gastrointestinal infections
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2022 ◽  
Vol 46 (1) ◽  
Odunayo Emmanuel Oyewole ◽  
Iyabo Adepeju Simon-Oke

Abstract Background Soil-Transmitted Helminths are a group of parasites that cause gastrointestinal infections in humans and require the soil to develop into their infective forms. Ecological factors such as soil temperature, soil pH and rainfall patterns are, however, important determinants for the successful transmission of soil helminths as they play a major role in their abundance and survival in the soil. The study investigated the ecological factors influencing the transmission of soil-transmitted helminths in Ifedore district, Southwest Nigeria. Results Out of the one hundred and ninety-two (192) soil samples from the study area, one hundred and fifty-two 152 (79.2%) were positive for the presence of soil helminths’ larvae and ova. Higher occurrence of soil helminths was recorded during the rainy months (n = 416) than during the months with no records of rainfall (n = 290). Sandy soil had the highest number of soil helminths 285 (40.4%), while clay soil recorded the least 88 (12.5%). Soil temperature showed negative correlations with the occurrence of Ancylostoma duodenale (r =  − 0.53) and Strongyloides stercoralis larvae (r =  − 0.36), while soil conductivity showed positive correlations with the occurrence of Ascaris lumbricoides (r = 0.28) and A. duodenale (r = 0.34). Conclusion It is evident from the study that ecological factors played a significant role in the occurrence and abundance of soil-transmitted helminths. This research is important for predicting and monitoring soil-transmitted helminthiasis in endemic countries, and to devise effective control measures.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 178
Magdalena Grochowska ◽  
Dominika Ambrożej ◽  
Aneta Wachnik ◽  
Urszula Demkow ◽  
Edyta Podsiadły ◽  

Since the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, many countries have introduced measures to limit the transmission. The data based on ICD-10 codes of lower respiratory tract infections and microbiological analysis of respiratory and gastrointestinal infections were collected. The retrospective five-year analysis of the medical records revealed a substantial decrease in respiratory tract infections during the pandemic year (from April 2020 to March 2021). We noted an 81% decline in the LRTI-associated hospital admissions based on the ICD-10 analysis (from a mean of 1170 admissions per year in the previous four years to 225 admissions between April 2020 through March 2021). According to microbiological analysis, there were 100%, 99%, 87%, and 47% drops in influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, rotavirus, and norovirus cases reported respectively during the pandemic season until April 2021 in comparison to pre-pandemic years. However, the prevalence of gastrointestinal bacterial infections was stable. Moreover, in August 2021, an unexpected rise in RSV-positive cases was observed. The measures applied during the COVID-19 pandemic turned out to be effective but also had a substantial contribution to the so-far stable epidemiological situation of seasonal infections.

Lin Liu ◽  
Mariana E. Kirst ◽  
Lisa Zhao ◽  
Eric Li ◽  
Gary P. Wang

Antibiotics cause imbalance of gut microbiota, which in turn increase our susceptibility to gastrointestinal infections. However, how antibiotics disrupt gut bacterial communities is not well understood, and exposing healthy volunteers to unnecessary antibiotics for research purposes carries clinical and ethical concerns.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Juliane Hecht ◽  
Maria Borowiak ◽  
Bernhard Fortmeier ◽  
Salah Dikou ◽  
Wolfgang Gierer ◽  

Vibrio spp. are Gram-negative bacteria found in marine ecosystems. Non-cholera Vibrio spp. can cause gastrointestinal infections and can also lead to wound infections through exposure to contaminated seawater. Vibrio infections are increasingly documented from the Baltic Sea due to extended warm weather periods. We describe the first isolation of Vibrio fluvialis from a wound infection acquired by an impalement injury in the shallow waters of the Baltic Sea. The severe infection required amputation of the third toe. Whole genome sequencing of the isolate was performed and revealed a genome consisting of two circular chromosomes with a size of 1.57 and 3.24 Mb.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262084
Manuel Raab ◽  
Lisa M. Pfadenhauer ◽  
Dansira Doumbouya ◽  
Guenter Froeschl

Background Febrile illness is frequent among patients in the tropics. It is caused by a wide variety of common diseases such as malaria or gastrointestinal infections but also by less common but highly contagious pathogens with epidemic potential. This study describes the clinical features of adult and paediatric patients with febrile illness in in the largest tertiary referral hospital in south-eastern Guinea, a region at high risk for viral haemorrhagic fever outbreaks. The study further compares their diagnostic characteristics, treatments and outcomes with non-febrile patients in order to contribute to the local epidemiology of febrile illness. Methods We used retrospective data collection to record demographic and clinical data of all incoming patients during a study period of three months. For the follow-up study of inpatients, we retrospectively reviewed patient charts for diagnostic characteristics, diagnoses and outcomes. Results Of the 4317 incoming patients during the study period, 9.5% had a febrile illness. The most used diagnostic measures to identify causative agents in febrile patients were point-of-care tests and most treatments relied on antibiotics. Most common discharge diagnoses for febrile inpatients were malaria (9.6% adults, 56.7% children), salmonella gastroenteritis/typhoid (10.6% adults, 7.8% children) and respiratory infection/pneumonia (5.3% adults, 18.7% children). Inpatient mortality for children was significantly higher in febrile than non-febrile children (18.5% vs. 5.1%, p<0.001) and considerably higher in febrile than non-febrile adults (29.8% vs. 25.0%, p = 0.404). Conclusions Malaria, respiratory infection and gastroenteritis are considered the main causes for febrile illness. The wide reliance on rapid diagnostic tests to diagnose febrile patients not only risks to over- or under-diagnose certain diseases but also leaves the possibility of highly infectious diseases in febrile patients unexplored. Furthermore, the heavy reliance on antibiotics risks to cause antimicrobial resistance. High mortality rates in febrile patients, especially children, should be of concern to public health authorities.

Amjed Alsultan ◽  
Dhama Alsallami

Gram-positive pathogens are causing many serious infections that affect humans and result in mild to severe diseases worldwide. In order to survive and initiate infection, enteric pathogens must resist the physiochemical defence factors in the human intestinal tract. One of these defence factors is bile, a potent antibacterial like compound in the intestine. Efflux pumps are the important mechanism by which bacteria resist antibacterial agents such as bile. Efflux of antimicrobial substances outside the bacterial cell is considered as a key factor for intestinal colonization and virulence of enteric pathogens. This paper will review the research conducted on efflux–mediated bile resistance in Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Enterococcus faecalis and Clostridium perfringens. These bacteria colonize in the human & animal gastrointestinal tract and they have a multiple mechanism to resist the innate defences in the gut and antibacterial activity of bile. However, bile resistance in these bacteria is not fully understood. The evidence from this review suggests that Gram-positive pathogens have the ability to active transport of bile. Further research is needed to know how these pathogens sense bile and how bile regulates its virulence factor. In general, therefore, it seems that understanding the specific mechanism of bile resistance in enteric bacteria including gram-positive pathogens may involve in the development of novel strategies to control and treatment of gastrointestinal infections.

2022 ◽  
pp. 151-159
Aris Prastyoningsih ◽  
Frieda Ani Noor ◽  
Maria Wisnu Kanita ◽  
Erinda Nur Pratiwi ◽  
Tresia Umarianti

Background: The benefits of breastfeeding for infants include reducing infant mortality due to diarrhea and infection, reducing mortality among malnourished children, protecting against gastrointestinal infections, as well as being a source of energy and nutrition for infants aged 6 to 23 months. While the benefits for mothers who are breastfed are reducing the risk of ovarian cancer and providing breast support after milk production, as a natural prevention method in the first six months of birth, and helping to lose weight faster with pregnancy. Vegetables / natural plants that are easily available around us that can be used to increase breast milk production. Research in addition to carbohydrates, these vegetables also contain protein, minerals (phosphorus, calcium and iron, as well as a number of vitamins A, B1 and C). Methods: The method used is to present a booklet through education. The number of respondents was 20 mothers of health cadres. Results: The result of this community service activity is an increase in knowledge about the use of style materials for breastfeeding from 75% sufficient knowledge to 80% good knowledge. Conclusion: increasing knowledge and understanding of health cadres before and before providing education through natural plant booklets to increase breast milk.

2021 ◽  
Vol 29 (6) ◽  
pp. 33-38
Anna Alexandrovna Antsiferova ◽  
Marina Yurievna Kopaeva ◽  
Vyacheslav Nikolaevich Kochkin ◽  
Pavel Konstantinovich Kashkarov

Introduction. Since the beginning of the XXI century, silver nanoparticles have been widely used in various industries, medicine and pharmaceuticals due to their pronounced antibacterial, antiviral and fungicidal properties. In connection with such a high demand for the use of silver nanoparticles, it is very important to understand the associated potential risks from their use. Materials and methods. In the course of the work, there has been a study of the effects of the long-term oral administration of a commercially produced dietary supplement based on silver nanoparticles with a size of 34 nm and stabilized with polyvinylpyrrolidone in an amount of 50 μg/day/animal on the cognitive functions of C57Bl/6 mice, as well as their accumulation in the brain by the method of instrumental neutron activation analysis. The dietary supplement used is recommended for people as a treatment for gastrointestinal infections. Results. It was found that after 180 days of administration, silver nanoparticles impair long-term contextual memory, and over time, the content of silver in the brain increases. Conclusion. Presumably impaired cognitive function with accumulation of silver in the brains of mice. This poses the risk of prolonged oral use of the silver nanoparticles.

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (2) ◽  
pp. 69-78
Syukra Alhamda ◽  
Mila Sari ◽  
Nova Herawati

Jorong Koto Kaciak is a fairly high incidence of diarrhea contributed 36% of the incidence of diarrhea in Magek District. This study aims to analyze the Physical Quality and Bacteriology (E-Coli) of Dug Well Water in Jorong Koto Kaciak. This is a descriptive describing the physical quality and bacteriology of community dug well water. The populations were all community dug wells amount 153 units. By using cluster sampling, the sample was determined as much as 5 dug wells. Data collection used observation sheets and data analysis included univariate analysis which was carried out computerized. The results showed that 80% dug well water samples met the physical parameter requirements based on temperature, overall 100% community dug well water met the turbidity requirements <25 NTU / 100 ml, 60% dug well water samples met the physical requirements. odorless and tasteless and overall 100% dug well water samples do not meet the quality requirements of microbiology (e-coli)> 50 MPN / 100 ml It can be concluded that the community dug well water physically meets the quality standard requirements drinking water, but microbiologically it does not meet the health standard requirements, especially the quality of bacteriology, which can increase the risk of gastrointestinal infections for the community (diarrhea). For this reason, it is recommended that the community and health workers in Jorong Koto Kaciak pay more attention to the quality of dug well water.

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