Mental Distress
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Tonje Stea ◽  
Linn Alvsvåg ◽  
Annette Kleppang

The aim of the present study was to examine associations between dietary habits, substance use, and mental distress among adults. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2019 using an online questionnaire and included 28,047 adults (≥18 years) from Southern Norway. Multivariable logistic regression models stratified by gender were used to examine the associations between different lifestyle behaviors and mental distress. The results showed increased odds of mental distress among males and females with low consumption of vegetables (OR:1.26; 95% CI:1.08–1.47 and 1.14; 1.02–1.28) and fish (1.28; 1.12–1.46 and 1.36; 1.22–1.52), and among females, but not males, with high consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (1.25; 1.06–1.48) compared to those with a healthier consumption of these foods and beverages. The results also showed increased odds of mental distress among male and female smokers (1.38; 1.19–1.60 and 1.44; 1.26–1.64), and among females, but not males, reporting current use of smokeless tobacco (1.20; 1.03–1.40), compared to male and female non-smokers and female non-users of smokeless tobacco. Overall, unhealthy dietary habits, smoking and the use of smokeless tobacco was associated with increased odds of mental distress, but the relationship varied according to gender. Future studies are needed to confirm any possible causal relationships.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 ◽  
pp. 100067
Marcelo Santos Cruz ◽  
Eliana Sousa Silva ◽  
Zivile Jakaite ◽  
Miriam Krenzinger ◽  
Leandro Valiati ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Sonia Hasani ◽  
Eindra Aung ◽  
Mojgan Mirghafourvand

Abstract Background Considering the increasing incidence of ectopic pregnancy and the negative effects of pregnancy loss on mental health, this study aimed to determine the status of mental health in women with ectopic pregnancy and examine its relationship with their self-esteem. Methods This was a cross-sectional study on 150 women (with a 100% response rate) hospitalized for ectopic pregnancy et al.-Zahra hospital in Tabriz, Iran, during 2018–2019, and recruited via convenience sampling. Data were collected using the General Health Questionnaire-28, which has four subscales (overall score range: 0 to 84; subscale score range: 0 to 21 with a lower score indicating a better mental state), and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (score range: − 10 to + 10 with a higher score indicating higher self-esteem). To determine the association between self-esteem and mental health, independent t-tests, and multivariable logistic regression were used. Results The response rate was 100%. The mean score (SD) of participants’ mental health was 31.4 (8.5), and that of self-esteem was 4.5 (3.80). The percentage of participants who were considered as having mental distress (i.e., overall GHQ-28 score ≥ 24) was 76%. Among the subscales of mental health, social dysfunction was the most prevalent (observed in 100% of the participants), followed by somatic symptoms (79.3%). Lower self-esteem was significantly associated with overall mental distress (odds ratio (OR): 0.74; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.64–0.87; P < 0.001), depression (OR: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.60–0.80; P < 0.001) and anxiety/insomnia (OR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.66–0.87; P < 0.001). Discussion Mental distress was common among women with ectopic pregnancy. This study is the first to examine the relationship between self-esteem and mental health among women with ectopic pregnancy and highlights the important role of self-esteem in mental wellbeing among those women.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (9) ◽  
pp. e0256406
Francisco Perez-Arce ◽  
Marco Angrisani ◽  
Daniel Bennett ◽  
Jill Darling ◽  
Arie Kapteyn ◽  

Background The COVID-19 pandemic brought about large increases in mental distress. The uptake of COVID-19 vaccines is expected to significantly reduce health risks, improve economic and social outcomes, with potential benefits to mental health. Purpose To examine short-term changes in mental distress following the receipt of the first dose of the COVID-19 vaccine. Methods Participants included 8,003 adults from the address-based sampled, nationally representative Understanding America Study (UAS), surveyed at regular intervals between March 10, 2020, and March 31, 2021 who completed at least two waves of the survey. Respondents answered questions about COVID-19 vaccine status and self-reported mental distress as measured with the four-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-4). Fixed-effects regression models were used to identify the change in PHQ-4 scores and categorical indicators of mental distress resulting from the application of the first dose of the COVID-19 vaccine. Results People who were vaccinated between December 2020 and March 2021 reported decreased mental distress levels in the surveys conducted after receiving the first dose. The fixed-effects estimates show an average effect of receiving the vaccine equivalent to 4% of the standard deviation of PHQ-4 scores (p-value<0.01), a reduction in 1 percentage point (4% reduction from the baseline level) in the probability of being at least mildly depressed, and of 0.7 percentage points (15% reduction from the baseline level) in the probability of being severely depressed (p-value = 0.06). Conclusions Getting the first dose of COVID-19 resulted in significant improvements in mental health, beyond improvements already achieved since mental distress peaked in the spring of 2020.

Catherine Brasier ◽  
Helena Roennfeldt ◽  
Bridget Hamilton ◽  
Andrew Martel ◽  
Nicole Hill ◽  

Ching-Wen Chang ◽  
Siu-Ming To ◽  
Wallace Chi-Ho Chan ◽  
Alex Ching-Pong Fong

Precarious political circumstances can take a mental toll on young people. Adopting a socio-ecological perspective, this study investigated the influence of stress arising from political life events, intrapersonal factors (i.e., meaning in life, resilience), interpersonal factors (i.e., social support, associational social capital), and community factors (i.e., perceived empowerment in the community, perceived opportunities for civic engagement) on the mental health of youth in Hong Kong. Furthermore, it examined the moderating effects of these factors on the relationship between stress arising from political life events and mental health. A cross-sectional quantitative survey with a stratified purposive sampling data collection method was conducted. A total of 1330 secondary school students were recruited for this study. Multiple regression analysis was performed to examine both direct and moderation effects. The results indicate that high stress arising from political life events, low meaningfulness in life, low resilience, low social support, low youth empowerment in the community, and high civic engagement in the community were related to high mental distress. None of the presumed moderators moderated the relationship between stress due to political life events and mental distress. Assessing and addressing stress due to political life events would be potentially important in mental health programs for Hong Kong adolescents in precarious political situations.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Nora Guethlein ◽  
Melina Grahlow ◽  
Carolin A. Lewis ◽  
Stephan Bork ◽  
Ute Habel ◽  

People whose gender does not correspond to the binary gender system, i.e., trans∗gender people, face two main problems when it comes to healthcare in Germany: (1) They often suffer from general psychiatric comorbidities as well as specific and significant mental distress due to gender dysphoria, and (2) the German healthcare system lacks sufficiently educated and clinically experienced medical personnel who are able to provide specialized healthcare. Aside from transition, it often is extremely difficult for trans∗gender people to get access to and be integrated into the medical system. Stigmatization and pathologization in treatment are widespread, as are long waiting times for specialized healthcare providers who are often only accessible to those trans∗gender people willing to travel long distances. Frequently, trans∗gender people face further difficulties and barriers after transition, as some healthcare professionals fail to provide suitable care (e.g., gynecological consultation for transmen). The ICD-11 German Modification (ICD-11-GM), which should be routinely used by 2022, implements a depathologization of trans∗gender people in the medical system. This paper compares the issues related to health and healthcare of trans∗gender people in Germany with those in other European countries. We review the care offered by specialized centers with regard to treatment of and support for trans∗gender people. We conclude with specific proposals that may contribute to establish an improved, up-to-date, gender-sensitive healthcare system.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Henning Krampe ◽  
Lars Johan Danbolt ◽  
Annie Haver ◽  
Gry Stålsett ◽  
Tatjana Schnell

Abstract Background An internal locus of control (LoC I) refers to the belief that the outcome of events in one’s life is contingent upon one’s actions, whereas an external locus of control (LoC E) describes the belief that chance and powerful others control one’s life. This study investigated whether LoC I and LoC E moderated the relationship between COVID-19 stress and general mental distress in the general population during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods This cross-sectional survey study analysed data from a Norwegian (n = 1225) and a German-speaking sample (n = 1527). We measured LoC with the Locus of Control-4 Scale (IE-4), COVID-19 stress with a scale developed for this purpose, and mental distress with the Patient Health Questionnaire 4 (PHQ-4). Moderation analyses were conducted using the PROCESS macro for SPSS. Results The association between COVID-19 stress and general mental distress was strong (r = .61 and r = .55 for the Norwegian and the German-speaking sample, respectively). In both samples, LoC showed substantial moderation effects. LoC I served as a buffer (p < .001), and LoC E exacerbated (p < .001) the relation between COVID-19 stress and general mental distress. Conclusions The data suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic is easier to bear for people who, despite pandemic-related strains, feel that they generally have influence over their own lives. An external locus of control, conversely, is associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety. The prevention of mental distress may be supported by enabling a sense of control through citizen participation in policy decisions and transparent explanation in their implementation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 33 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-5
Neil Ballantyne ◽  
Liz Beddoe


2021 ◽  
Vol 33 (2) ◽  
pp. 118-120
Neil Ballantyne

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