male breast
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Nan Yao ◽  
Wenzai Shi ◽  
Tong Liu ◽  
Sarah Tan Siyin ◽  
Weiqi Wang ◽  

AbstractMale breast cancer (MBC) is rare. Due to limited information, MBC has always been understudied. We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study using data from the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. The clinical and biological features of female breast cancer (FBC) patients were compared with MBC patients. Cox regression models and competing risks analyses were used to identify risk factors associated with cancer-related survival in MBC and FBC groups. Results showed that MBC patients suffered from higher TNM stages, tumor grades, and a higher percentage of hormone receptor-positive tumors, compared with FBC patients (all p < 0.05). In addition, the breast tumor locations varied a lot between males and females (p < 0.05). FBC patients were associated with superior overall survival than MBC patients. Results from multivariate cox regression and competing risks analyses showed age, race, T, N, M-stages, tumor grades, estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2) overexpression were independent prognosis factors in FBC patients (all p < 0.05). MBC patients had similar risk factors to FBC patients, but PR and HER-2 status did not independently influence survival (all p > 0.05). Tumor location was an independent prognostic factor for both gender groups.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Rainer Weber ◽  
Johannes C. Ehrenthal ◽  
Evamarie Brock-Midding ◽  
Sarah Halbach ◽  
Rachel Würstlein ◽  

Objectives: The concept of defense mechanisms has undergone extensive revision and expansion since Freud first described these processes. Initially formulated as an unconscious repression of unpleasant memories, with further development focusing on the role of defense mechanisms in the regulation of internal conflicts, the concept shifted and evolved to incorporate the adaptation to external demands, including intrapsychic and interpersonal handling of burden of illness. In addition to defense mechanisms, coping provides another perspective on human adjustment to difficult life events. While there is substantial research on both coping and defense mechanisms in various psychiatric and somatic diseases, including cancer, little is known about defensive regulation, coping, and their interaction in male breast cancer patients.Methods: The present study is part of the N-Male project conducted between 2016 and 2018 in Germany (Male breast cancer: patients' needs in prevention, diagnosis, treatment, rehabilitation, and follow-up care). Semi-standardized interviews with 27 male breast cancer patients were analyzed with regard to defense mechanisms. In addition, fear of progression and repressive coping was assessed by self-report.Results: There was considerable variety in levels of defensive functioning as well as repressive coping in our sample. We found no difference in overall levels of defensive functioning between men with vs. without repressive coping. However, patients with repressive coping demonstrated a decopupled association between fear of progression and defensive functioning as compared to patients without repressive coping.Discussion: The study provides the first evidence of disease processing in male breast cancer patients Knowledge of patients' defense patterns and repressive coping seems promising for better planning targeted intervention strategies.

Cureus ◽  
2021 ◽  
Saroj Kumar Das Majumdar ◽  
Dr Deepak K Das ◽  
Sandip Barik ◽  
Avinash Badajena ◽  
Dillip Kumar Parida

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (6) ◽  
pp. 206-213
Quratulain (Anna) Sabih ◽  
Jessica Young ◽  
Kazuaki Takabe

Shalaka Gadhave ◽  
Vaishali Gahane ◽  
Poonam Gajbhiye ◽  
Harsha Gandhare ◽  
Savita Pohekar

Introduction: As the healthcare programs focus on the relatively higher incidence, women have a fair level of awareness of breast cancer. Breast of male hence ignored in the community. Studies from India have shown that medical care is often taken in an advanced stage because of lack of awareness, and the aggressive nature of breast cancer in Indian men and seen at quite an early age. Video-assisted knowledge teachings about awareness of male breast cancer among adult males would improve their understanding and exploration of the perceptions and opinions of Indian male cancers. Aim: To determine the effectiveness of video-assisted education on male breast cancer knowledge among adult males in the city of Wardha. Methods and Materials: One group pretest and posttest design with a quantitative research approach has been used in this interventional study design. This study has been carried out in community set up. Sample size was100. Validated Pretested predesigned structured questionnaires were used. In Microsoft excel sheet, data collected was entered. SPSS-software was used to perform the statistical analysis. Frequencies and percentages for categorical variables have been presented. Results: The pre-test findings show that 15(15%) of the adult males had a poor level of knowledge score,  50(50%) had average knowledge and 31(31%) of them had good knowledge and 4(4%) of them had found a very good level of knowledge. After video-assisted teaching in the post-test 3(3%) had a good knowledge score and 97(97%) had very good knowledge, thus it shows that after the post-test the knowledge score was increased. The Mean value of the pre-test is 9.32 and the post-test is 23.14 (p-value is 0.001), the calculated t-value is 35.47. Hence it indicates that Teaching aided with video was effective. The post-test score was significantly associated with population variables such as occupation and bad habits. The post-testing knowledge score with demographic variables such as age, religion, family type, education, marital status, dietary pattern, and area of residence was not significantly linked. Conclusion: The study shows that the expected teaching on male breast cancer has helped adult males to gain a better understanding of the nature of the disease and to take measures to prevent male breast cancer.

Diagnostics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 2199
Daniele Ugo Tari ◽  
Luigi Morelli ◽  
Antonella Guida ◽  
Fabio Pinto

Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of male breast is a rare lesion, often associated with invasive carcinoma. When the in situ component is present in pure form, histological grade is usually low or intermediate. Imaging is difficult as gynaecomastia is often present and can mask underlying findings. We report a rare case of pure high-grade DCIS in a young male patient, with associated intraductal papilloma and atypical ductal hyperplasia. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) showed an area of architectural distortion at the union of outer quadrants of the left breast without gynaecomastia. Triple assessment suggested performing a nipple-sparing mastectomy, which revealed the presence of a focal area of high-grade DCIS of 2 mm. DCIS, even of high grade, is difficult to detect with mammography and even more rare, especially when associated with other proliferative lesions. DBT with 2D synthetic reconstruction is useful as the imaging step of a triple assessment and it should be performed in both symptomatic and asymptomatic high-risk men to differentiate between malignant and benign lesions. We propose a diagnostic model to early detect breast cancer in men, optimizing resources according to efficiency, effectiveness and economy, and look forward to radiomics as a powerful tool to help radiologists.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Fei-Chih Liu ◽  
Marit B. Veierød ◽  
Kristina Kjærheim ◽  
Trude E. Robsahm ◽  
Reza Ghiasvand ◽  

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