Abstract Indian major carps are the widely consumed fish species of Pakistan, being a cheap source of proteins and unsaturated fatty acids, they are good for cardiovascular health. Water pollution due to discharge of untreated industrial waste water into water bodies contaminates this precious source of nutrients. The present study therefore, was aimed to assess deterioration of fatty acid profile of three Indian major carp species due to different concentrations of industrial wastes. The water samples were collected from the river Chenab at the site where it receives industrial wastewater via Chakbandi drain. After exposure to 1.5%, 3.0%, and 4.5% dilutions of collected water in different aquaria it was observed that proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in selected fish species were decreased significantly as the intensity of the dose increased (P < 0.05). Conversely the level of saturated fatty acids increased with the increasing dose of treatment (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that untreated wastewater not only deteriorate the fatty acid profile of aquatic animals but also these toxic substances can reach human body through fish meat and pose further health hazards. Therefore, it is highly recommended that industrial effluents should be treated before they are dumped into water bodies.
Five microalgae strains, namely Isochrysis galbana, Microchloropsis gaditana, Scenedesmus obliquus, Nannochloropsis oculata and Tetraselmis suecica, were selected as potential candidates for polyunsaturated fatty acids’ production, evaluating biomass productivity and their capacity to accumulate high lipid contents under different trophic modes. Microalgae strains were cultivated in the presence of 1% glucose using mixotrophic and heterotrophic conditions, while autotrophic cultures served as control experiments. The results demonstrate that S. obliquus performed the highest biomass productivity that reached 0.13 and 0.14 g L−1 d−1 under mixotrophic and heterotrophic conditions, respectively. I. galbana and S. obliquus utilized elevated contents of glucose in mixotrophy, removing 55.9% and 95.6% of the initial concentration of the carbohydrate, respectively, while glucose consumption by the aforementioned strains also remained high under heterotrophic cultivation. The production of lipids was maximal for I. galbana in mixotrophy and S. obliquus in heterotrophy, performing lipid productivities of 24.85 and 22.77 mg L−1 d−1, respectively. The most abundant saturated acid detected for all microalgae strains evaluated was palmitic acid (C16:0), while oleic and linolenic acids (C18:1n9c/C18:3n3) comprised the most abundant unsaturated fatty acids. I. galbana performed the highest linoleic acid (C18:2n6c) content under heterotrophic nutrition, which reached 87.9 mg g−1 of ash-free dry weight. Among the microalgae strains compared, the biomass and lipid production monitored for I. galbana and S. obliquus confirm that both strains could serve as efficient bioproducers for application in algal biorefineries.
Carapa guianensis species belongs to the Meliaceae family and, in the Brazilian Amazon, it has great importance in folk medicine, mainly because the oil extracted from its seeds presents varied biological activities. Thus, the present work aimed to analyze, by gas phase chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS), the chemical composition of manually extracted andiroba oil, from Mamangal community, located in Igarapé-Miri, Pará, Brazil. As results, 99.63% of the constituents of the oil sample were identified and quantified from which the main components were oleic, palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acids. The manual oil extraction from andiroba seeds in the Mamangal community is sustainable and economically viable. Due to the high content of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids C. guianensis oil can be considered interesting useful for pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Indeed, the unsaturated fatty acids represented 57.5% of the oil constituents, among which the essential ones stand out, as they have great applicability in healing drugs formulation.
In this study, we present results on fatty acid analysis of phytoplankton of Lake Baikal, the world’s deepest lake, which differs from other lakes by its oceanic features. Since we used a large-mesh net, the net sample phytoplankton were primarily represented by the large elongated diatom Synedra acus. subsp. radians (Kützing) Skabichevskij. The similar algae composition of net samples of spring season phytoplankton collected at different sites of the lake allows us to compare results of the fatty acid analysis of these samples. The phytoplankton diversity of the sedimentation samples was contrary represented by 32 algae species. There are clear changes in the fatty acid composition of net phytoplankton exposed to anthropogenic impacts of varying intensity. The content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in phytoplankton collected from central stations (pelagic stations at a distance of ~10–30 km from the shoreline) without anthropogenic impact was higher by up to 15% than phytoplankton collected from nearshore stations (littoral stations at a distance of ~0.01–0.05 km from the shoreline) and offshore stations (pelagic stations at a distance of ~3 km from the shoreline). The interlaboratory precision of fatty acid determination of phytoplankton is estimated as ≤10%. We found high content of the lipid peroxidation marker (80–340 μg g−1 of dry weight) in phytoplankton from nearshore and offshore stations with intensive anthropogenic impact. In phytoplankton from central stations, we did not find any lipid peroxidation. Determination of unsaturated fatty acids, coupled with analysis of fatty acid peroxidation products, can be used to evaluate the level of anthropogenic impact in terms of ecological health and biodiversity conservation.
The present study evaluates the contents in bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity, oil content and fatty acid composition of Capparis spinosa seeds. Samples were collected from 5 different habitats (AH: Ahar; KU: Kurdistan; U1, U2 and U3: Urmia) in Iran. The oil content in the seeds ranged from 16 to 27%. The predominant fatty acid was linoleic acid (45-50%) followed by oleic acid (30-39%), palmitic acid (2-8%) and stearic acid (2-3%). Total phenolic content (TPC) varied from 16.3 to 24.2 mg GAE/ g DW; total flavonoid content (TFC) ranged from 1.48 to 3.05 mg QE/g DW; and the antioxidant activity (DPPH assay) of the seeds was between 35 and 63%. The compounds obtained from different genotypes of C. spinosa seeds had different compositions, great antioxidant capacity and unsaturated fatty acids, and therefore could be a prospective source of natural bioactive molecules for the food and health industry.
Zizyphus lotus L. is a perennial shrub particularly used in Algerian folk medicine, but little is known concerning the lipophilic compounds in the most frequently used parts, namely, root bark, pulp, leaves and seeds, which are associated with health benefits. In this vein, the lipophilic fractions of these morphological parts of Z. lotus from Morocco were studied by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), and their antiproliferative and antimicrobial activities were evaluated. GC–MS analysis allowed the identification and quantification of 99 lipophilic compounds, including fatty acids, long-chain aliphatic alcohols, pentacyclic triterpenic compounds, sterols, monoglycerides, aromatic compounds and other minor components. Lipophilic extracts of pulp, leaves and seeds were revealed to be mainly composed of fatty acids, representing 54.3–88.6% of the total compounds detected. The leaves and seeds were particularly rich in unsaturated fatty acids, namely, (9Z,12Z)-octadeca-9,12-dienoic acid (2431 mg kg−1 of dry weight) and (9Z)-octadec-9-enoic acid (6255 mg kg−1 of dry weight). In contrast, root bark contained a high content of pentacyclic triterpenic compounds, particularly betulinic acid, accounting for 9838 mg kg−1 of dry weight. Root bark extract showed promising antiproliferative activity against a triple-negative breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231, with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) = 4.23 ± 0.18 µg mL−1 of extract. Leaf extract displayed interesting antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermis, presenting minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values from 1024 to 2048 µg mL−1 of extract. Our results demonstrate that Zizyphus lotus L. is a source of promising bioactive components, which can be exploited as natural ingredients in pharmaceutical formulations.
Global warming threatens reef-building corals with large-scale bleaching events; therefore, it is important to discover potential adaptive capabilities for increasing their temperature resistance before it is too late. This study presents two coral species (Platygyra verweyi and Isopora palifera) surviving on a reef having regular hot water influxes via a nearby nuclear power plant that exhibited completely different bleaching susceptibilities to thermal stress, even though both species shared several so-called “winner” characteristics (e.g., containing Durusdinium trenchii, thick tissue, etc.). During acute heating treatment, algal density did not decline in P. verweyi corals within three days of being directly transferred from 25 to 31 °C; however, the same treatment caused I. palifera to lose < 70% of its algal symbionts within 24 h. The most distinctive feature between the two coral species was an overwhelmingly higher constitutive superoxide dismutase (ca. 10-fold) and catalase (ca. 3-fold) in P. verweyi over I. palifera. Moreover, P. verweyi also contained significantly higher saturated and lower mono-unsaturated fatty acids, especially a long-chain saturated fatty acid (C22:0), than I. palifera, and was consistently associated with the symbiotic bacteria Endozoicomonas, which was not found in I. palifera. However, antibiotic treatment and inoculation tests did not support Endozoicomonas having a direct contribution to thermal resistance. This study highlights that, besides its association with a thermally tolerable algal symbiont, a high level of constitutive antioxidant enzymes in the coral host is crucial for coral survivorship in the more fluctuating and higher temperature environments.
Ferroptosis is a newly identified form of regulated cell death driven by iron-dependent phospholipid peroxidation and oxidative stress. Ferroptosis has distinct biological and morphology characteristics, such as shrunken mitochondria when compared to other known regulated cell deaths. The regulation of ferroptosis includes different molecular mechanisms and multiple cellular metabolic pathways, including glutathione/glutathione peroxidase 4(GPX4) signaling pathways, which are involved in the amino acid metabolism and the activation of GPX4; iron metabolic signaling pathways, which are involved in the regulation of iron import/export and the storage/release of intracellular iron through iron-regulatory proteins (IRPs), and lipid metabolic signaling pathways, which are involved in the metabolism of unsaturated fatty acids in cell membranes. Ferroptosis plays an essential role in the pathology of various kidneys diseases, including acute kidney injury (AKI), chronic kidney disease (CKD), autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Targeting ferroptosis with its inducers/initiators and inhibitors can modulate the progression of kidney diseases in animal models. In this review, we discuss the characteristics of ferroptosis and the ferroptosis-based mechanisms, highlighting the potential role of the main ferroptosis-associated metabolic pathways in the treatment and prevention of various kidney diseases.
Background: The hepatic lipidome of patients with early stages of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been fairly well-explored. However, studies on more progressive forms of NAFLD, i.e., liver fibrosis, are limited.Materials and methods: Liver fatty acids were determined in cholesteryl esters (CE), phospholipids (PL), and triacylglycerols (TAG) by gas chromatography. Cross-sectional associations between fatty acids and biopsy-proven NAFLD fibrosis (n = 60) were assessed using multivariable logistic regression models. Stages of fibrosis were dichotomized into none-mild (F0–1) or significant fibrosis (F2–4). Models were adjusted for body-mass index (BMI), age and patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3 rs738409) (I148M) genotype. A secondary analysis examined whether associations from the primary analysis could be confirmed in the corresponding plasma lipid fractions.Results: PL behenic acid (22:0) was directly associated [OR (95% CI): 1.86 (1.00, 3.45)] whereas PL docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) [OR (95% CI): 0.45 (0.23, 0.89)], TAG oleic acid (18:1n-9) [OR (95% CI): 0.52 (0.28, 0.95)] and 18:1n-9 and vaccenic acid (18:1n-7) (18:1) [OR (95% CI): 0.52 (0.28, 0.96)] were inversely associated with liver fibrosis. In plasma, TAG 18:1n-9 [OR (95% CI): 0.55 (0.31, 0.99)], TAG 18:1 [OR (95% CI): 0.54 (0.30, 0.97)] and PL 22:0 [OR (95% CI): 0.46 (0.25, 0.86)] were inversely associated with liver fibrosis.Conclusion: Higher TAG 18:1n-9 levels were linked to lower fibrosis in both liver and plasma, possibly reflecting an altered fatty acid metabolism. Whether PL 22:6n-3 has a protective role, together with a potentially adverse effect of hepatic 22:0, on liver fibrosis warrants large-scale studies.