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Jingguo Liu ◽  
Min Chen ◽  
Yuhong Zhang ◽  
Baojiang Zheng

Abstract Background Pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) is an annual herbaceous plant of the Cruciferae family that has attracted attention as an oil crop and interseeded cover crop. We collected seeds of pennycress from five provenances in Northeast China, compared their characteristics, i.e. oil content, fatty acid composition, physical, chemical and antioxidant properties, their correlations with environmental factors were also analysed. Results There were significant differences in the seed characteristics, oil content, quality indicators and composition among different provenances (P < 0.05). The 1000-seed weight ranged from 0.80 to 1.03 g; seed oil content from 28.89 to 42.57%; iodine from 79.19 to 99.09; saponification value from 186.51 to 199.60; peroxide value from 0.07 to 10.60; and acid value from 0.97 to 13.02. The range of seed oil colours were 66.53–78.78 (L*), 4.51–10.29 (a*), and 105.68–121.35 (b*). Erucic acid (C22:1) was the fatty acids with the highest content in pennycress seed oils (31.12–35.31%), followed by linoleic acid (C18:2 16.92–18.95%) and α-linolenic acid (C18:3 14.05–15.34%). The fatty acid 8,11,14-eicosatrienoic acid (C20:3) was detected for the first time in seed oils from Beian city, Panshi city and Kedong county, with contents of 1.13%, 0.84% and 1.03%, respectively. We compare and report for the first time on the radical-scavenging activity of the seed oils of pennycress. The EC50 values of the DPPH radical-scavenging activity and ABTS+ radical-scavenging activity of the seed oils from different provenances were 8.65–19.21 mg/mL and 6.82–10.61 mg/mL, respectively. The ferric ion reduction antioxidant capacity (FRAP) ranged from 0.11 to 0.30 mmol Fe2+/g, which is equivalent to 4 mg/mL FeSO4 of pennycress seed oils. Conclusions There was a significant correlation between seed characteristics and changes in geographical factors. With increasing longitude, the thickness of seeds, 1000-seed weight, and seed oil content increased, while the acid and peroxide values of the seed oil decreased. As the latitude increased, the 1000-seed weight and seed oil content increased, while the seed oil peroxide value decreased. Furthermore, mean annual temperature and annual rainfall are the two key environmental factors affecting the quality of pennycress. Graphical Abstract

2022 ◽  
Vol 72 (4) ◽  
pp. e428
A. Goharian ◽  
A.H. Shirani Rad ◽  
P. Moaveni ◽  
H. Mozafari ◽  
B. Sani

The sowing date is an important factor for expanding the cultivated area of rapeseed and affects seed yield, oil content, and fatty acid compounds. Micronutrient elements play an important role in improving the vegetative and reproductive growth of the plant, especially under conditions of biological and environmental stresses. A two-year experiment (2014-2016) was performed to study the response of rapeseed genotypes to foliar application of micronutrients on different sowing dates. The treatments were arranged as a factorial-split plot in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. Three sowing dates of 7 (well-timed sowing date), 17, and 27 (delayed sowing dates) October and two levels of foliar application with pure water (control), selenium (1.5%), zinc (1.5%), and selenium+zinc (1.5%) were factorial in the main plots and five genotypes of SW102, Ahmadi, GKH2624, GK-Gabriella, and Okapi were randomized in the subplots (a total of 30 treatments). Seed yield, oil yield and content, oleic acid, and linoleic acid were reduced when rapeseeds were cultivated on 17 and 27 October, while the contents in palmitic, linolenic, and erucic acids, and glucosinolate increased (p < 0.01). a selenium+zinc treatment improved seed yield, oil content and yield (p < 0.01). The oil quality increased due to increased contents of oleic and linoleic acids under the selenium+zinc treatment (p < 0.01). The GK-Gabriella and GKH2624 genotypes are recommended to be sown on well-timed (7 October) and delayed sowing dates (17 and 27 October) and treated with selenium+zinc due to the higher oil yield, linoleic and oleic acids.

2022 ◽  
Vol 72 (4) ◽  
pp. e430
A. Bodaghzadeh ◽  
K. Alirezalu ◽  
S. Amini ◽  
A. Alirezalu ◽  
R. Domínguez ◽  

The present study evaluates the contents in bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity, oil content and fatty acid composition of Capparis spinosa seeds. Samples were collected from 5 different habitats (AH: Ahar; KU: Kurdistan; U1, U2 and U3: Urmia) in Iran. The oil content in the seeds ranged from 16 to 27%. The predominant fatty acid was linoleic acid (45-50%) followed by oleic acid (30-39%), palmitic acid (2-8%) and stearic acid (2-3%). Total phenolic content (TPC) varied from 16.3 to 24.2 mg GAE/ g DW; total flavonoid content (TFC) ranged from 1.48 to 3.05 mg QE/g DW; and the antioxidant activity (DPPH assay) of the seeds was between 35 and 63%. The compounds obtained from different genotypes of C. spinosa seeds had different compositions, great antioxidant capacity and unsaturated fatty acids, and therefore could be a prospective source of natural bioactive molecules for the food and health industry.

Foods ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 215
Zhihao Ju ◽  
Tingting Feng ◽  
Jia Feng ◽  
Junping Lv ◽  
Shulian Xie ◽  

By separating and extracting algae from the collected water samples, an oil-producing diatom strain was obtained. Microscopic observation of the strain revealed that its morphological characteristics were highly similar to those of the genus Cyclotella. The cloning of 18S rDNA and phylogenetic analysis showed that the algae were clustered with Cyclotella menegheniana with a high support rate, indicating that the alga was C. menegheniana. The fatty acid content of the alga was determined and found to be mainly C14, C16, and C18 fatty acids, which were in accordance with the relevant standards for edible oil. In this study, different gradient levels of salinity and light were set to investigate the culture and bioactive substance production of C. menegheniana. The results showed that the best growth condition was achieved when the salinity was 15 g·L−1, and its biomass and oil content were the highest at 0.27 g·L−1 and 21%, respectively. The final biomass was the highest when the light intensity was 2000 Lux and the oil content was 18.7%. The results of the study provided a basis for the large-scale production of edible oils and biodiesel.

2022 ◽  
Ivan Shorstkii ◽  
Alexandr Gukasyan ◽  
Evgeny Koshevoi ◽  
Vyacheslav Kosachev

For the successful implementation of alternative protein sourcesforbiorefinery, optimization of the process parameters is crucial. Knowledge of the rheological propertiesis necessary for the design and development of appropriate equipment and process calculations.The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of the following pre-treatments: temperature, pressure andeffect of initial oil content on the rheological properties of sunflower seedcake and larvae tissue. The rheological behavior of two protein sourceswas determined by using a rotational viscometer with a hydraulic system and thermostatic bath attached to the equipment. Using the mathematical apparatus and experimental data it was observed that the plastic viscosity of the sunflower seed cake corresponded to the viscosity of the vegetable oil, which confirmed the Bingham rheology assumption put forward in this work. For the larvae mass, a Hershey Buckley fluid model was proposed.A positive linear relationship was found for pressure and a negativelinear relationship was found for the oil content of the sunflower seed cake and larvae tissue on shear stress. Keywords: rheological property, sunflower seed cake, larvae, pulsed electricaldischarge, viscoplasticity flow, Bingham model, modelling

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 121-135
Danusa Silva da Costa ◽  
Katiuchia Pereira Takeuchi ◽  
Richard Marins da Silva ◽  
Josemar Gonçalves de Oliveira Filho ◽  
Mirella Romanelli Vicente Bertolo ◽  

The objective of this study was to develop and characterize cassava-starch-based films incorporated with buriti (Mauritia flexuosa L.) oil and emulsifier (Tween 20). An experimental factorial design 22 with three central points was used to develop the films, by varying the concentrations of buriti oil (0.15 to 0.45% w/v) and emulsifier (0.02 to 0.04% w/v). Film thickness and weight increased with increasing buriti oil concentration. The water vapor permeability of the films ranged from 0.22 to 0.366 g mm h−1 m−2 kPa−1. The tensile strength values varied from 4.21 to 6.95 MPa, the elasticity modulus varied from 538.53 to 722.78 MPa, and elongation to rupture varied from 1.13 to 1.66%. The film color was characterized as yellowish, dark, and intense (higher oil content); and clear and a low-intensity color (lower oil content). The films presented a total carotenoid content ranging from 3.63 to 29.73 μg β-carotene/g, which may have resulted in their antioxidant potential against DPPH• (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl) radical (from 74.28 to 87.74%). The central formulation of the experimental design (buriti oil 0.30% and emulsifier 0.03%) presented a good performance and can be applied as packaging for foods with a lower water content and that demand protection against oxidation.

Foods ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 178
Carmen Masiá ◽  
Poul Erik Jensen ◽  
Iben Lykke Petersen ◽  
Patrizia Buldo

The production of a fermented plant-based cheese requires understanding the behavior of the selected raw material prior to fermentation. Raw material processing affects physicochemical properties of plant protein ingredients, and it determines their ability to form fermentation-induced protein gels. Moreover, the addition of oil also influences structure formation and therefore affects gel firmness. This study focuses on identifying and characterizing an optimal pea protein matrix suitable for fermentation-induced plant-based cheese. Stability and gel formation were investigated in pea protein matrices. Pea protein isolate (PPI) emulsions with 10% protein and 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% olive oil levels were produced and further fermented with a starter culture suitable for plant matrices. Emulsion stability was evaluated through particle size, ζ-potential, and back-scattered light changes over 7 h. Gel hardness and oscillation measurements of the fermented gels were taken after 1 and 7 days of storage under refrigeration. The water-holding capacity of the gels was measured after 7 days of storage and their microstructure was visualized with confocal microscopy. Results indicate that all PPI emulsions were physically stable after 7 h. Indeed, ζ-potential did not change significantly over time in PPI emulsions, a bimodal particle size distribution was observed in all samples, and no significant variation was observed after 7 h in any of the samples. Fermentation time oscillated between 5.5 and 7 h in all samples. Higher oil content led to weaker gels and lower elastic modulus and no significant changes in gel hardness were observed over 7 days of storage under refrigeration in closed containers. Water-holding capacity increased in samples with higher olive oil content. Based on our results, an optimal pea protein matrix for fermentation-induced pea protein gels can be produced with 10% protein content and 10% olive oil levels without compromising gel hardness.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Gina Fioroni ◽  
Rui Katahira ◽  
Stefanie Van Wychen ◽  
Steven M. Rowland ◽  
Earl D. Christensen ◽  

In the context of decarbonizing the economy, the utilization of biologically sourced feedstocks to produce replacements for petroleum-derived materials is becoming more urgent. Improving renewable biomass production and utilization is imperative for commercializing future biorefineries. Algae-derived biomass is a particularly promising feedstock thanks to its attractive oil content and composition; specifically, the high-value products in the unsaponifiable lipids have not been included in a conversion process. Here we demonstrate surfactant synthesis from a complex oil fraction as the hydrophobic donor moieties, yielding products that are similar to commercially available surfactants such as the linear alkyl benzene sulfonates. Unsaponifiable lipids extracted from algae were derivatized to non-ionic surfactants using a green chemical synthesis route based on a double esterification with succinic acid and polyethylene glycol. The in-depth molecular and structural surfactant characterization is included and indicates that the resulting properties fall between those of pure cholesterol and phytol used as surrogates for the reaction synthesis demonstration. This is the first demonstration of an effective and potentially high-value synthesis of functional surfactants with properties that can be tailored based on the relative composition of the resulting hydrocarbon alcohol components in the mixture. This novel green chemistry synthesis approach provides a route to high-value product synthesis from algae.

2022 ◽  
Bowei Zhang ◽  
Juhe Zhang

Abstract The important research content and basis of exploration and development is to evaluate the reservoir property, oil bearing property, fluidity and compressibility of shale reservoir.The key of exploration and development is to evaluate the oil-bearing and fluidity of shale reservoir.In this paper, the "shale oil content and fine components synchronous experimental analysis device" is used. Five temperature ranges of 30 ℃-90 ℃, 90 ℃-150 ℃, 100 ℃- 200 ℃, 150 ℃-250 ℃ and 250 ℃-300 ℃ were adopted. The heating rate of each temperature segment was 25 ℃ / min, and the final temperature was kept constant for 5 min. The oil content of shale (pyrolysis S1) was cut into five fractions.Simultaneous determination of oil content and molecular composition of shale fractions,and the external standard method was used to evaluate the oil content and fluidity.The results show that the five fractions of shale are mainly composed of nC1-nC9 gas, nC10-nC15 gasoline, nC12-nC20 kerosene, nC15-nC22 diesel oil and nC18-nC26 heavy oil of the first member of Qingshangkou formation in Songliao basin.There are differences in the fractionation and oil content characteristics of samples with different maturity in different wells.The parent material, properties and quality of crude oil are reflected in shale. The higher the maturity of shale oil is, the more light components are, the larger the light / heavy ratio parameter value of (gasoline + kerosene + diesel) and heavy oil is, the better the fluidity is, and the easier to exploit effectively.

Kaixuan Cui ◽  
Shuchai Su ◽  
Jiawei Cai ◽  
Fengjun Chen

To realize rapid and accurate ripeness detection for walnut on mobile terminals such as mobile phones, we propose a method based on coupling information and lightweight YOLOv4. First, we collected 50 walnuts at each ripeness (Unripe, Mid-ripe, Ripe, Over-ripe) to determine the kernel oil content. Pearson correlation analysis and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) prove that the division of walnut ripeness reflects the change in kernel oil content. It is feasible to estimate the kernel oil content by detecting the ripeness of walnut. Next, we achieve ripeness detection based on lightweight YOLOv4. We adopt MobileNetV3 as the backbone feature extractor and adopt depthwise separable convolution to replace the traditional convolution. We design a parallel convolution structure with depthwise convolution stacking (PCSDCS) to reduce parameters and improve feature extraction ability. To enhance the model’s detection ability for walnuts in the growth-intensive areas, we design a Gaussian Soft DIoU non-maximum suppression (GSDIoU-NMS) algorithm. The dataset used for model optimization contains 3600 images, of which 2880 images in the training set, 320 images in the validation set, and 400 images in the test set. We adopt a multi-training strategy based on dynamic learning rate and transfer learning to get training weights. The lightweight YOLOv4 model achieves 94.05%, 90.72%, 88.30%, 76.92 FPS, and 38.14 MB in mean average precision, precision, recall, average detection speed, and weight capacity, respectively. Compared with the Faster R-CNN model, EfficientDet-D1 model, YOLOv3 model, and YOLOv4 model, the lightweight YOLOv4 model improves 8.77%, 4.84%, 5.43%, and 0.06% in mean average precision, 74.60 FPS, 55.60 FPS, 38.83 FPS, and 46.63 FPS in detection speed, respectively. And the lightweight YOLOv4 is 84.4% smaller than the original YOLOv4 model in terms of weight capacity. This paper provides a theoretical reference for the rapid ripeness detection of walnut and exploration for the model’s lightweight.

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