Injury Mechanism
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Vasileios K. Mousafeiris ◽  
Anastasia Vasilopoulou ◽  
George D. Chloros ◽  
Michalis Panteli ◽  
Peter V. Giannoudis

Abstract Background Bilateral acetabular fractures constitute a rare entity, and their optimal management is unknown. Materials and Methods A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library between 1995 and 2020. Inclusion criteria were studies presenting cases of bilateral acetabular fractures and reporting outcomes. Extracted data included patient demographics, injury mechanism, fracture classification, associated injuries, management and outcomes. Results Thirty-seven studies (47 cases; 35 males vs 12 females) were included. Mean age was 46 years old (range 13–84) and mean follow-up was 19.8 months (range 1.5–56). High-energy injuries (49%) and seizures (45%) were the most common injury mechanisms. Fracture type distribution differed according to injury mechanism. Treatment was surgical in 70% of cases (75% open reduction and internal fixation vs 25% acute total hip arthroplasty). Outcomes were excellent/good in 58% of patients. Complications included heterotopic ossification (11%), nerve injury (11%), degenerative arthritis (6%), DVT (6%), and infection (3%). Conclusions Bilateral acetabular fractures most commonly occur either after trauma or seizures and are commonly managed operatively. They are not devoid of complications, however, more than half (58%) achieve complete functional recovery.

Zihao Liu ◽  
Shuai Wang ◽  
Xiaochen Tian ◽  
Aqin Peng

Abstract Introduction Tibial plateau fractures are often accompanied with ligamental and meniscal injuries. Among which, the combined existence of Schatzker type IV fracture with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) avulsion has been reported rarely. The purpose of this study was to determine the injury mechanism of Schatzker type IV fracture with ACL avulsion based on Mimics software. Methods Ninety-nine Schatzker type IV tibial plateau fractures were retrospectively analyzed by quantitative three-dimensional measurements. ACL avulsions were diagnosed through the data of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. We simulated the knee posture when an injury occurred and defined different injury patterns. The chi-square test was used for determining the main mechanism which causes Schatzker type IV fractures associated with ACL avulsions. Results There were more ACL avulsions and more displaced ACL avulsions associated with the knee in flexion in the setting of Schatzker type IV fracture (p < 0.05). More ACL avulsions were found in the injury pattern of flexion-valgus than the other injury patterns of the same level (p < 0.05). The rotation of the tibial showed no significant difference in producing ACL avulsion fractures. Conclusion This study found that a flexed knee at the occurrence of a Schatzker type IV tibial plateau fracture is a high-risk factor for causing associated ACL avulsion and producing more displaced avulsions. Flexion-valgus pattern was the main cause of Schatzker type IV fractures associated with ACL avulsions. The findings will help orthopedists understand the injury mechanism and enhance their awareness of such injuries to avoid unfavorable prognosis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 29-34
Alok Kumar Soni ◽  
Ankita Soni ◽  
Neeraj Upmanyu ◽  
Gurusamy Mathu Kannan

Markus Posch ◽  
Gerhard Ruedl ◽  
Klaus Greier ◽  
Martin Faulhaber ◽  
Katja Tecklenburg ◽  

Abstract Purpose It is not known so far if ski-equipment-related factors differ between the ACL injury mechanisms, potentially influencing the circumstances and causes of falling, finally resulting in ACL injury. More specifically focusing on the injury mechanisms will provide a deeper understanding of injury causation. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether ACL injury mechanisms in recreational alpine skiing differ with regard to ski-geometric parameters, self-reported circumstances and causes of accident and injury severity. Methods Among a cohort of 392 ACL-injured (57.9% females) skiers, age, sex, height, weight, skill level, risk-taking behavior, circumstances and causes of accident, and ACL injury severity were collected by questionnaire. Additionally, patients had to recall their type of fall (ACL injury mechanism) by classifying forward and backward falls with and without body rotation. Ski length, side cut radius and widths of the tip, waist and tail were directly notated from the ski. Results The forward fall with body rotation was the most common reported ACL injury mechanism (63%). A riskier behavior was associated with forward falls without body rotation. Ski-geometric parameters did not significantly influence the type of ACL injury mechanism. Regarding accident characteristics, catching an edge of the ski was more frequent (p < 0.001) the cause for forward falls (75% and 67%) when compared to the backward falls (46 and 15%) and executing a turn was the most frequent action in all falls (39–68%). A complete rupture of the ACL (66–70%) was more commonly reported than a partial tear (30–34%) among all four non-contact ACL injury mechanisms (n.s.). Conclusion In contrast to risk-taking behavior and accident characteristics, ski-geometric parameters and injury severity do not significantly differ between ACL injury mechanisms in recreational skiing. Thus, an individual skiing style seems to have more impact on ACL injury mechanisms than ski equipment. Future studies should evaluate potential effects of ski geometry on the incidence of ACL injury. Level of evidence III.

2021 ◽  
Holly Hedegaard ◽  
Margaret Warner

This study evaluated the quality of the cause-of-death information on death certificates for injury deaths, by determining the percentage of deaths for which the underlying cause was a nonspecific injury mechanism.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
pp. 232596712110611
Maximilian Willauschus ◽  
Johannes Rüther ◽  
Michael Millrose ◽  
Matthias Walcher ◽  
Christophe Lambert ◽  

Background: Foot and ankle injuries are a common but underestimated problem in taekwondo. Detailed data on injury incidence rates (IIRs), patterns, and injury mechanism are missing. Purpose: The primary aims were to evaluate the prevalence of foot and ankle injuries and the exposure-adjusted IIR of elite taekwondo athletes during matches while training (ie, sparring) and in competitions. The secondary aims were to evaluate injury site, type, sport-specific mechanism, and time loss. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: Athletes from a single national Olympic taekwondo training center were assessed prospectively for foot and ankle injuries over 4 years (between January 1, 2016, and December 31, 2019). Data were collected regarding number and type of injuries, anatomic location, and total exposure time during training and competition for each athlete. Injury mechanism and dominant foot were assessed via personal interview. Time loss from sport was analyzed retrospectively. The injury prevalence and IIR were calculated. Correlation between mechanism and injury type, location, and dominant foot was evaluated. Time loss according to location and injury type was assessed. The chi-square test and Fisher exact test were used to test for differences in sex, age, and taekwondo experience and for comparison of injury location and type, injury mechanism, and side dominance, respectively. Training and competition IIRs and prevalence were calculated with 95% CIs (for Poisson rates). Results: From an initial 107 athletes, 79 (73.8%) were included in the final data set. Of these athletes, 38 were injured (n = 112 injuries) for a prevalence of 48.1% (95% CI, 43%-52%). The overall IIR of the ankle joint was 13.14 injuries per 1000 athletes (95% CI, 1.5-25.9) and was significantly higher during competition versus training ( P < .001). Ankle joint injuries were most common (n = 71; 63%). Significantly more noncontact versus contact ankle ligament injuries (n = 46; 83%) occurred ( P < .001). The forefoot (n = 18; 66%) was mainly affected by contact injuries ( P < .001). Time loss was the highest for midfoot fractures (mean ± SD, 23.0 ± 0.6 days; range, 23-24 days). Conclusion: Noncontact ligamentous ankle injuries were most common, with a higher incidence during competition. Improvement of strength, endurance, and postural stability under strain is recommended for prevention.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Tzu-Yen Huang ◽  
Wing-Hei Viola Yu ◽  
Feng-Yu Chiang ◽  
Che-Wei Wu ◽  
Shih-Chen Fu ◽  

ObjectivesIn patients with recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury after thyroid surgery, unrecovered vocal fold motion (VFM) and subjective voice impairment cause extreme distress. For surgeons, treating these poor outcomes is extremely challenging. To enable early treatment of VFM impairment, this study evaluated prognostic indicators of non-transection RLN injury and VFM impairment after thyroid surgery and evaluated correlations between intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) findings and perioperative voice parameters.Methods82 adult patients had postoperative VFM impairment after thyroidectomy were enrolled. Demographic characteristics, RLN electromyography (EMG), and RLN injury mechanism were compared. Multi-dimensional voice program, voice range profile and Index of voice and swallowing handicap of thyroidectomy (IVST) were administered during I-preoperative; II-immediate, III-short-term and IV-long-term postoperative periods. The patients were divided into R/U Group according to the VFM was recovered/unrecovered 3 months after surgery. The patients in U Group were divided into U1/U2 Group according to total IVST score change was &lt;4 and ≥4 during period-IV.ResultsCompared to R Group (42 patients), U Group (38 patients) had significantly more patients with EMG &gt;90% decrease in the injured RLN (p&lt;0.001) and thermal injury as the RLN injury mechanism (p=0.002). Voice parameter impairments were more severe in U Group compared to R Group. Compared to U1 group (19 patients), U2 Group (19 patients) had a significantly larger proportion of patients with EMG decrease &gt;90% in the injured RLN (p=0.022) and thermal injury as the RLN injury mechanism (p=0.017). A large pitch range decrease in period-II was a prognostic indicator of a moderate/severe long-term postoperative subjective voice impairment.ConclusionThis study is the first to evaluate correlations between IONM findings and voice outcomes in patients with VFM impairment after thyroid surgery. Thyroid surgeons should make every effort to avoid severe type RLN injury (e.g., thermal injury or injury causing EMG decrease &gt;90%), which raises the risk of unrecovered VFM and moderate/severe long-term postoperative subjective voice impairment. Using objective voice parameters (e.g., pitch range) as prognostic indicators not only enables surgeons to earlier identify patients with low voice satisfaction after surgery, and also enable implementation of interventions sufficiently early to maintain quality of life.

2021 ◽  
Rongrong Wang ◽  
Dawei Wang ◽  
Zheng Chen ◽  
Jingyu Ma ◽  
Lili Wang ◽  

Abstract Background: Nonunion is one of the medical conditions challenging the trauma specialists. Timely identification of people at high risk of nonunion is important to improve the prognosis of patients.Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the demographic and laboratory hematological characteristics of 338 patients with either clavicle or femoral fractures treated with ORIF in Shandong Provincial Hospital affiliated to Shandong University from January 2010 to May 2019. Descriptive statistics, univariate regression analysis, and multivariate regression analysis were conducted to confirm the independent factors associated with nonunion after ORIF.Results: The overall nonunion rate among the patients investigated in this study was ~6.8%, while the nonunion rates were 5.6% and 10.3% in clavicle and the femur fractures, respectively. Results of the univariate logistic regression analysis showed that the serum fibrinogen concentration (FIB), the hemoglobin count (HGB), the lymphocyte absolute value (LYMPH), the coefficient of variation of red blood cell distribution width (RDW-CV), the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification, and the mechanism of injury were related to the occurrence of nonunion (p < 0.05). Results of the multivariate regression analysis showed that FIB (OR = 1.64, 95% CI of 1.14 to 2.36, p < 0.01), LYMPH (OR = 0.34, 95% CI of 0.15 to 0.77, p < 0.01), ASA classification (OR = 3.52, 95% CI of 1.20 to 10.31, p = 0.02), and injury mechanism (OR=3.13, 95% CI of 1.20 to 8.21, p = 0.02) were independently associated with the occurrence of nonunion.Conclusions: Our study has revealed that FIB, LYMPH, ASA classification, and injury mechanism are independently related to the occurrence of nonunion after ORIF, providing important guidance for clinicians to identify patients with high risk of nonunion in time, ultimately improving the prognosis and quality of life of patients.

2021 ◽  
Yuxuan Jiang ◽  
Yangjun Zhu ◽  
Dongxu Feng ◽  
Wei Huang ◽  
Wuqiang Jiang ◽  

Abstract Objective The clinical and imaging data of patients diagnosed with femoral neck fractures (FNFs) in Xi 'an Honghui Hospital from 2018 to 2020.The epidemiological characteristics of these patients in different age groups were analyzed. Methods In this study, patients with femoral neck fracture hospitalized in Xi 'an Honghui Hospital from January 2018 to January 2021 were divided into four groups according to age: the young group (≤44 years old), the middle-aged group (45-59 years old),the young old group (60-74 years old), and the elderly group (≥75 years old) to analyze age,sex,side,injury mechanism,new AO classification and other features. A total of 2071 patients were included for analysis. Results There were 742 males (35.8%) and 1,329 females (64.2%).There were 1,106 patient s(53.4%) on the left side and 965 on the right side (46.6%).There were 1781 cases of low energy injury (86%) and 290 cases of high energy injury (14%), and the main injury mechanism was falling.The number of patients with femoral neck fracture in each year was 719 patients in 2018, 694 patients in 2019, and 661 patients in 2020, respectively. The number of patients showed a decreasing trend year by year, and the gender ratio and injury mechanism showed no significant trend of change. In the age group, the proportion of the young group was increasing year by year.Among the new AO classification, there were 1023 cases of B1.3, accounting for the highest proportion of 49.4%.The proportion of B2.2 was the highest in the young group (32.4%) .B1.3 and B2.2 were the main types in the middle-aged group, accounting for 31.7% and 32.0, respectively.B1.3 was dominant in the young old and elderly group (47.1% and 63.4%, respectively). Conclusion The new classification combines the classic classification, which is easier to remember. The stability of fracture is more carefully distinguished,which is conducive to guiding the surgical treatment of many stable femoral neck fractures in middle-aged and young old people. ORIF treatment can be used to delay the age of hip replacement.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (10_suppl5) ◽  
pp. 2325967121S0025
Michael Meyers

Objectives: Today’s new generations of artificial turf infill systems are increasingly being installed with lighter weight infill systems, which often incorporate interlocking polypropylene or thermoelastomer pad systems under the fiber-infill layers, reportedly to reduce surface shock, decrease concussions, and enhance shoe: surface stability. At this time, however, the effects of pad systems on high school football trauma during game conditions are unknown. With more than one million athletes playing competitive football, the rise in medical costs, and the increasing popularity of base pads being installed today as an alternative to heavier infill weight systems, this study focused on quantifying the potential influence of this practice on the incidence, mechanisms, and severity of game-related, high school varsity football injuries. Methods: Artificial turf playing fields were divided into two groups based on a pad underlayer or a no pad system. Fifty-eight high schools participated across three states over 7 seasons. Outcomes of interest included injury severity, injury category, primary type of injury, injury mechanism, anatomical location of trauma, type of tissue injured, and elective imaging/surgical procedures. Data were subject to multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA) and Wilks’ λ criteria using general linear model procedures. Data were expressed as injury incidence rates (IIR) per 10 game season. Results: Of 658 varsity games documented, 260 games were played on fields containing pads, and 398 on no-pad fields, with 795 total injuries reported. MANOVA indicated a significant main effect across pad and no pad playing surfaces by injury severity (F3,791 = 11.436; P < .0001), knee trauma (F9,785 = 2.435; P = .045), injury category (F3,791 = 3.073; P < .0001), primary type of injury (F10,785 = 2.660; P < .0001), injury mechanism (F13,781 = 2.053; P < .001), anatomical location of trauma (F16,778 = 1.592; P < .001), type of tissue injured (F4,790 = 4.485; P < .0001), and elective imaging and surgical procedures (F4,790 = 4.248; P < .002). Post hoc analyses indicated significantly higher ( P < .05) substantial injury [10.3, (95% CI, 10.0-10.5) vs 3.0 (2.5-3.4)], player-to turf trauma [6.5, (95% CI, 5.9-7.1) vs 2.0 (1.6-2.4)], patellofemoral syndrome [1.3, (95% CI, 0.9-1.7) vs 0.3 (0.2-0.5)], neck strain [2.0, (95% CI, 1.5-2.5) vs 0.3 (0.2-0.5)], lower leg strain [3.9, (95% CI, 3.3-4.5) vs 1.1 (0.8-1.4)], and a higher number of lower extremity elective imaging and surgical procedures requested [7.2, (95% CI, 6.7-7.7) vs 3.2 (2.8-3.7)] when competing on artificial turf fields with pads as compared to no pad systems, respectively. In regard to reducing the frequency of concussions, there was no significant difference in concussion rate attributed to turf impact [0.3, (95% CI, 0.2-0.6) vs 0.1 (0.1-0.3)] between pad and no pad fields, respectively. Conclusions: The addition of a pad under an artificial turf surface increases injury rates when compared to non-pad fields across most injury categories. At this time, findings do not support the current trend of installing lightweight padded infill systems at the high school level of play. This is the first longitudinal study to investigate the influence of a pad on sport trauma, when integrated with an artificial turf infill system.

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