adsorption capacity
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Fuel ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 309 ◽  
pp. 122175
Xuefei An ◽  
Kun Zhao ◽  
Weiping Zhang ◽  
Jiahan Yang ◽  
Yujie Liao ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 309 ◽  
pp. 131425
Zheng Zhang ◽  
Diana L. Santangelo ◽  
Gert ten Brink ◽  
Bart J. Kooi ◽  
Jacob A. Moulijn ◽  

Processes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 150
Wei-Sheng Chen ◽  
Yun-Chung Chen ◽  
Cheng-Han Lee

Because of increasing environmental awareness, it is becoming more important to remove harmful elements from water solutions. This study used activated carbon (AC) derived from waste wood-based panels as the base material, oxidized with nitric acid (OAC), and grafted with iminodiacetic acid (IDA-OAC) to improve the adsorption capacity and affinity for metals. The characterization of AC, OAC, and IDA-OAC was conducted via FTIR, SEM, N2 adsorption and desorption analysis, elemental analysis, Boehm titration, and point of zero charge (PZC). The instrument studies proved the modified increasing of the functional groups of the adsorbents. Moreover, batch and column experiments were conducted to evaluate the ability of the three adsorbents to remove copper ions from aqueous solution. In batch sorption, IDA-OAC had the highest adsorption capacity (84.51 mg/g) compared to OAC (54.74 mg/g) and AC (24.86 mg/g) at pH 5. The breakthrough point (Ct/Ci = 0.05) of copper ions for IDA-OAC occurred much later than AC in the column experiment (AC = 19 BV, IDA-OAC = 52 BV). The Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second-model kinetics modeling could better fit with the data obtained from the batch sorption of AC, OAC, and IDA-OAC. The significant capacity and reusability of IDA-OAC displayed high applicability for water treatment.

Fangting Wang ◽  
Ke Bao ◽  
Changsheng Huang ◽  
Xinwen Zhao ◽  
Wenjing Han ◽  

Cadmium is a toxic element with a half-life of several decades, which can accumulate in the human body by entering the food chain and seriously harm health. The cadmium adsorption and desorption processes in the soil directly affect the migration, transformation, bioavailability, and ecotoxicity of this element in soil-plant systems. Coastal zones are located in the transitional zone between land and sea, and large amounts of terrigenous material input have important environmental effects on this ecosystem. The pH, hydrodynamic conditions, soil organic matter (SOM), and other factors defining the sea-land interaction within the sedimentary environment are significantly different from those defining land facies. In order to study the key factors affecting cadmium adsorption in soils at the sea-land interface in the Nansha area of the Pearl River Delta, a test was conducted on a column of undisturbed soil. The results showed that the adsorption constant KF and the Cd2+ adsorption capacity of marine soils were higher than those of terrestrial soils. However, the saturation adsorption of cadmium in terrestrial sediments was higher than in marine sediments. Soil pH was an important factor affecting cadmium adsorption capacity in both terrestrial and ma-rine sediments. Neutral and alkaline topsoil conditions inhibited the vertical migration of cadmium, while the acidic environment favored it. The higher the clay and SOM were, the stronger the Cd2+ adsorption capacity of the soil was. These findings suggest that the distribution of cadmium in marine and continental sedimentary soils is not only related to adsorption, but also to the physical and chemical processes occurring in different sedimentary environments.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 456
Marine Guy ◽  
Manon Mathieu ◽  
Ioannis P. Anastopoulos ◽  
María G. Martínez ◽  
Frédéric Rousseau ◽  

In this work, Norway spruce bark was used as a precursor to prepare activated biochars (BCs) via chemical activation with potassium hydroxide (KOH) as a chemical activator. A Box–Behnken design (BBD) was conducted to evaluate and identify the optimal conditions to reach high specific surface area and high mass yield of BC samples. The studied BC preparation parameters and their levels were as follows: pyrolysis temperature (700, 800, and 900 °C), holding time (1, 2, and 3 h), and ratio of the biomass: chemical activator of 1: 1, 1.5, and 2. The planned BBD yielded BC with extremely high SSA values, up to 2209 m2·g−1. In addition, the BCs were physiochemically characterized, and the results indicated that the BCs exhibited disordered carbon structures and presented a high quantity of O-bearing functional groups on their surfaces, which might improve their adsorption performance towards organic pollutant removal. The BC with the highest SSA value was then employed as an adsorbent to remove Evans blue dye (EB) and colorful effluents. The kinetic study followed a general-order (GO) model, as the most suitable model to describe the experimental data, while the Redlich–Peterson model fitted the equilibrium data better. The EB adsorption capacity was 396.1 mg·g−1. The employment of the BC in the treatment of synthetic effluents, with several dyes and other organic and inorganic compounds, returned a high percentage of removal degree up to 87.7%. Desorption and cyclability tests showed that the biochar can be efficiently regenerated, maintaining an adsorption capacity of 75% after 4 adsorption–desorption cycles. The results of this work pointed out that Norway spruce bark indeed is a promising precursor for producing biochars with very promising properties.

Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 186
Do Thi My Phuong ◽  
Nguyen Xuan Loc

This study investigates the adsorption of Safranin O (SO) from aqueous solution by both biochar and magnetic biochar derived from rice straw. Rice straw biochar (RSB) was made by pyrolysis in a furnace at 500 °C, using a heating rate of 10 °C·min−1 for 2 h in an oxygen-limited environment, whilst the magnetic rice straw biochar (MRSB) was produced via the chemical precipitation of Fe2+ and Fe3+. The physicochemical properties of the synthesized biochars were characterized using SEM, SEM- EDX, XRD, FTIR techniques, and N2 adsorption (77 K) and pHpzc measurements. Batch adsorption experiments were used to explore the effect of pH, biochar dosage, kinetics, and isotherms on the adsorption of SO. Experimental data of RSB and MRSB fit well into both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models, and were also well-explained by the Lagergren pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The maximum SO adsorption capacity of MRSB was found to be 41.59 mg/g, while for RSB the figure was 31.06 mg/g. The intra-particle diffusion model indicated that the intra-particle diffusion may not be the only rate-limiting step. The collective physical and chemical forces account for the adsorption mechanism of SO molecules by both RSB and MRSB adsorbents. The obtained results demonstrated that the magnetic biochar can partially enhance the SO adsorption capacity of its precursor biochar and also be easily separated from the solution by using an external magnet.

Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 166
Rui M. C. Viegas ◽  
Ana S. Mestre ◽  
Elsa Mesquita ◽  
Miguel Machuqueiro ◽  
Marta A. Andrade ◽  

Projection to Latent Structures (PLS) regression, a generalization of multiple linear regression, is used to model two datasets (40 observed data points each) of adsorption removal of three pharmaceutical compounds (PhCs), of different therapeutic classes and physical–chemical properties (carbamazepine, diclofenac, and sulfamethoxazole), from six real secondary effluents collected from wastewater treatment plants onto different powdered activated carbons (PACs). For the PLS regression, 25 descriptors were considered: 7 descriptors related to the PhCs properties, 10 descriptors related to the wastewaters properties (8 related to the organic matrix and 2 to the inorganic matrix), and 8 descriptors related to the PACs properties. This modelling approach showed good descriptive capability, showing that hydrophobic PhC-PAC interactions play the major role in the adsorption process, with the solvation energy and log Kow being the most suitable descriptors. The results also stress the importance of the competition effects of water dissolved organic matter (DOM), namely of its slightly hydrophobic compounds impacting the adsorption capacity or its charged hydrophilic compounds impacting the short-term adsorption, while the water inorganic matrix only appears to impact PAC adsorption capacity and not the short-term adsorption. For the pool of PACs tested, the results point to the BET area as a good descriptor of the PAC capacity, while the short-term adsorption kinetics appears to be better related to its supermicropore volume and density. The improvement in these PAC properties should be regarded as a way of refining their performance. The correlations obtained, involving the impact of water, PhC and PAC-related descriptors, show the existence of complex interactions that a univariate analysis is not sufficient to describe.

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