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Children ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (9) ◽  
pp. 803
Anat Shatz ◽  
Leon Joseph ◽  
Liat Korn

The purpose of the study was to assess Israeli parents’ knowledge of and attitudes towards practices promoting infants’ safe sleep and their compliance with such practices. Researchers visited the homes of 335 parents in 59 different residential locations in Israel and collected their responses to structured questionnaires. SPSS 25 statistical package for data analysis was used. Attitude scales were created after the reliability tests and scaled means of parental attitudes were compared between independent groups differentiated by gender, ethnicity, and parental experience. A logistic regression was run to predict the outcome variable of babies’ sleep positions. The total knowledge score was significantly higher for women (56.3%) than for men (28.6%; p < 0.001). Arabs were more committed to following recommendations (29.3%) than Jews (26.9%; p < 0.001). Consistent with safe sleep recommendations, 92% of the sampled parents reported avoiding bedsharing and 89% reported using a firm mattress and fitted sheets. The risk of not placing a baby to sleep in a supine position was higher among older parents (adjusted odds ratio—AOR = 0.36, 95%CI 0.16–0.82), smoking fathers (AOR = 2.66, 95%CI 1.12–6.33), parents who did not trust recommendations (AOR = 4.03, 95%CI 1.84–8.84), parents not committed to following recommendations (AOR = 2.83, 95%CI 1.21–6.60), and parents whose baby slept in their room (AOR = 0.38, 95%CI 0.17–0.88). Knowledge of safe sleep recommendations was not associated with actual parental practices. Trust of and commitment to recommendations were positively correlated with safe sleep position practices. It is essential to develop ethnic-/gender-focused intervention programs.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (9) ◽  
pp. 142-149
Bedani Yumlembam ◽  
Arline Beshra

Background: Puerperal sepsis is a postpartum complication, occurs when a recently delivered mother gets an infection while giving birth due to unhygienic practices and poor quality healthcare. If not treated properly in time may lead to death. Lack of awareness among healthcare providers can lead to higher rates of infection. Objective: To assess the effectiveness of information booklet on knowledge regarding puerperal sepsis and its prevention among nurses working in selected hospitals of Kamrup (M), Assam. Methods: The pre experimental one group pre-test post-test research designed was adopted in the study. 100 nurses were selected as sample by using convenience sampling technique in selected hospitals of Kamrup (M), Assam. To assess the nurses’ knowledge regarding puerperal sepsis and its prevention structured knowledge questionnaire was used. Results: In pre-test, the mean knowledge score was 11.76 with standard deviation 2.90. In post-test, the mean knowledge score was 19.81 with standard deviation 1.96. The calculated paired t test value of t = 33.352 was found to be statistically significant at p<0.001. Hence, information booklet on puerperal sepsis was found to be effective in improving the knowledge regarding puerperal sepsis and its prevention. There was significant association between pre-test knowledge regarding puerperal sepsis and its prevention and educational qualification. Conclusions: Majority of the nurses gained knowledge after referring the information booklet. Hence, awareness program in regular period will help in improving knowledge regarding puerperal sepsis among nurses to provide quality health care for a healthy society. Key words: Knowledge, Information booklet, puerperal sepsis, prevention.

Sharifa Ezat Wan Puteh ◽  
Azimatun Noor Aizuddin ◽  
Abdulaziz Abdullah Al-Salem ◽  
Khalid Abdulrahman Al-shetaily ◽  
Fawziah Hassan Al-Owayyid

Cross sectional study was conducted to evaluate the Attitudes and awareness level of Citizens towards COVID-19 vaccination in Qassim region.  The present study’s results showed that awareness of COVID-19 Vaccination in Qassim region- Saudi Arabia shows that the mean score of awareness was 3.49 (SD 0.864) out of 5.   Regarding vaccination decision among Saudi citizens in Qassim region, (22.7%) of the participants were undecided, (14.7%) refused, and (62.6%) agreed to get a vaccine against COVID-19. Reason for vaccine refusal mainly was they don't believe the vaccine. 96 Participants (32.0%) were working in the healthcare sector, (44.8%) of them had received the COVID-19 Vaccine, and (38.5%) refused. The level of awareness among healthcare participants was (80.2%). The average knowledge score was 3.49 (SD =.864) out of a possible 5. Participants who reported having a graduate level of education had a considerably higher mean knowledge score. The mean score of attitudes was 1.95 (SD=1.176) out of 5, with majority of positive attitude score 62.7%. ((65.7% They received the first dose, and 6.0% they received the first dose and second dose)). Participants with age group 55 years and above years, are more aware towards COVID-19 Vaccination than other age groups. Married persons are more aware towards COVID-19 Vaccination than other categories. Participants with graduate educational level are more aware towards COVID-19 Vaccination than other educational levels. Employed persons are more aware towards COVID-19 Vaccination than other categories. Whereas, there is no relation between age and awareness among Saudi citizens towards COVID-19 (P-value= 0.140). As well, there is no relation between employed citizens and awareness among Saudi citizens towards COVID-19 (P-value =0.136), and there is relation between marital status and awareness among Saudi citizens (P-value = 0.013).

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Suhas P. Shewale ◽  
Suvarna Sanjay Sane ◽  
Dhammasagar Dnyaneshwar Ujagare ◽  
Rais Patel ◽  
Sudipto Roy ◽  

Background: To control the transmission of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection, the Government of India (GoI) had taken stringent precautionary measures during the lockdown period. This study aimed to explore determinants affecting adherence to protective measures against COVID-19 infection among rural and semi-urban settings of Maharashtra, India.Methods: A cross-sectional telephonic survey among 1,016 adults from randomly selected households was conducted between June 5 and July 16, 2020. The data were explored for knowledge, awareness, practices related to protective measures, and self-risk perception. Socio-demographic and attitudinal correlates of failure to use protective measures against COVID-19 were measured.Results: In the survey, 72% of the participants were men. The mean age was 46 years (SD: 13.8). The main source of information was television (91%); however, information from healthcare providers (65%) and mass media announcements (49%) was trustworthy. Washing hands immediately with soap after returning from outdoors was reported by 95% of the respondents, always using a mask while outdoors by 94%, never attended social gatherings by 91%, always using hand sanitizer while outside by 77%, and 68% of the respondents followed all protective measures. The knowledge score [mean score 20.3 (SD: 2.4) out of 24] was independently associated with the risk of not using protective measures, with each unit increase in knowledge score, the risk of not using protective measures reduced by 16%. No source of income was independently associated with not using protective measures [AOR 1.5 95% CI (1.01–2.3)].Conclusions: The COVID-19 public health interventions and behavior change communication strategies should be specifically directed towards the low socio-economic populations through trusted sources. The association between knowledge and practices demonstrates the importance of accurate public health communication to optimally follow preventive measures, such as structural interventions to address poverty and employment policies to address the unemployment crisis are required. Surveillance activity is needed to understand the actual behavior change among the population.

2021 ◽  
Vol 50 (Supplement_1) ◽  
Victoria Oladoyin ◽  
Joy Osifo ◽  
Abiola Temitayo-Oboh ◽  
Ayoola Fatiregun ◽  
Elvis Isere

Abstract Background Poor knowledge of frontline health workers on integrated disease surveillance and response (IDSR) is a cause of poor surveillance reporting performance in Nigeria. To improve the knowledge of frontline health workers, they are trained annually, together with the surveillance focal persons, on IDSR. This study determined the immediate impact of one of such trainings on IDSR knowledge of the trainees. Methods A quasi experimental study, involving a pre- and post-test questionnaire survey, was conducted among 205 surveillance training participants in Ondo State, Nigeria. Data was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics at 5% statistical level of significance. Results Mean age was 39.4 ± 9.1 years, 77.6% were females and 51.7% were clinicians. Although most (89.3%) were aware of IDSR, only 48.3 % and 43.9% had been involved in IDSR implementation and training respectively. Overall, the mean pre-test IDSR knowledge score was 12.43. This increased significantly to 18.63 in the post-test (p &lt; 0.001). Sex (p = 0.003) and previous involvement in IDSR implementation (p = 0.043) were associated with improved knowledge score. Females were significantly more likely to have an improved knowledge score [β = 1.876 (CI: 0.305-3.447)]. Conclusions IDSR trainings has the capacity to improve surveillance knowledge in the short-term with a possible resultant improvement in disease prevention and control in the long-term. Key messages Training on IDSR should be conducted regularly for all health care workers and special attention should be given to male health workers.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (9) ◽  
pp. e0256814
Athira Balakrishnan ◽  
Sreedharan Nair ◽  
Vijayanarayana Kunhikatta ◽  
Muhammed Rashid ◽  
M. K. Unnikrishnan ◽  

Background &objectives Though there are studies to evaluate the effectiveness of blended learning in pharmacy education, most of them originate from USA and have used previous year students’ scores as control. Also there is less research in comparing use of self -regulated learning strategies between blended and other learning strategies. Primary aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of blended learning on knowledge score using clinical research modules. Secondary objective was designed to compare the use of self-regulated learning strategies between blended learning, web-based e-learning and didactic teaching. Materials and methods A prospective cluster randomized trial was conducted with didactic teaching as control and web-based e-learning and blended learning as interventions. The target population was final year Pharm D students. Outcome was assessed using a validated knowledge questionnaire, a motivated strategies for learning questionnaire and a feedback form. All statistical analyses were carried out using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) Version 20. Results A total of 241 students from 12 colleges completed the study. Mean knowledge score of students in blended learning group was higher than those in the didactic teaching and web- based e- learning program (64.26±18.19 Vs 56.65±8.73 Vs 52.11±22.06,p<0.001).Frequency of use of learning strategies namely rehearsal, elaboration, organization and critical thinking was statistically significantly higher in the blended learning group compared to those of didactic and web-based e-learning group (p<0.05) But there were no statistically significant difference of motivational orientations between didactic and blended learning group except strategies of extrinsic goal orientation and self-efficacy. Students preferred blended learning (86.5%) over didactic and web-based e-learning. Conclusion Blended learning approach is an effective way to teach clinical research module. Students of blended learning group employed all motivational and learning strategies more often than students of the didactic and web- based e-learning groups except strategies of intrinsic goal orientation, task value, control of learning belief and help seeking.

Roshani Dhanvijay ◽  
Savita Pohekar

Background: Air pollution is the major environmental pollution that contains different types of gases, dust particles, small molecules, etc. Air pollution is mainly caused by smoke or other harmful gases, such as oxides of carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen. Auto-rickshaw drivers are not only affected by air pollution, they are exposed to climatic changes, and. poor road conditions. They are exposed to air pollution, dust, infected droplets, job insecurity, noise pollution and vibration, business demands, damage to their vehicles, and, schedule-related pressure. Drivers also have the responsibility of their passengers and pedestrians- ‘lives and other vehicles. The objective of the study is to analyze knowledge among auto-rickshaw drivers regarding the health effects of air pollution and its prevention. Methods: An observational research methodology, a cross-sectional research design was used to perform this analysis. Probability purposive sampling technique was used to collect data from auto-rickshaw drivers based on the health effects of air pollution and its prevention utilizing structured questionnaires. The sample attributes have been defined by frequency, percentage, after data collection. The Chi-square test was also used to figure out the correlation between knowledge and specified demographic variables. Results: The findings show that 1.67% of auto-rickshaw drivers had an average level of knowledge score, 38.33% of them were having good and 60 % of them were having an excellent level of knowledge score and none of them were found to have a very poor level of knowledge. The minimum knowledge score was 7 and the maximum knowledge score was 14. Hence it indicates that auto-rickshaw drivers have good knowledge about the effect of air pollution and their prevention. Conclusions: The study shows that the auto-rickshaw drivers having good knowledge about air pollution to the management of respiratory diseases and along with their complications as well as to take the required measures to avoid respiratory complications. 

F1000Research ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. 837
Christie Akwaowo ◽  
Idongesit Umoh ◽  
Oluseyi Motilewa ◽  
Victor Umoh ◽  
Eno Usoroh ◽  

Background: Intensified efforts to improve tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis, treatment, and prevention are needed to meet global EndTB targets. Community health workers’ (CHWs) knowledge with respect to case finding is vital in tuberculosis elimination. This study aimed to determine the effect of tuberculosis training on the knowledge of community health workers in Nigeria. Methods: As part of a larger multicomponent intervention study, a randomised control trial was conducted with CHWs in 18 primary health care (PHC) clusters in Nigeria. The clusters were allocated to three arms: training and cash incentive (A), training only (B), and control (C) arms. Arms (A) and (B) received training on tuberculosis symptoms, prevention, diagnosis and treatment while the control arm (C) did not receive training. Participants’ knowledge on tuberculosis was assessed using questionnaires administered pre- and post-intervention. Data was analyzed using GraphPad Prism. Descriptive data was presented in tables and bivariate data was analyzed using chi square. Statistical significance was set as P<0.05. Results: There was a significant increase in the total knowledge score (25.4%), knowledge of general symptoms (24.4%), prevention (22.6%) and diagnosis and treatment (30.0%) across all study arms post-intervention (p<0.0001). Compared with the control arm, the training arm (A) had a higher proportion of good total knowledge score (94.4%) and arm (B) had a lower proportion of good total knowledge score (83.1%) when compared to the control group (93.1%). These were, however, not statistically significant. Conclusions: An improvement in the CHWs’ knowledge of symptoms, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis was observed after a training intervention was done. Integration of routine tuberculosis training is recommended to improve tuberculosis case finding in high burden communities. Pan African Clinical Trial Registry registration: PACTR202010691865364 (14/01/2020)

Muhammad Salman ◽  
Zia Ul Mustafa ◽  
Noman Asif ◽  
Naureen Shehzadi ◽  
Tahir Mehmood Khan ◽  

Abstract Background: COVIID-19 outbreak has been accompanied by a massive infodemic. However, many vulnerable individuals such as illiterate or low-literate, older adults, and rural populations have limited access to health information. In this context, these individuals are more likely to have poor knowledge, attitudes, and preventive practices related to COVID-19. The current study was aimed to investigate COVID-19’s awareness of the illiterate population of Pakistanis. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among illiterate Pakistanis having age ≥ 18 years through a convenient sampling approach. The study participants were interviewed, face to face, by respecting the defined precautionary measures. All data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 22. Results: The mean age of the study participants’ (N = 394) was 37.2±9.60 years, with the majority of males (80.7%). All participants were aware of the COVID-19 outbreak and television news channels (75.1%) were the primary source of information. The mean knowledge score was 5.33±1.88. About 27% of participants had good knowledge score (score ≥ 7) followed by moderate (score 4-6) and poor (score ≤ 3) knowledge in 41.6%, and 31.5% respondents, respectively. The attitude score was 4.42±1.22 with good (score ≥ 6), average (score 4-5), and poor attitude (score ≤ 3) in 19%, 66%, and 15% participants, respectively. The average practices-related score was 12.80±3.34, with the majority of participants having inadequate practices. Conclusion: COVID-19 knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices of the illiterate population in Pakistan are unsatisfactory. This study highlights the gaps in specific aspects of knowledge and practice that should be addressed through awareness campaigns targeting this specific population.

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (8) ◽  
pp. 2713
Weelun Foo ◽  
Mark A. Faghy ◽  
Andy Sparks ◽  
Josh W. Newbury ◽  
Lewis A. Gough

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a seven-week nutrition education intervention on the sports nutrition knowledge (SNK) of highly trained UK adolescent swimmers. Fifteen national and international adolescent swimmers (males = 5; females = 10, 15.5 ± 1.1 years, 170.2 ± 7.5 cm, 60.3 ± 5.7 kg) participated in the study during seven consecutive weeks of the competitive swimming season. The participants received 30 min of nutrition education once per week in a classroom-based setting after they had completed their regular swim training. An undergraduate sports nutrition student delivered all nutrition education sessions and SNK questionnaires were administered to the participants pre- and post-intervention. The mean total SNK score improved by 8.3% (SD = 8.4%, 95% CI = 4.1–12.6; p = 0.006; ES = 1.0) following the nutrition education sessions. On an individual basis, ten swimmers significantly improved their total SNK score, whereas four swimmers did not improve, and one swimmer performed significantly worse after the intervention. Moreover, the swimmers’ knowledge of hydration improved by 22.2% (SD = 20.6%, 95% CI = 11.8–32.6, p = 0.004, ES = 1.1) over the seven-week timeframe, which was the only nutrition topic to have a significantly increased knowledge score. The current study therefore suggests that a nutrition education intervention can positively influence the SNK of highly trained adolescent swimmers.

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