Feed Intake
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2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. 001-006
Yeigba, B Japhet ◽  
Kpun, IP ◽  
Birigeni, D Charity

The study was carried out at the Niger Delta University, Faculty of Agriculture Teaching and Research Farm, Bayelsa State. A total of Ninety six (96) growing snails (Archachatina marginata). Using Plantain peel as an additive, four diets were formulated at the levels of 0%, 3%, 6%, and 9% to form the treatment diets. The experiment lasted for eight (8) weeks during which the weight gain, feed intake, shell width, shell length, shell thickness and hematological parameters were obtained. The weight gain, shell width, shell length and shell thickness are not significantly different (p<0.05) whereas, the feed intake differed significantly (p<0.05) for all the treatment diets in the experiment. From the results, it was concluded that concentrate with 0% inclusion of Plantain peel meal was suitable for snail diets as it gave the best performance. The hematological parameters measured in the African giant land snails are White blood cell, Neutrophile and Lymphocyte differed significantly (p<0.05). Plantain peel can serve as source of potassium for other animals, as the highest percentage of potassium was found in the hemolymph of snails fed with 9% inclusion of plantain peel. It is recommended that; there should be no inclusion of plantain peels in the diet of the African giant land snails in order to achieve higher weight gain and feed intake.

B M Lozinski ◽  
B Frederick ◽  
Y Li ◽  
M Saqui-Salces ◽  
G C Shurson ◽  

Abstract An experiment was conducted to determine effects of providing drinking water of differing qualities on growth performance and health of nursery pigs. Weanling pigs (n = 450; 150 pigs/group; 10 pigs/pen) were assigned randomly to one of three experimental groups consisting of three water sources of varying quality: 1) Water source A containing 1,410 ppm hardness (CaCO3 equivalent), 1,120 ppm sulfates, and 1,500 ppm total dissolved solids (TDS); 2) Water source B containing 909 ppm hardness (CaCO3 equivalent), 617 ppm sulfates, and 1,050 ppm TDS; and 3) Water source C containing 235 ppm hardness (CaCO3 equivalent), 2 ppm sulfates, and 348 ppm TDS. Pigs were provided ad libitum access to their respective water sources for the duration of the study which began at weaning (21 d of age) and ended 40 d later (61 d of age). Individual pig weights were recorded weekly along with feed intake on a pen basis. Occurrences of morbidity and mortality were recorded daily. Subjective fecal scores were assigned on a pen basis and blood samples were used to evaluate blood chemistry, cytokine concentrations, and phagocytic activity. A differential sugar absorption test was used to assess intestinal permeability. Fecal grab samples were used to establish diet digestibility, and drinking behavior was video-recorded to assess pigs’ acceptance of water sources provided. The statistical model considered fixed effects of water source, room, and their interaction with the random effect of pen. A repeated measures analysis was conducted to determine effects of water quality over time. There were no differences (P &gt; 0.440) among water sources in average daily gain (A, 0.46 kg/d; B, 0.46 kg/d; C, 0.47 kg/d) or average daily feed intake (A, 0.68 kg/d; B, 0.69 kg/d; C, 0.71 kg/d). Overall mortality of pigs was 0.44% and did not differ across the three water sources. There were no differences in apparent total tract digestibility of the diet, intestinal permeability, immune parameters, or blood chemistry attributable to quality of water consumed by pigs. Pigs did not show an aversion to the water sources provided, because total time pigs spent at the drinker did not differ (P &gt; 0.750) among water sources on d 1 through 3 of the experiment. These data indicate that the water sources of differing quality studied did not affect growth performance or health of nursery pigs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 54 (1) ◽  
Makinde Olayinka John ◽  
Musa Ahmad Rufai ◽  
Alao Johnson Sunday ◽  
Escribano Fernando ◽  
Kohn Richard ◽  

Gustavo do Valle Polycarpo ◽  
Gabrieli Andressa de Lima ◽  
Thaís de Souza Ávida ◽  
Fábio Sampaio Rosas ◽  
Valquiria Cação Cruz-Polycarpo ◽  

Phytogenic additives have been studied intensively in broiler chickens’ production to substitute growth-promoting antibiotics. However, the comprehensive literature on this topic makes it difficult to understand overall results because there are a noticeable number of studies with conflicting conclusions. While several research studies have shown that phytogenic additives may increment broiler chicken’s performance, others make the opposite evident. This study aimed to organize and understand information through meta-analysis considering a great number of publications and the factors that may interfere in the results of phytogenic additives, evaluating whether phytogenic additives can be used as a performance-enhancing additive for broilers, comparing with the effectiveness of growth-promoting antibiotics. The main factor that interferes in the evaluation of phytogenic additives is the microbiological challenge. Phytogenic additives improved average daily gain (ADG) (P < 0.001) and feed conversion (P < 0.001) regardless of microbiological challenge; however, they were worse compared to antibiotics under higher challenge (P < 0.020). A meta-regression of ADG in function of average daily feed intake confirmed that phytogenic additives increased the feed efficiency of broilers, but with less effectiveness than antibiotics. The blends of phytogenic additives increased the ADG in relation to the isolated use of only one phytogenic additive.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Yunxia Xiong ◽  
Shuting Cao ◽  
Hao Xiao ◽  
Qiwen Wu ◽  
Hongbo Yi ◽  

Abstract Background Previous studies had shown that short-term acute heat stress (HS) affected the host’s metabolism and intestinal microbiota independent of feed intake (FI) reduction, and long-term calorie restriction caused intestinal morphological injuries and gut microbial alterations. However, research on the effects of constant chronic HS on intestinal microbial composition and the roles of FI reduction played in is limited. This study aimed to investigate the effects of 7-day constant chronic HS on the composition of intestinal microbes in growing-finishing pigs, and its relationship with pigs’ performance, intestinal morphology, and ileal immune response. Twenty-four growing-finishing pigs (Duroc × Large White × Landrace, 30 ± 1 kg body weight) were randomly assigned to three treatments (n = 8), 1) thermal neutral (TN) conditions (25 ± 1 °C) with ad libitum FI, 2) HS conditions (35 ± 1 °C) with ad libitum FI, 3) pair-fed (PF) with HS under TN conditions to discriminate the confounding effects of dissimilar FI, and the FI was the previous day’s average FI of HS. The small intestinal segments (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) and feces were collected on d 8. Results Results indicated that HS drastically declined (P < 0.05) average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) (about 61%) in comparison with TN, and caused hyperpyrexia, meanwhile PF caused hypothermia. Morphological observation by light and electron microscopes showed that both HS and PF treatment decreased (P < 0.05) the villus and microvillus height compared with TN. Additionally, HS increased (P < 0.05) protein expression of heat shock protein 70 in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. Furthermore, the expression of tight junction protein zonula occluden-1 (ZO-1) in the duodenum and ileum, and Occludin in the ileum were enhanced (P < 0.05) compared with TN and PF. Moreover, HS significantly enhanced (P < 0.05) the mRNA relative expression of inflammatory cytokines (TLR-2, TLR-4, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-6, IL-8, PG1–5, β-defensin 2 (pBD-2)), mucins (mucin-1 and mucin-2) and P65 protein level in the ileal mucosa tissue. Intestinal microbiota analysis by 16S rRNA sequencing showed lower (P < 0.10) α diversity in both HS and PF, and a separated cluster of β diversity among groups. Compared with TN, HS but not PF mainly reduced (FDR < 0.05) Bacteroidetes (phylum), Bacteroidia (class) and elevated the proportions of Proteobacteria (phylum, FDR < 0.05), Bacillales (order, FDR < 0.05), Planococcaceae (family, FDR < 0.05), Kurthia (genus, FDR < 0.05), Streptococcaceae (family, FDR < 0.10) and Streptococcus (genus, FDR < 0.10). Notably, Lactobacillales (order) was decreased (FDR < 0.05) by PF alone. Furthermore, the Spearman correlation analysis indicated that the microbes prevalent in HS were positively (P < 0.05) associated with intestinal morphological injuries indicators and ileal immune response parameters, and the microbes reduced in HS were negatively (P < 0.05) with the performance data. Conclusions Intestinal morphological injuries and ileal immune response caused by constant chronic HS independent of FI showed close connections with alterations in intestinal microbiota in growing-finishing pigs.

animal ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
pp. 100432
M. Saar ◽  
Y. Edan ◽  
A. Godo ◽  
J. Lepar ◽  
Y. Parmet ◽  

Alemayehu Kidane ◽  
Stine Gregersen Vhile ◽  
Sabine Ferneborg ◽  
Siv Skeie ◽  
Martine Andrea Olsen ◽  

K.T. Williams ◽  
K.A. Weigel ◽  
W.K. Coblentz ◽  
N.M. Esser ◽  
H. Schlesser ◽  

Aquaculture ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 737915
Moha Esmaeili ◽  
Chris G. Carter ◽  
Richard Wilson ◽  
Seumas P. Walker ◽  
Matthew R. Miller ◽  

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