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Ali Tekgüler

Turkish hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) is naturally grown as a multi-stemmed shrub. This hazelnut produces lots of suckers. Suckers compete with the main branches for nutrients and water. Because the emergence of suckers negatively affects crop management in the hazelnut orchards are required to eliminate at least twice a year. Flaming is an alternative method to chemical and mechanical control methods. In this study, the effect of gas pressure, flaming time on fuel consumption and flaming efficiency in hazelnut sucker control were evaluated. The trials were carried out in an shrub ocak (in Turkish) type hazelnut orchard The results show that the torch flaming method is a useable method for hazelnut basal sucker cleaning. Gas pressure and flaming time had significant effects on fuel consumption and flaming efficiency. 150 s flaming duration and 3 bar pressure is sufficient for the flaming application. Durations above this time will increase fuel consumption and time loss.

2021 ◽  
pp. bjsports-2021-104198
Oleane Marthea Rebne Stenseth ◽  
Sindre Fløtlien Barli ◽  
R Kyle Martin ◽  
Lars Engebretsen

ObjectivesTo define incidence and injury patterns of International Ski Federation (FIS) World Cup (WC) women ski jumpers over three seasons.MethodsSki jump athletes competing in the Women’s FIS WC were recruited for prospective injury surveillance from 2017–2018 to 2019–2020. Team representatives recruited the athletes annually and prospectively recorded all injuries requiring medical attention. Retrospective end-of-season interviews corroborated injury surveillance. Medical doctors collected and processed the data. The 4-month competitive season was used to calculate the annual incidence of injuries per 100 athletes per season. Injury type, location, severity and aetiology were reported.ResultsAthletes from 19 nations were enrolled equalling 205 athlete-seasons. Mean age was 21.2 years (SD=3.8). Thirty-nine injury events resulted in 54 total injuries (26.3 injuries/100 athletes/season). Injuries were mostly acute (83%) and occurred on the ski jump hill (78%). The most common injury location was the knee (n=18, 33%). Crash landings were the most common cause of injury events (70%). Nearly half of the acute ski jump injury events occurred in snowy, windy or cloudy conditions (44%) and/or during telemark landings (46%), and most jumps (96%) were shorter than hill size. One third of the injuries were severe, and 78% of severe injuries involved the knee.ConclusionAcute injury events occur relatively frequently in elite women ski jumpers, most resulting in time-loss from sport and a significant proportion involving serious knee injuries. Crash landing was the leading cause of injury. This baseline information can be used to guide and evaluate future efforts at injury prevention.

2021 ◽  
Mahmoud Ahmed Elshahawy ◽  
Helmy Abdel Wahab Younes ◽  
Imad Al Hamlawi

Abstract ADNOC Drilling operates a growing fleet of 22 jack up units. These units require various inspections and tests to ensure that their integrity is maintained while conducting the drilling operations. One of these inspections is the underwater inspection which is required to be carried out twice every 5 years. Traditionally, this inspection is carried out by divers at the shipyard where it is safe for divers to carry out cleaning, visual inspections and NDT of structural welds. Moving the rig to a drydock or a shipyard is a costly and involves a lot of activities related to safety in addition to the out of service time. Loss of revenue is experienced while the rig is out of service, as well as costs associated to the survey, shipyard costs, vessel costs etc. all combining to create an expensive inspection process. ADNOC Drilling Marine and Group Technology adapted a new method for performing the full scope of the underwater inspection offshore using small remotely operated vehicles (ROV), most of the scope is carried out while the rig remains in full operation (while drilling).

BMJ Open ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. e051902
Nirmala Kanthi Panagodage Perera ◽  
Markus Waldén ◽  
Hanna Lindblom ◽  
Ida Åkerlund ◽  
Sofi Sonesson ◽  

ObjectiveTo describe weekly illness prevalence and illness symptoms by sex in youth floorball players during one season.DesignProspective cohort study.SettingPlayers who were registered to play community level floorball during the 2017–2018 season (26 weeks) in two provinces in southern Sweden.Participants471 youth players aged 12–17 years. Mean (SD) age for 329 male players 13.3 (1.0) years and 142 female players 13.7 (1.5) years.Primary and secondary outcome measuresWeekly self-reported illness prevalence and illness symptoms according to the 2020 International Olympic Committee’s consensus recommendations.Results61% of youth floorball players reported at least one illness week during the season, with an average weekly illness prevalence of 12% (95% CI 10.8% to 12.3%). The prevalence was slightly higher among females (13%, 95% CI 11.6% to 14.3%) than males (11%, 95% CI 9.9% to 11.7%), prevalence rate ratio 1.20 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.37, p=0.009). In total, 49% (53% male, 43% female) of illness reports indicated that the player could not participate in floorball (time loss), with a mean (SD) absence of 2.0 (1.7) days per illness week. Fever (30%), sore throat (16%) and cough (14%) were the most common symptoms. Female players more often reported difficulty in breathing/tight airways and fainting, and male players more often reported coughing, feeling tired/feverish and headache. Illness prevalence was highest in the peak winter months (late January/February) reaching 15%–18% during this period.ConclusionsOur novel findings of the illness prevalence and symptoms in youth floorball may help direct prevention strategies. Athletes, coaches, parents and support personnel need to be educated about risk mitigation strategies.Trial registration numberNCT03309904.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
pp. 232596712110611
Maximilian Willauschus ◽  
Johannes Rüther ◽  
Michael Millrose ◽  
Matthias Walcher ◽  
Christophe Lambert ◽  

Background: Foot and ankle injuries are a common but underestimated problem in taekwondo. Detailed data on injury incidence rates (IIRs), patterns, and injury mechanism are missing. Purpose: The primary aims were to evaluate the prevalence of foot and ankle injuries and the exposure-adjusted IIR of elite taekwondo athletes during matches while training (ie, sparring) and in competitions. The secondary aims were to evaluate injury site, type, sport-specific mechanism, and time loss. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: Athletes from a single national Olympic taekwondo training center were assessed prospectively for foot and ankle injuries over 4 years (between January 1, 2016, and December 31, 2019). Data were collected regarding number and type of injuries, anatomic location, and total exposure time during training and competition for each athlete. Injury mechanism and dominant foot were assessed via personal interview. Time loss from sport was analyzed retrospectively. The injury prevalence and IIR were calculated. Correlation between mechanism and injury type, location, and dominant foot was evaluated. Time loss according to location and injury type was assessed. The chi-square test and Fisher exact test were used to test for differences in sex, age, and taekwondo experience and for comparison of injury location and type, injury mechanism, and side dominance, respectively. Training and competition IIRs and prevalence were calculated with 95% CIs (for Poisson rates). Results: From an initial 107 athletes, 79 (73.8%) were included in the final data set. Of these athletes, 38 were injured (n = 112 injuries) for a prevalence of 48.1% (95% CI, 43%-52%). The overall IIR of the ankle joint was 13.14 injuries per 1000 athletes (95% CI, 1.5-25.9) and was significantly higher during competition versus training ( P < .001). Ankle joint injuries were most common (n = 71; 63%). Significantly more noncontact versus contact ankle ligament injuries (n = 46; 83%) occurred ( P < .001). The forefoot (n = 18; 66%) was mainly affected by contact injuries ( P < .001). Time loss was the highest for midfoot fractures (mean ± SD, 23.0 ± 0.6 days; range, 23-24 days). Conclusion: Noncontact ligamentous ankle injuries were most common, with a higher incidence during competition. Improvement of strength, endurance, and postural stability under strain is recommended for prevention.

Nicholas Pereira ◽  
Theresa Burgess ◽  
Lieselotte Corton

Background: Field hockey is an Olympic sport played internationally and in which South Africa is a participating nation. It also has its own world cup. Few injury studies have been published on South African field hockey. Research efforts should increase within the sport to ensure safe participation and mitigate the inherent injury risks. Objectives: The objective of the study was to attend the male and female inter-provincial field hockey tournaments in South Africa and determine the incidence of injury and burden of acquired sport injuries (time-loss and medical attention). Methods: A quantitative, descriptive, longitudinal study, including 133 females and 139 males, was conducted. Participants completed baseline questionnaires prior to the tournament and post-match questionnaires detailing injuries during the tournament. Results: The recorded injuries were 77.9 (females) and 99.5 (males) per 1 000 player match hours. Medical attention was 51.9 (females) and 70.3 (males) injuries per 1 000 player match hours. The result for time-loss injuries was 4.3 (females) and 7.5 (males) injuries per 1 000 player match hours. Discussion: The study found high incidence rates of all injuries and medical attention injuries; however, the incidence of time-loss injuries was low in comparison to existing literature. Comparing current results to existing literature is challenging due to the heterogeneity of methodologies and injury definitions in field hockey research. Conclusion: This was the largest observational study in field hockey conducted in South Africa. The international sporting body should establish a consensus for future research and the South African Hockey Association explore long-term surveillance in South Africa to mimic similar national codes.

2021 ◽  
pp. bjsports-2021-104719
Carolette Snyders ◽  
David B Pyne ◽  
Nicola Sewry ◽  
James H Hull ◽  
Kelly Kaulback ◽  

ObjectiveTo determine the days until return to sport (RTS) after acute respiratory illness (ARill), frequency of time loss after ARill resulting in >1 day lost from training/competition, and symptom duration (days) of ARill in athletes.DesignSystematic review and meta-analysis.Data sourcesPubMed, EBSCOhost, Web of Science, January 1990–July 2020.Eligibility criteriaOriginal research articles published in English on athletes/military recruits (15–65 years) with symptoms/diagnosis of an ARill and reporting any of the following: days until RTS after ARill, frequency (%) of time loss >1 day after ARill or symptom duration (days) of ARill.Results767 articles were identified; 54 were included (n=31 065 athletes). 4 studies reported days until RTS (range: 0–8.5 days). Frequency (%) of time loss >1 day after ARill was 20.4% (95% CI 15.3% to 25.4%). The mean symptom duration for all ARill was 7.1 days (95% CI 6.2 to 8.0). Results were similar between subgroups: pathological classification (acute respiratory infection (ARinf) vs undiagnosed ARill), anatomical classification (upper vs general ARill) or diagnostic method of ARinf (symptoms, physical examination, special investigations identifying pathogens).ConclusionsIn 80% of ARill in athletes, no days were lost from training/competition. The mean duration of ARill symptoms in athletes was 7 days. Outcomes were not influenced by pathological or anatomical classification of ARill, or in ARinf diagnosed by various methods. Current data are limited, and future studies with standardised approaches to definitions, diagnostic methods and classifications of ARill are needed to obtain detailed clinical, laboratory and specific pathogen data to inform RTS.PROSPERO registration numberCRD42020160479.

Ashmita Pandey

Abstract: A decentralised, Secure, Peer-to-Peer Multi-Voting System on Ethereum Blockchain is a distributed ledger technology (DLT) that permits virtual votes to be transacted in a peer-to-peer decentralized network. Those transactions are validated and registered through every node of the network, so creating a transparent and immutable series of registered events whose truthfulness is supplied through a consensus protocol. Smart contract automates the execution of agreement that runs routinely as soon as the conditions are satisfied. Smart contract would not need any third parties consequently prevents time loss. By Eliminating the requirement for third parties, consequently, allows numerous processes to be extra efficient and economical. The system is secure, reliable, and anonymous. Smart contract is enforced for the Ethereum network using the Ethereum wallets and also the Solidity language. Users are capable of submit their votes immediately from their Ethereum wallets, and those transaction requests is handled with the consensus of each single Ethereum node. This creates a transparent environment for evoting. A lot of concerning efficiency of the peer-to-peer decentralized electoral system on Ethereum network along with application and the outcomes of implementation are provided in this paper. Keywords: Blockchain, Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT), Consensus Protocol, Smart Contracts, Ethereum, Solidity

Mathematics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (21) ◽  
pp. 2753
Gabi Hanukov ◽  
Michael Hassoun ◽  
Oren Musicant

We study a phenomenon causing server time loss in ticket queues with balking and calling time. A customer who balks from the queue after printing a ticket leaves a virtual entity in the queue that requires server time to be cleared. The longer the queue, the larger the proportion of customers abandoning their place, and the larger the server time loss due to calling customers that left the queue. The solution is suggested by giving the customer the best possible estimate of her expected waiting time before printing a ticket, thus ensuring that, if she balks, no number in the queue is created that will waste server time. Although partially observable ticket queues have been studied in the literature, the addition of a calling time for absent customers creates a new type of problem that has been observed in real life but has not been formally addressed yet. We analyze this stochastic system, formulate its steady state probabilities, and calculate the system’s performance measures. The analytical solution provided here is robust and can be applied to a wide range of customers’ behavior functions. Finally, numerical analysis is performed that demonstrates the benefits of providing timely information to customers for different levels of traffic congestion.

2021 ◽  
Vol 0 ◽  
pp. 1-4
Ravi Gupta ◽  
Anil Kapoor ◽  
Bharath Mali Patil ◽  
Akash Singhal ◽  
Manharjot Malhi

Objectives: Kabaddi is a commonly played sport in Asia and now it is getting recognition worldwide. With the emergence of this sport, concern related to injuries associated with this sport is also increasing. For uniform reporting of injuries and illness in the epidemiological study (Kabaddi), it desired to have standard definitions on Kabaddi-related injuries. Materials and Methods: After the initial review of various studies on other sports; the definitions and terms which can be valid for Kabaddi were selected and modified according to this sport. These definitions were then reviewed by experts, who have an abundance of experiences in the treatment of injuries related to this sport. After multiple meetings among the expert panel final definitions, terms, and methodology for injury surveillance studies were laid down. Results: Only new and modified definitions were used in this paper, therefore, it is advised to use this paper in conjunction with STROBE-SIS. Injury rates were defined per 1000 raids or 1000 tackles. Various definitions like match time loss, general time loss, match injury incidence, training injury incidence, match injury prevalence, etc. were included in this paper. Conclusion: These standard definitions will help inconsistent and better data collection in injury surveillance studies. This will also help in a better understanding of injury patterns.

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