional tillage without residue incorporated to the soil and 5 kg N ha−1; conventional tillage with residue incorporated to the soil 20 kg N ha−1, and no-till herbicide treated with 50 and 100 kg N ha−1). Simulation outputs were contrasted against data reported in the literature and converted into nutritional, fuel and feed yields based on the qualities and uses of their different plant comparments. Groundnut yields outperformed all of the cereals across most growing conditions, nutritional and feed indicators. Maize and rice provided the highest caloric yields, with the least fertile growing conditions. Sorghum provided average to high caloric and iron yields across all of the treatments. Millet provided the highest iron yields and high fuel yields across most treatments. Some simulated treatments could not be compared against literature review data because of their absence in actual cropping systems and the lack of experimental data. Plant production was simulated with higher accuracy than the other components of the simulation. In particular, there is a need to better parameterize and validate the rice, groundnut and millet models under Sudanian savanna conditions in order to perform more accurate comparative assessments among species.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2(26) ◽  
pp. 116-126
E.V. Kostenkova ◽  
A.S. Bushnev ◽  

The issue of determining the ideotype of sunflower varieties and hybrids is relevant not only for breeding but also for cultivation in new environmental conditions. The aim of our research was to evaluate the genotypes according to ecological adaptability and establish the parameters of the sunflower ideotype for the arid conditions of the Crimean steppe zone. The studies were conducted in 2017-2020 at the Field Crop Department, FSBSI “Research Institute of Agriculture of Crimea” (village of Klepinino). Soil – chernozem southern low humus. Materials for the research – sunflower hybrids: ‘Garant’, ‘Komandor’, ‘Signal’, ‘Paritet’, ‘Prestizh’ (standard), ‘Sprint’, ‘Sprint 2’, ‘Gorstar’, ‘Kometa’ (bred in the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Oil Crops by the name of Pustovoit V.S.” (VNIIMK)). The experiment was replicated four times. The total area of the trial plot is 56 m2, the accounting area – 28 m2. Plant density – 40 thousand plants per ha. The harvest was brought to 100% purity; the seeds – to 10% moisture content. The linear regression coefficient (plasticity) of the yield of hybrids (bi) and the standard deviation (stability) (Ϭd2) were calculated according to S. A. Eberhart and W. A. Russell. Favourable weather conditions were in 2017 (Ij = +0.21) and 2019 (Ij = +1.04). Hybrids ‘Komandor’, ‘Garant’, ‘Sprint 2’ and ‘Gorstar’ are more responsive to the improvement of growing conditions (bi>1); variety ‘Kometa’ – weakly responsive (bi<1). When cultivation conditions changed, the yield of the hybrids ‘Signal’, ‘Paritet’, ‘Prestizh’ and ‘Sprint’ varied (bi = 1). In terms of yield, the most stable is ‘Kometa’ (Ϭd2 = 0.48); the most unstable – ‘Komandor’ (Ϭd2 = 2.19). According to the long-term field research, we have identified the parameters of the optimal model of a sunflower hybrid for cultivation in the Crimea: growing season length – 92–98 days, plant height – 161–166 cm, 1000-seeds weight – 69.5–83.0 g, productive area of the capitula (flower head) – 313–379 cm2, yield – 2.26–2.49 t/ha, oil content – 45–47%, as well as god responsiveness to the growing conditions improvement.

PhytoKeys ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 180 ◽  
pp. 31-52
Larry R. Noblick ◽  
Bruno F. Sant’anna-Santos

This paper is an investigation into how the anatomy changes within a leaflet and between the leaflets of a single leaf blade of Butia. Four species of Butia were studied: Butia paraguayensis, B. eriospatha, B. yatay and B. odorata. Changes in the anatomical characters are important because some have been used in keys to help separate the species. Recently, anatomical mid-rib characters were used in a key to separate species of Butia. We found that characters, such as abaxially projected or rounded mid-rib fibrous ring or number and arrangement of accessory bundles, do change within a single leaflet or between the leaflets of a single leaf blade. Growing conditions and leaf developmental maturity are also important factors that influence leaflet anatomy and may cause one to be misled in an identification key based on anatomical characters. We re-emphasize the importance of always sampling from the same part of the leaf, to have a broader sampling, be attentive to the environmental condition and health of the plant from which you are sampling and to consider population differences.

2021 ◽  
Vol 25 (4) ◽  
pp. 5-14
N.N. Besschetnova ◽  
V.P. Besschetnov ◽  
A.N. Gorelov ◽  

The taxational indicators of clones of plus trees of Scots pine, selected by resin productivity, were studied in comparison with similar characteristics of plants, selected by linear parameters of the trunk. They are represented They are presented in the assortment of the forest seed plantation No. 10 in the Semenovsky forestry of the Nizhny Novgorod region, created in 1984 on a plot with the type of forest growing conditions — B2, and the type of forest — maynikovo-lingonberry pine. In the organization of the work, the principle of the only logical difference was observed, as well as the requirements for the typicality, suitability and expediency of the experience. As a test marker for checking the purity of the clonal composition of the plantation, the value of the angle of attachment of the first-order lateral branches to the trunk was used. The height and diameter of the trunk are taken into account in 571 trees with a continuous list. The distribution of the average values of the analyzed indicators in the vegetative offspring of plus trees compared with each other is not uniform. The highest height (16,70 ± 0,43 m) observed in clones of the K-011 plus tree selected by resin productivity is 2,65 m or 1,19 times higher than the lowest value (14,05 ± 0,44 m) inherent in clones of the K-113 plus tree selected by the same criteria, and 2,02 m or 1,14 times higher than the lowest value (14,23 ± 0,31 m) inherent in clones of the K-171 plus tree selected by the same criteria taxational indicators of the trunk. Differences in the taxational indicators of clones in the group of plus trees distinguished by resin productivity, as well as in the group of trunks distinguished by characteristics, correspond to the level of significant ones, which indicates the specificity of their genotypes. The degree of similarity of the plus trees in terms of trunk parameters is not the same, which indicates a different level of individual non-identity of each of the plus trees in relation to the others in their considered population.

2021 ◽  
Vol 25 (4) ◽  
pp. 15-20
D.N. Klevtsov ◽  
O. N. Tyukavina ◽  
N. R. Sungurova ◽  

The bioenergetic productivity of artificial pine stands is considered. It was found that in 30-year-old artificial pine coenoses, the lowest amount of energy associated with the tree layer is observed in the lichen type of growing conditions (443,1 GJ/ha), the highest — in the blueberry (1915,1 GJ/ha). Bioenergetic productivity occupies an intermediate position (1210,7 GJ/ha) in the cranberry-type forest culture phytocenoses. It is shown that the accumulated energy reaches the highest relative value in such a component of aboveground phytomass as trunk wood. For this fraction, the variation is observed from 50.2% in the lichen type of growing conditions to 65.8% in the blueberry type, based on the total stock of phytomass of forest crops. It is established that the secondary position relative to this indicator is occupied by woody greens. The share of the energy productivity of needles in the total aboveground phytomass decreases with the improvement of forest growing conditions. An approximately equal ratio of energy deposition in the studied types of artificial pine forests by the fractions of bark and live branches (7,2...11,7%) was determined, and the smallest share of accumulated energy falls on the fraction of dry branches (5,3...7,0 %).

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