muscle cells
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Luke A. Baker ◽  
Thomas F. O'Sullivan ◽  
Katherine A. Robinson ◽  
Matthew P.M. Graham‐Brown ◽  
Rupert W. Major ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Xiaoqian Lyu ◽  
Fei Xie ◽  
Yujuan Tao ◽  
Jie Bai

Abstract Objectives Sugammadex (also known as bridion) is a modified γ-cyclodextrin, which is a reversal agent for the neuromuscular block. Growth hormone (GH) has an important biological effect on muscle, regulating muscle growth and development. In the current work, we explored the effect of Sugammadex on GH’s bioactivities. Methods Confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM), flow cytometry, indirect immunofluorescence, Western-blot, and IP-WB were used to explore the effect of Sugammadex on GH’s bioactivities. Results We found that Sugammadex reduced the activity of GH on muscle cells, which down-regulated GH/GHR-mediated intracellular signaling pathway, such as Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and signal transducers and activators of transcription 5 (STAT5). We further study the potential biological mechanism by which Sugammadex down-regulated GH/GHR-mediated signaling pathway, a series of related experiments were conducted, and found that Sugammadex may inhibit the proliferation of C2C12 cell via regulating the membrane-localized GHR, which may be the underlying mechanism by which Sugammadex suppressed GHR-induced signaling transduction. This work has laid the theoretical and experimental basis for further exploring the relationship between Sugammadex and GH’s activity. Conclusions In conclusion, this study laid a foundation for further study on the relationship between Sugammadex and GH’s activity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Ruiting Wang ◽  
Fengling Chen ◽  
Qian Chen ◽  
Xin Wan ◽  
Minglei Shi ◽  

AbstractThe genome exists as an organized, three-dimensional (3D) dynamic architecture, and each cell type has a unique 3D genome organization that determines its cell identity. An unresolved question is how cell type-specific 3D genome structures are established during development. Here, we analyzed 3D genome structures in muscle cells from mice lacking the muscle lineage transcription factor (TF), MyoD, versus wild-type mice. We show that MyoD functions as a “genome organizer” that specifies 3D genome architecture unique to muscle cell development, and that H3K27ac is insufficient for the establishment of MyoD-induced chromatin loops in muscle cells. Moreover, we present evidence that other cell lineage-specific TFs might also exert functional roles in orchestrating lineage-specific 3D genome organization during development.

Angiogenesis ◽  
2022 ◽  
Harri Elamaa ◽  
Mika Kaakinen ◽  
Marjut Nätynki ◽  
Zoltan Szabo ◽  
Veli-Pekka Ronkainen ◽  

AbstractHypoxia plays an important regulatory role in the vasculature to adjust blood flow to meet metabolic requirements. At the level of gene transcription, the responses are mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) the stability of which is controlled by the HIF prolyl 4-hydroxylase-2 (PHD2). In the lungs hypoxia results in vasoconstriction, however, the pathophysiological relevance of PHD2 in the major arterial cell types; endothelial cells (ECs) and arterial smooth muscle cells (aSMCs) in the adult vasculature is incompletely characterized. Here, we investigated PHD2-dependent vascular homeostasis utilizing inducible deletions of PHD2 either in ECs (Phd2∆ECi) or in aSMCs (Phd2∆aSMC). Cardiovascular function and lung pathologies were studied using echocardiography, Doppler ultrasonography, intraventricular pressure measurement, histological, ultrastructural, and transcriptional methods. Cell intrinsic responses were investigated in hypoxia and in conditions mimicking hypertension-induced hemodynamic stress. Phd2∆ECi resulted in progressive pulmonary disease characterized by a thickened respiratory basement membrane (BM), alveolar fibrosis, increased pulmonary artery pressure, and adaptive hypertrophy of the right ventricle (RV). A low oxygen environment resulted in alterations in cultured ECs similar to those in Phd2∆ECi mice, involving BM components and vascular tone regulators favoring the contraction of SMCs. In contrast, Phd2∆aSMC resulted in elevated RV pressure without alterations in vascular tone regulators. Mechanistically, PHD2 inhibition in aSMCs involved  actin polymerization -related tension development via activated cofilin. The results also indicated that hemodynamic stress, rather than PHD2-dependent hypoxia response alone, potentiates structural remodeling of the extracellular matrix in the pulmonary microvasculature and respiratory failure.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Wenhua Li ◽  
Yixin Zhang ◽  
Jian Wang ◽  
Qiang Li ◽  
Di Zhao ◽  

With the development of information technology, the concept of smart healthcare has gradually come to the fore. Smart healthcare uses a new generation of information technologies, such as the Internet of Things (loT), big data, cloud computing, and artificial intelligence, to transform the traditional medical system in an all-around way, making healthcare more efficient, more convenient, and more personalized. miRNAs can regulate the proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of human cells. Relevant studies have also shown that miRNAs may play a key role in the occurrence and development of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (MIRI). This study aims to explore the effects of miR-489 in MIRI. In this study, miR-489 expression in a myocardial ischemia-reperfusion animal model and H9C2 cells induced by H/R was detected by qRT-PCR. The release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and the activity of creatine kinase (CK) was detected after miR-489 knockdown in H9C2 cells induced by H/R. The apoptosis of H9C2 cells and animal models were determined by ELISA. The relationship between miR-489 and SPIN1 was verified by a double fluorescence reporter enzyme assay. The expression of the PI3K/AKT pathway-related proteins was detected by Western blot. Experimental results showed that miR-489 was highly expressed in cardiac muscle cells of the animal model and in H9C2 cells induced by H/R of the myocardial infarction group, which was positively associated with the apoptosis of cardiac muscle cells with ischemia-reperfusion. miR-489 knockdown can reduce the apoptosis of cardiac muscle cells caused by ischemia-reperfusion. In downstream targeting studies, it was found that miR-489 promotes the apoptosis of cardiac muscle cells after ischemia-reperfusion by targeting the inhibition of the SPIN1-mediated PI3K/AKT pathway. In conclusion, high expression of miR-489 is associated with increased apoptosis of cardiac muscle cells after ischemia-reperfusion, which can promote the apoptosis after ischemia-reperfusion by targeting the inhibition of the SPIN1-mediated PI3K/AKT pathway. Therefore, miR-489 can be one of the potential therapeutic targets for reducing the apoptosis of cardiac muscle cells after ischemia-reperfusion.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Xiaomei Guan ◽  
Hai Xin ◽  
Meiling Xu ◽  
Jianlei Ji ◽  
Jun Li

Background. Data mining of current gene expression databases has not been previously performed to determine whether sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) expression participates in the pathological process of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The present study was aimed at investigating the role and mechanism of SIRT6 in regulating phenotype transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) in AAA. Methods. Three gene expression microarray datasets of AAA patients in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database and one dataset of SIRT6-knockout (KO) mice were selected, and the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using GEO2R. Furthermore, Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses of both the AAA-related DEGs and the SIRT6-related DEGs were conducted. Results. GEO2R analysis showed that the expression of SIRT6 was downregulated for three groups and upregulated for one group in the three datasets, and none of them satisfied statistical significance. There were top 5 DEGs (KYNU, NPTX2, SCRG1, GRK5, and RGS5) in both of the human AAA group and SIRT6-KO mouse group. Top 25 ontology of the SIRT6-KO-related DEGs showed that several pathways including tryptophan catabolic process to kynurenine and negative regulation of cell growth were enriched in the tissues of thickness aortic wall biopsies of AAA patients. Conclusions. Although SIRT6 mRNA level itself did not change among AAA patients, SIRT6 may play an important role in regulating several signaling pathways with significant association with AAA, suggesting that SIRT6 mRNA upregulation is a protective factor for VSMC against AAA.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 580
Dawid M. Kaczor ◽  
Rafael Kramann ◽  
Tilman M. Hackeng ◽  
Leon J. Schurgers ◽  
Rory R. Koenen

Platelet factor 4 (CXCL4) is a chemokine abundantly stored in platelets. Upon injury and during atherosclerosis, CXCL4 is transported through the vessel wall where it modulates the function of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) by affecting proliferation, migration, gene expression and cytokine release. Variant CXCL4L1 is distinct from CXCL4 in function and expression pattern, despite a minor three-amino acid difference. Here, the effects of CXCL4 and CXCL4L1 on the phenotype and function of human VSMCs were compared in vitro. VSMCs were found to constitutively express CXCL4L1 and only exogenously added CXCL4 was internalized by VSMCs. Pre-treatment with heparin completely blocked CXCL4 uptake. A role of the putative CXCL4 receptors CXCR3 and DARC in endocytosis was excluded, but LDL receptor family members appeared to be involved in the uptake of CXCL4. Incubation of VSMCs with both CXCL4 and CXCL4L1 resulted in decreased expression of contractile marker genes and increased mRNA levels of KLF4 and NLRP3 transcription factors, yet only CXCL4 stimulated proliferation and calcification of VSMCs. In conclusion, CXCL4 and CXCL4L1 both modulate gene expression, yet only CXCL4 increases the division rate and formation of calcium-phosphate crystals in VSMCs. CXCL4 and CXCL4L1 may play distinct roles during vascular remodeling in which CXCL4 induces proliferation and calcification while endogenously expressed CXCL4L1 governs cellular homeostasis. The latter notion remains a subject for future investigation.

Paul Cheng ◽  
Robert C. Wirka ◽  
Lee Shoa Clarke ◽  
Quanyi Zhao ◽  
Ramendra Kundu ◽  

Background: Smooth muscle cells (SMC) transition into a number of different phenotypes during atherosclerosis, including those that resemble fibroblasts and chondrocytes, and make up the majority of cells in the atherosclerotic plaque. To better understand the epigenetic and transcriptional mechanisms that mediate these cell state changes, and how they relate to risk for coronary artery disease (CAD), we have investigated the causality and function of transcription factors (TFs) at genome wide associated loci. Methods: We employed CRISPR-Cas 9 genome and epigenome editing to identify the causal gene and cell(s) for a complex CAD GWAS signal at 2q22.3. Subsequently, single-cell epigenetic and transcriptomic profiling in murine models and human coronary artery smooth muscle cells were employed to understand the cellular and molecular mechanism by which this CAD risk gene exerts its function. Results: CRISPR-Cas 9 genome and epigenome editing showed that the complex CAD genetic signals within a genomic region at 2q22.3 lie within smooth muscle long-distance enhancers for ZEB2 , a TF extensively studied in the context of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) in development and cancer. ZEB2 regulates SMC phenotypic transition through chromatin remodeling that obviates accessibility and disrupts both Notch and TGFβ signaling, thus altering the epigenetic trajectory of SMC transitions. SMC specific loss of ZEB2 resulted in an inability of transitioning SMCs to turn off contractile programing and take on a fibroblast-like phenotype, but accelerated the formation of chondromyocytes, mirroring features of high-risk atherosclerotic plaques in human coronary arteries. Conclusions: These studies identify ZEB2 as a new CAD GWAS gene that affects features of plaque vulnerability through direct effects on the epigenome, providing a new thereapeutic approach to target vascular disease.

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