target organ
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Yang Liu ◽  
Lin Shi ◽  
Yao Lin ◽  
Mingming Zhang ◽  
Fangfang Chen ◽  

AbstractResearchers have shown that 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH] D), a kind of active vitamin D in the human body, plays a role in cardiovascular disease (CVD). Low serum 25(OH) D levels have been found to be associated with elevated blood pressure (BP) in adults. However, measurement of 25(OH) D in hypertensive children has not been documented. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between 25(OH) D and target organ damage (TOD) in children with essential hypertension. We recruited a total of 346 children with essential hypertension and analyzed the correlation between serum 25(OH) D and TOD. Serum 25(OH) D concentration was significantly lower in the TOD than in the no-TOD group (t = 2.416, P = 0.016), as well as significantly lower in the two-organ damage than in the single-organ damage group (t = 3.140, P = 0.002). Pearson’s correlation coefficient (PCC) indicated that serum 25(OH) D levels were negatively correlated with left ventricular mass index (LVMI; r = −0.110, P = 0.041) and albuminuria (r = −0.120, P = 0.026). Linear- regression analysis showed that 25(OH) D was a risk factor for left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH; β ± s.e. =−0.074 ± 0.036; 95% confidence interval [CI], − 0.145 to –0.003; P < 0.001) and renal damage (β ± s.e.= −0.018 ± 0.008; 95% CI, − 0.035 to –0.002; P = 0.004). In total, our data revealed that serum 25(OH) D was independently associated with hypertensive cardiac and renal damage, meaning that it was a risk factor for LVH and albuminuria in childhood hypertension.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (2) ◽  
pp. 112
Irma Handayani ◽  
Sri Wahyuni

Hypertension is an increase in blood pressure by providing further symptoms to a target organ including stroke (in the brain), coronary heart disease (in the heart blood vessels) and right ventricular hypertrophy or left ventricular hypertrophy (for the heart muscle). The target organ in the brain is in the form of stroke, hypertension is the main cause of stroke which brings high mortality. Management of hypertension can be managed with non-pharmacological measures such as giving celery leaves. The purpose of the study was to analyze the effectiveness of giving celery leaves to reduce blood pressure in patients with hypertension at the Pembantu Berngam Health Center, Binjai City in 2021. This type of research was a quasi-experimental design with a pretest-posttest control group design with one type of treatment. This study uses an intervention that is giving celery leaves by boiling. The intervention was given once in the morning by giving 100 grams of boiled celery for 5 days. The number of samples of 30 respondents with 15 people as the control group and 15 people in the intervention group were taken by accidental sampling. The results of the average blood pressure before and after giving boiled celery in the treatment group with systolic blood pressure p-value is 0.00, diastolic blood pressure p-value is 0.00. The results of statistical tests using the Wilcoxon test for both systolic and distolic pressure in the group not given celery were tilapia p-value > 0.05, namely systolic pressure p-value 0.07 and distolic p-value 0.05. The results of the Mann Whitney U statistical test analysis for systolic and distolic blood pressure obtained a p-value of 0.047 and a diastolic pressure p-value of 0.01 or a p-value <0.05, which means that there is an effectiveness of giving celery leaves in reducing blood pressure in hypertensive patients at the Berngam Binjai sub-health center. It is hoped that health workers will be able to apply complementary therapy to patients with hypertension in maintaining and lowering blood pressure.

2021 ◽  
pp. 60-72
Irina V. Opalinskaya ◽  
Galina V. Danilova ◽  
Natalya Yu. Isaeva ◽  
Ekaterina S. Petrova ◽  
Elena I. Busalaeva ◽  

Primary amyloidosis is a disease with a complex and not fully understood pathogenesis, which is characterized by a wide range of clinical manifestations. Light chain amyloidosis is the most common form of systemic amyloidosis. At this, the heart is the dominant target organ in systemic amyloidosis. Cardiac amyloidosis (amyloid cardiomyopathy) is most often manifested by diastolic heart failure resulting from restrictive cardiomyopathy. Therapy of amyloid cardiopathy includes optimal treatment of heart failure and chemotherapy. To reduce the symptoms of heart failure, diuretics are the main means, since other pathogenetic agents cannot be used due to hypotension and a possible decrease in cardiac output. With the introduction of new medicinal products into clinical practice, such as the proteosome inhibitor Bortezomib, the prognosis for patients has improved. However, amyloidosis remains a difficult disease to diagnose and treat.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (5) ◽  
pp. 436
Viviane Annisa ◽  
Teuku Nanda Saifullah Sulaiman ◽  
Akhmad Kharis Nugroho ◽  
Agung Endro Nugroho

Pengetahuan tentang sinergisme bermanfaat untuk menentukan kombinasi polimer alami yang memberikan efek menguntungkan ketika dikombinasikan. Interaksi yang saling menguntungkan antar polimer alami dapat dilihat dari nilai sinergisitas dari data pengujian viskositas. Kombinasi polimer yang memiliki efek sinergi dapat memberikan banyak kegunaan serta manfaat yang besar dalam pengembangan teknologi formulasi obat sehingga dapat mengatasi kekurangan yang dimiliki oleh masing-masing zat aktif obat. Pada studi ini, dilakukan review artikel tentang sinergisme kombinasi polimer, pengaruh kation sebagai cross-linker, serta aplikasi kombinasi alginat dengan polimer alami dalam formulasi sediaan obat dan aspek farmakologinya. Database yang digunakan untuk mengambil referensi, meliputi Scopus, PubMed, dan Google Schoolar. Tipe data dari database meliputi jurnal, artikel review, maupun buku tanpa ada pembatasan tahun. Referensi yang diperoleh dari database lalu diidentifikasi, dianalisis, dan dipilih yang sesuai dengan topik yang akan direview. Formulasi dengan polimer menghasilkan obat dengan pelepasan terkontrol, yang memiliki keuntungan, yakni dapat menurunkan frekuensi pemberian dosis, menurunkan efek samping obat, meningkatkan tingkat kepatuhan pasien, menurunkan fluktuasi, serta memperlama durasi aksi obat, dan memastikan respon farmakokinetik dan farmakodinamik dapat reprodusibel dan diprediksi. Selain itu, polimer dapat pula dimodifikasi sedemikian rupa untuk menjadi sistem penghantaran obat tertarget pada organ tertentu. Polimer alami yang paling banyak digunakan dan dikombinasikan dengan polimer lain adalah alginat karena memiliki struktur dengan banyak gugus negatif berupa karboksil dan hidroksil sehingga memiliki berbagai keuntungan, seperti dapat meningkatkan kelarutan obat, meningkatkan kemampuan mukoadesif, melepaskan obat secara terkontrol, serta menghantarkan obat pada target organ tertentu.

2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (11) ◽  
pp. 222-228
Sarah Caney

Systemic hypertension is a common disorder, primarily affecting older cats. Most cases are secondary to underlying medical conditions, such as chronic kidney disease. If left untreated, systemic hypertension has the potential to cause serious damage to certain target organs and can be fatal. Target organs include the nervous system, cardiovascular system, eyes and kidneys. Target organ damage to the eyes is often pathognomonic and is detected on ophthalmological examination in up to 80% of cats with systemic hypertension. Blood pressure measurement is essential in confirming a diagnosis and should be prioritised in cats showing evidence of target organ damage. Blood pressure screening of apparently healthy older cats is justified, since the risk of hypertension increases with age. Systemic hypertension is diagnosed in cats with persistent elevation in their systolic blood pressure of 160 mmHg or higher. Stress and anxiety can cause a transient increase in systolic blood pressure so measurements should be collected in a manner that is as calm and ‘cat friendly’ as possible. In the presence of confirmed target organ damage, a single high systolic blood pressure reading confirms systemic hypertension. Where no target organ damage is detectable, evidence of elevated systolic blood pressure on two or more occasions is needed to confirm the diagnosis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
Ki-Hyun Jeon ◽  
Hack-Lyoung Kim ◽  
Woo-Hyun Lim ◽  
Jae-Bin Seo ◽  
Sang-Hyun Kim ◽  

Abstract Background It is not well-known which components of central blood pressure (CBP) are more influential to target organ damage (TOD). This study aimed to determine the relationship between CBP measurements and various types of TOD in high-risk patients. Methods A total of 148 patients who had documented atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease or its multiple risk factors were prospectively enrolled. CBP was measured by using applanation tonometry of the radial artery. The following nine TOD parameters were evaluated: left ventricular mass index, relative wall thickness, septal e′ velocity, septal E/e′, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity, ankle-brachial index, estimated glomerular filtration rate, urine protein and obstructive coronary artery disease. Results The mean age of the study population was 67.1 ± 9.0 years and 108 (73 %) were male. Among four CBP measurements (systolic, diastolic, mean, and pulse pressures), central pulse pressure (CPP) was associated with the largest number of TOD parameters. As CPP increased, the number of TOD increased (P = 0.010), but this association was not observed in other CBP measurements (P > 0.05 for each). Conclusions CPP had a stronger correlation with TOD than other CBP measurements. Non-invasive CPP could be a useful indicator for predicting TOD in patients at high coronary risk.

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (2) ◽  
pp. 14-17
Mohammad Ahmed Ahsan ◽  
Md Fashiur Rahman ◽  
Umar Rashed Munir ◽  
Mushtaq Ahmad ◽  
Syeda Aleya Sultana

Introduction: When there is a difference of patient's blood pressure (BP) which is measured in a physician's office and patient’s home, it is said to have White Coat Hypertension (WCH). Prevalence of WCH is very much common among aircrew, because they need to face everyday preflight medical checkup. Objective: To find out the incidence of WCH among the aircrew of Bangladesh Air Force (BAF) as well as to ascertain the long-term clinical implications of WCH. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional observational study was conducted among 150 aircrew, reported to Central Medical Board (CMB), Bangladesh Air Force (BAF) for periodical medical evaluation, during the period January 2014 to December 2018. Study subjects were selected purposively with age range 25-50 years; those who did not have any history of hypertension or received any anti-hypertensive medication but were detected elevated BP having clinical recording of BP ≥ 140/90 mm of Hg. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) was performed on them for 24 hours in order to distinguish between those who were truly hypertensive and those who were suffering from WCH. To exclude secondary causes of hypertension as well as to assess for evidence of target organ damage (TOD), a thorough clinical and laboratory examination as well as regular follow-up were also performed. Results: White Coat Hypertension was observed in 26.7% of the aircrew. There was no evidence of target organ involvement, such as left ventricular dysfunction, left ventricular hypertrophy, hypertensive retinopathy or renal involvement. Conclusion: WCH is comparatively common among the aircrew. This highlights the importance of the requirement for regular follow up of all cases of WCH, over the normotensive subjects with a view to identify early organ involvement and therapeutic intervention are often initiated as and once needed. JAFMC Bangladesh. Vol 16, No 2 (December) 2020: 14-17

Physiology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Samsara Upadhya ◽  
Jalees Rehman ◽  
Asrar B Malik ◽  
Shuibing Chen

The lung is the major target organ of SARS-CoV-2 infection, which causes COVID-19. Here, we outline the multi-step mechanisms of lung epithelial and endothelial injury induced by SARS-CoV-2: direct viral infection, chemokine/cytokine-mediated damage, and immune cell-mediated lung injury. Finally, we discuss the recent progress in terms of anti-viral therapeutics as well as the development of anti-inflammatory or immunomodulatory therapeutic approaches. This review also provides a systematic overview of the models for studying SARS-CoV-2 infection, and discusses how an understanding of mechanisms of lung injury will help identify potential targets for future drug development to mitigate lung injury.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Samuel O. Ajayi ◽  
Udeme E. Ekrikpo ◽  
Anyiekere M. Ekanem ◽  
Yemi R. Raji ◽  
Okechukwu S. Ogah ◽  

Introduction. Hypertension is a major global cause of cardiovascular disease and death with rising worldwide prevalence, particularly in low-income countries. With low awareness, poor treatment, and low control of hypertension in Africans, there is an increased number of patients with target organ damage (TOD), especially chronic kidney disease (CKD), as a consequence of hypertension. The aim of our study is to assess the prevalence of CKD from studies in Africa reporting TOD related to hypertension. Methods. We performed a search of PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, EBSCOhost, and African Journals Online (AJOL) for studies reporting on CKD as TOD in patients with hypertension. The pooled estimate of CKD was then presented by subregions, age group, eGFR equations, and urban or rural location. Results. We identified 1,334 articles from which 12 studies were included for quantitative analysis. The studies included 5297 participants from 6 countries (Ghana, Nigeria, Uganda, Tanzania, Democratic Republic of Congo, and South Africa). The pooled prevalence of CKD was 17.8% (95% CI 13.0–23.3%), and CKD was significantly more prevalent in West Africa (21.3% (95% CI: 16.1–27.0); p < 0.0001 ) and in studies conducted in urban settings ( p < 0.001 ). CKD prevalence was not significantly different by type of GFR equation or age. Conclusion. This study reports a high prevalence of CKD related to hypertension with a higher prevalence in urban than rural areas. This emphasizes the role of hypertension in causing kidney damage, and the need for strategies to improve awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in Africans. This study is registered with PROSPERO registration number CRD42018089263.

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