Objective: To evaluate the potential of the buccolingual dimension of the permanent mandibular canine roots as a sex estimator, using midsagittal cone-beam computed tomography images. Methods: In this retrospective study, 58 Portuguese patients (27 female and 31 male) aged 18-60 years were assessed. The maximum buccolingual dimension of the cervical root was measured in the midsagittal plane through cone-beam computed tomography images. The Bland-Altman method was applied for the reliability analysis, and a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve was obtained for accuracy analysis. Results: The buccolingual root dimension on the mandibular canine showed statistically significant differences between sexes (t56 df = 4.871; p<0.0005). The optimal cut-off to differentiate males from females was 6.64 mm. The area under the curve (AUC) was 83.5% (p<0.0005). An overall accuracy of 79% was obtained. The percentage of males correctly estimated was 77.4%, compared to 81.5% of females. Conclusions: Our data suggest that canines’ buccolingual root dimension can serve as a complementary tool for sex estimation in a forensic context.
The goal of this perspective article is to use multiple idiopathic cervical root resorption (MICRR) as a model to demonstrate the need for transdisciplinary collaborations, from basic science to treatment planning, to improve the quality of health care for all. This is not a review of the literature on the current state of MICRR. Tooth root resorption is a normal physiological process required for resorption and exfoliation of primary teeth; however, root resorption of adult teeth is largely pathological. MICRR is an aggressive form of external root resorption, which occurs near the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ). The cause of MICRR remains elusive, however, it is mediated primarily by osteoclasts/odontoclasts. Accumulating case studies and experiments in animal models have provided insights into defining the etiologies and pathophysiological mechanisms for MICRR, which include: systemic conditions and syndromes, inherited genetic variants affecting osteoclast/odontoclast activity, altered periodontal structures, drug-induced root resorption and rebound effects after cessation of anti-resorptive treatment, chemotherapy, exposure to pets or viral infections, and other factors such as inflammatory conditions or trauma. To determine the causative factors for MICRR, as well as other oral-dental conditions, at minimum, a comprehensive health history should be collected for all patients by dental care providers, discussed with other health care providers and appropriate collaborations established. The examples highlighted in this perspective emphasize the need for transdisciplinary research collaborations coupled with integrated management strategies between medicine and dentistry in order to identify cause(s) early and improve clinical outcomes.
The extensive knowledge of root dentin’s mechanical properties is necessary for the prediction of microstructural alterations and the teeth’s deformations as well as their fracture behavior. Standardized microindentation tests were applied to apical, medial, and cervical root sections of a mandibular human first molar to determine the spatial distribution of the hard tissue’s properties (indentation modulus, indentation hardness, Martens hardness, indentation creep). Using an indentation mapping approach, the inhomogeneity of mechanical properties in longitudinal as well as in transversal directions were measured. As a result, the tooth showed strongly inhomogeneous material properties, which depended on the longitudinal and transversal positions. In the transversal cutting planes of the cervical, medial, apical sections, the properties showed a comparable distribution. A statistical evaluation revealed an indentation modulus between 12.2 GPa and 17.8 GPa, indentation hardness between 0.4 GPa and 0.64 GPa and an indentation creep between 8.6% and 10.7%. The established standardized method is a starting point for further investigations concerning the intensive description of the inhomogeneous mechanical properties of human dentin and other types of dentin.
Neuropathic pain in the upper extremity due to cervical root avulsion injury is refractory to medical treatments. Superficial layers in the posterior horn of spinal gray matter, including the substantia gelatinosa, are the main target of dorsal root entry zone (DREZ) lesioning, which has been the most effective surgical treatment for the relief of intractable pain; however, residual pain and a decrease in pain relief during the long-term follow-up period have been reported. Based on pain topography in the most recent basic studies, the conventional DREZ lesioning procedure was modified to improve clinical outcomes.The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/PyaAGmAE7Og