gender based
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
R. Ejaz ◽  
M. T. Ashraf ◽  
S. Qadeer ◽  
M. Irfan ◽  
A. Azam ◽  

Abstract COVID-19 is reported as an extremely contagious disease with common symptoms of fever, dry cough, sore throat, and tiredness. The published literature on incidence and gender-wise prevalence of COVID-19 is scarce in Pakistan. Therefore, the present study was designed to compare the distribution, incubation period and mortality rate of COVID-19 among the male and female population of district Attock. The data were collected between 01 April 2020 and 07 December 2020 from the population of district Attock, Pakistan. A total of 22,962 individuals were screened and 843 were found positive for RT-qPCR for SARS-CoV-2. The confirmed positive cases were monitored carefully. Among the positive cases, the incidence of COVID-19 was 61.7% among males and 38.2% among females. The average recovery period of males was 18.89±7.75 days and females were 19±8.40 days from SARS-CoV-2. The overall mortality rate was 8.06%. The death rate of male patients was significantly higher (P<0.05) compared to female patients. Also, the mortality rate was higher (P<0.05) in male patients of 40-60 years of age compared to female patients of the same age group. Moreover, the mortality rate significantly increased (P<0.05) with the increase of age irrespective of gender. In conclusion, the incidence and mortality rate of COVID-19 is higher in males compared to the female population. Moreover, irrespective of gender the mortality rate was significantly lower among patients aged <40 years.

2022 ◽  
Vol 32 ◽  
pp. 100609
Marwa Diab-El-Harake ◽  
Samer Kharroubi ◽  
Jumanah Zabaneh ◽  
Lamis Jomaa

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (4) ◽  
pp. 162-181
A. N. Marchukov

Digital diplomacy opens up new opportunities for both developed and devel-oping states to promote their international image, clarify their position on current issues, and realize long-term foreign policy aspirations, but it also brings com-pletely new challenges. The chief one among them is establishing a continuous constructive dialogue with the target audience in the virtual space. Facilitation for this dialogue is one of the key priorities of the digital diplomacy of Sweden. The author examines the activities of the key actors of Sweden’s digital diplomacy (the Ministry of Foreign Aff airs of Sweden, the Swedish Institute, the Swedish Tourist Association (Svenska Turistföreningen), ‘Visit Sweden’) and identifi es their key features. Particularly, the author emphasizes the government’s readiness to implement innovative and creative methods to promote its media projects. The latter include such projects as ‘The Second House of Sweden’, ‘Curators of Sweden’, and ‘Swedish Number’, which were aimed at improving the quality of communication with the foreign audience. In doing so, the responsible minis-tries and agencies placed a heavy emphasis on promoting a dialogue via social networks between the Swedish offi  cials and representatives of the civil society on the one hand and foreign users on the other. The leading actors of Sweden’s digital diplomacy actively engaged the foreign audience in discussions on the most important issues on the foreign policy agenda of Sweden. This was most clearly demonstrated in media campaigns designed to eliminate discrimination against women and gender-based violence. The author concludes that Sweden has achieved a certain degree of success in establishing a dialogue with the foreign audience, yet this dialogue is not comprehensive enough and still depends on the initiative of individual politicians and diplomats.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Heather M. Marlow ◽  
Michael Kunnuji ◽  
Adenike Esiet ◽  
Funsho Bukoye ◽  
Chimaraoke Izugbara

In humanitarian settings, ~35 million girls and young women of reproductive age (15–24) are in urgent need of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) information and services. Young women and girls in humanitarian contexts are particularly vulnerable to unwanted pregnancies, unsafe abortion, gender-based violence, and early and forced marriage. We sought to understand girls' and young women's experiences with unwanted pregnancy, abortion, contraception, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), gender-based violence (GBV), and forced marriage in an IDP camp in Northeastern Nigeria. We conducted 25 in-depth interviews with girls aged 15–19 (N = 13; 8 single and 5 married) and young women aged 20–24 (N = 12; 3 single and 9 married). All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, translated, computer recorded and coded for analysis. The participants in our study fled from and witnessed violence to arrive in the IDP camp with little material support. Lack of necessities, especially food, has driven many to sex in exchange for goods or into forced marriages. This, in turn, leads to increased unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortions. Participants had limited knowledge about contraception, and some information about SRH services available in the camp, but overall, knowledge and utilization of SRH services was low.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 115-131
Leigh Goodmark

The Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) has been hailed as the federal government's signature legislation responding to gender-based violence. VAWA, passed in 1994 and reauthorized three times since then, has created several new programs and protections for victims of gender-based violence. VAWA is, however, primarily a funding bill and what it primarily funds is the criminal legal system. But the criminal legal response to gender-based violence has not been effective in decreasing rates of gender-based violence or deterring violence. A VAWA that discontinued funding for the criminal legal system and instead focused on economics, prevention, and community-based resources—a noncarceral VAWA—could better meet the needs of victims of gender-based violence and target the underlying causes of that violence.

2022 ◽  
Vol 31 (163) ◽  
pp. 210111
Ranjani Somayaji ◽  
James D. Chalmers

Chronic lung diseases are the third leading cause of death worldwide and are increasing in prevalence over time. Although much of our traditional understanding of health and disease is derived from study of the male of the species – be it animal or human – there is increasing evidence that sex and gender contribute to differences in disease risk, prevalence, presentation, severity, treatment approach, response and outcomes. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma and bronchiectasis represent the most prevalent and studied chronic lung diseases and have key sex- and gender-based differences which are critical to consider and incorporate into clinical and research approaches. Mechanistic differences present opportunities for therapeutic development whereas behavioural and clinical differences on the part of patients and providers present opportunities for greater education and understanding at multiple levels. In this review, we seek to summarise the sex- and gender-based differences in key chronic lung diseases and outline the clinical and research implications for stakeholders.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 ◽  
Abdurahman Milad ◽  
Dwi Rukmini ◽  
Dwi Anggani ◽  
Rudi Hartono

This study instigates the teachers’ perceptions towards the implementation of the adapted communicative approach to teach English language in Libyan high schools in the city of Khoms. The participants were six teachers of different gender-based high schools. The study followed a pure qualitative method to collect and analyze the date, and the data were collected using an open-ended questionnaire. The findings reveal that the majority of English language teachers in Libyan high schools in Khoms city have positively perceived the implementation of the communicative approach (CA) to teach English language in their high schools’ contexts. They agreed to the majority of the questionnaire’s items such as: the CA emphasizes the communication in the target language and emphasizes that the learners need meaningful communication. All the participants said that they modify the principles of the communicative approach to meet the students’ needs and goals and most of them have agreed that the allocated time is not enough to complete the lesson in the classroom. This study draws out the pedagogical implication that the implementation of the adapted CA to teach English language in high schools in Libya can be quite adaptable, especially when the teachers have to fulfil the students’ needs.

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