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BMC Cancer ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Shigemasa Takamizawa ◽  
Tatsunori Shimoi ◽  
Natsuko Satomi-Tsushita ◽  
Shu Yazaki ◽  
Toshihiro Okuya ◽  

Abstract Background Eribulin or capecitabine monotherapy is the next cytotoxic chemotherapy option for patients with metastatic or recurrent breast cancer who have previously received an anthracycline or a taxane. However, it is unclear what factors can guide the selection of eribulin or capecitabine in this setting, and prognostic factors are needed to guide appropriate treatment selection. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a prognostic factor for eribulin-treated patients, although it is unclear whether it is a prognostic factor for capecitabine-treated patients. Therefore, we analysed the ability of the NLR to predict oncological outcomes among patients who received capecitabine after previous anthracycline or taxane treatment for breast cancer. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with metastatic or recurrent breast cancer who had previously received anthracycline or taxane treatment at the National Cancer Center Hospital between 2007 and 2015. Patients were included if they received eribulin or capecitabine monotherapy as first-line, second-line, or third-line chemotherapy. Analyses of overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were performed according to various factors. Results Between 2007 and 2015, we identified 125 eligible patients, including 46 patients who received only eribulin, 34 patients who received only capecitabine, and 45 patients who received eribulin and capecitabine. The median follow-up period was 19.1 months. Among eribulin-treated patients, an NLR of <3 independently predicted better OS. Among capecitabine-treated patients, an NLR of <3 independently predicted better PFS but not better OS. In addition, a lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio of ≥5 was associated with better PFS and OS. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate whether the NLR is a prognostic factor for capecitabine-treated patients with metastatic or recurrent breast cancer. However, the NLR only independently predicted PFS in this setting, despite it being a useful prognostic factor for other chemotherapies.

2022 ◽  
Nieves Martínez-Lago ◽  
Teresa Calleja Chucla ◽  
Beatriz Alonso de Castro ◽  
Rafael Varela Ponte ◽  
Cristina Reboredo Rendo ◽  

Abstract We evaluated the efficacy and safety of trifluridine/tipiracil (TAS-102) plus bevacizumab in treating refractory metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) in a retrospective, observational study. Patients refractory or intolerant to standard therapies received TAS-102 (30–35 mg/m2 twice daily on days 1–5 and days 8–12 every 28 days) plus bevacizumab 5 mg/kg on days 1 and 15. Clinical and pathological characteristics, overall response rate (ORR) and disease control rate (DCR), overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) data were collected and analysed. Thirty-five patients were treated from July 2019 to October 2021 (median age 64 years). The majority of patients (68.6%) were receiving TAS-102 plus bevacizumab as third-line treatment. Patients received a median of 4 (range 2–15) cycles of treatment. Among 31 patients evaluable for response (88.6%), ORR and DCR were 3.2% and 51.6%, respectively. After a median 11.6 months’ follow-up, median PFS was 4.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.4–5.1) months and median OS was 9.3 (95% CI 6.6–12.1) months. The most common grade 3–4 toxicities were neutropenia, asthenia and nausea/vomiting, and there were no treatment-related deaths. This real-world study confirms the efficacy and safety of TAS-102 plus bevacizumab in patients with refractory mCRC.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Lin Zhang ◽  
Bo Hao ◽  
Zhihua Geng ◽  
Qing Geng

Toripalimab (Tuoyi™) is a selective, recombinant, humanized monoclonal antibody against programmed death protein 1 (PD-1) developed by Shanghai Junshi Bioscience Co., Ltd. Toripalimab is able to bind to PD-1 and block the interaction with its ligands. The binding of toripalimab to PD-1 is mainly attributed to the heavy chain of the former and the FG loop of the latter. Toripalimab received a conditional approval in China for the treatment of melanoma (second-line) in December, 2018. It has also received approvals to treat nasopharyngeal carcinoma (first-line and third-line) and urothelial carcinoma (second-line) in 2021. Additionally, several orphan drug designations were granted to toripalimab by the US Food and Drug Administration. Toripalimab has exhibited primary anti-tumor effects in tumors such as melanoma, lung cancer, digestive tract tumors, hepatobiliary and pancreatic tumors, neuroendocrine neoplasms, nasopharyngeal carcinoma and urothelial carcinoma. It showed a satisfactory anti-tumor effect and long-term survival benefits in Chinese melanoma patients, while the combination of axitinib with toripalimab exhibited an impressive result in metastatic mucosal melanoma. As a checkpoint inhibitor, toripalimab was generally well-tolerated in the enrolled patients. Due to different study populations, comparisons could not be made directly between toripalimab and other drugs in most cases. Nevertheless, the introduction of toripalimab may offer a valuable choice for decision-making in the treatment of tumors in the future.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 343
Jing-Houng Wang ◽  
Yen-Yang Chen ◽  
Kwong-Ming Kee ◽  
Chih-Chi Wang ◽  
Ming-Chao Tsai ◽  

Atezolizumab plus bevacizumab has been approved as the first-line systemic treatment for patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (uHCC). This study was designed to assess the clinical impact of atezolizumab plus bevacizumab in uHCC patients. A total of 48 uHCC patients receiving atezolizumab plus bevacizumab were identified, including first-line, second-line, third-line, and later-line settings. In these patients, the median progression-free survival (PFS) was 5.0 months, including 5.0 months for the first-line treatment, not reached for the second-line treatment, and 2.5 months for the third line and later line treatment. The objective response rate and disease control rate to atezolizumab plus bevacizumab were 27.1% and 68.8%, respectively. The severity of most adverse events was predominantly grade 1–2, and most patients tolerated the toxicities. The ratios of the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte (PLR) were used to predict PFS in these patients. The optimal cutoff values of NLR and PLR were 3 and 230, and NLR and PLR were independent prognostic factors for superior PFS in the univariate and multivariate analyses. Our study confirms the efficacy and safety of atezolizumab plus bevacizumab in uHCC patients in clinical practice and demonstrates the prognostic role of NLR and PLR for PFS in these patients.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262455
Takuya Mori ◽  
Hiroaki Tanaka ◽  
Sota Deguchi ◽  
Yoshihito Yamakoshi ◽  
Yuichiro Miki ◽  

Nivolumab, an immune checkpoint blocker, has been approved for advanced gastric cancer (GC), but predictive factors of nivolumab’s efficacy in patients with GC, especially immune cells such as tissue-resident memory T cells or those forming tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS), remain unclear. Tissue samples were obtained from surgically resected specimens of patients with GC who were treated with nivolumab as third-line or later treatment. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to detect the presence of TLS and CD103+ T cells and assess the association between TLSs and response to nivolumab treatment. A total of 19 patients were analyzed. In patients with partial response (PR) to nivolumab, numerous TLS were observed, and CD103+ T cells were found in and around TLS. Patients with many TLS experienced immune-related adverse events more often than those with few TLS (p = 0.018). The prognosis of patients with TLS high was better than those with TLS low. Patients with a combination of TLS high and CD103 high tended to have a better prognosis than other groups. Our results suggested that TLS status might be a predictor of nivolumab effectiveness.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 ◽  
pp. 175883592110666
Christine Simmons ◽  
Daniel Rayson ◽  
Anil Abraham Joy ◽  
Jan-Willem Henning ◽  
Julie Lemieux ◽  

Background: Evidence to date supports continued human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) suppression beyond progression on HER2-directed therapy for advanced HER2-positive breast cancer. Data from several phase II and III trials evaluating HER2-directed therapy following second-line T-DM1 have recently become available. Methods: We performed a systematic search of the published and presented literature to identify phase II and phase III trials assessing novel HER2-targeted agents as third-line therapy or beyond for HER2-positive advanced breast cancer using search terms ‘breast cancer’ AND ‘HER2’ AND ‘advanced’ AND (‘phase II’ OR ‘phase III’). Results: Eight clinical trials reporting efficacy outcomes on third-line or greater HER2-directed therapy for HER2-positive advanced breast cancer were identified. In phase III trials, margetuximab and neratinib combinations demonstrated significant 1.3-month (hazard ratio, HR = 0.71, p < 0.001) and 0.1-month (HR = 0.76, p = 0.006) net improvements in median progression-free survival (PFS), respectively, with no significant improvements in overall survival (OS). Tucatinib added to trastuzumab and capecitabine demonstrated a significant 2.7-month improvement in median PFS (HR = 0.57, p < 0.00001) and a 5.5-month improvement in median OS (HR = 0.73, p = 0.004) in a randomized phase II trial, including significant clinical benefit for patients with brain metastases. Finally, trastuzumab-deruxtecan, zenocutuzumab, and poziotinib demonstrated benefit in phase II trials with the most robust overall response rate (62.0%) and median duration of response (18.2 months) observed for trastuzumab-deruxtecan among heavily pretreated patients. Conclusion: Tucatinib plus trastuzumab and capecitabine significantly prolongs OS, and promising preliminary response outcomes for trastuzumab-deruxtecan suggest that sequencing of these regimens following second-line therapy is reasonable.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 150-153
Jung-Won Choi ◽  
Jung-Won Shin

The use of anesthetics is inevitable to suppress seizure activity in refractory status epilepticus (RSE). Hypotension, which is a critical side effect observed when treating RSE using a higher dosage of anesthetics that enhance γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) activity, often requires vasopressor agents. Concomitant treatment with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists, such as ketamine, could be effective in prolonged refractory SE, while maintaining stable blood pressure owing to the blockage of catecholamine reuptake in the systemic circulation. We report two cases of patients who had RSE with hemodynamic instability treated promptly with an early combination of ketamine and low-dose midazolam. The combination treatment effectively suppressed epileptic discharge with less hemodynamic side effects; moreover, a low dose of midazolam was required when combined with ketamine therapy. The initial combination of a third-line therapy that blocks NMDA receptors with enhanced GABAergic activity could be useful in RSE. Further studies are necessary in many variable etiologies of SE.

Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 145
Chalid Assaf ◽  
Nathalie Waser ◽  
Martine Bagot ◽  
Mary He ◽  
Tina Li ◽  

The treatment pattern of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) remains diverse and patient-tailored. The objective of this study was to describe the treatment patterns and outcomes in CTCL patients who were refractory or had relapsed (R/R) after a systemic therapy. A retrospective chart review study was conducted at 27 sites in France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom (UK) of patients who received a first course of systemic therapy and relapsed or were refractory. Data were collected longitudinally from diagnosis to first-, second- and third-line therapy. The study included 157 patients, with a median follow-up of 3.2 years. In total, 151 proceeded to second-line and 90 to third-line therapy. In the first line (n = 147), patients were treated with diverse therapies, including single- and multi-agent chemotherapy in 67 (46%), retinoids in 39 (27%), interferon in 31 (21%), ECP in 4 (3%), corticosteroids in 3 (2%) and new biological agents in 3 (2%). In the second line, the use of chemotherapy and retinoids remained similar to the first line, while the use of new biologics increased slightly. In sharp contrast to the first line, combination chemotherapy was extremely diverse. In the third line, the use of chemotherapy remained high and diverse as in the second line. From the time of first R/R, the median PFS was 1.2 years and the median OS was 11.5 years. The presented real-world data on the current treatments used in the management of R/R CTCL in Europe demonstrate the significant heterogeneity of systemic therapies and combination therapies, as expected from the European guidelines.

2021 ◽  
pp. 107815522110611
Rocio Tamayo-Bermejo ◽  
Juan Carlos del Rio-Valencia ◽  
Beatriz Mora-Rodriguez ◽  
Isabel Muñoz-Castillo

Introduction Immunotherapy has become a standard treatment for lung cancer; the objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness, safety of pembrolizumab monotherapy in patients with advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer used in real-world clinical practice. Material and methods Retrospective observational study of every patient treated with pembrolizumab in our centre from January 2017 to June 2019. Outcomes collected: sex, age, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group, programmed death receptor 1 level, previous metastatic line therapies, adverse events and smoking status. Results A total of 62 patients were reviewed. The median age was 62.34 ± 10.62 years, 48 (77.41%) were men and 91.93% of patients had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group 0. The median dose administered was 170.5 mg (108 – 240 mg) and the median follow-up was 3 months (range: 1 – 38). A median of four cycles of pembrolizumab (range: 1 – 56) were administered as monotherapy. The reason for treatment discontinuation was mainly due to disease progression in 38.70% of patients or death in 30.64%. As first-line pembrolizumab monotherapy, median progression-free survival was 7.7 months (95% CI: 3.66 – 11.73) ( N = 33). With respect to patients who were treated in second–third-line treatment, median progression-free survival was 3.5 months (95% CI: 2.40 – 4.59) ( N=29). As to overall survival, pembrolizumab-treated patients as first-line treatment reached 19 months median OG (95% CI: 13.36 – 24.63) ( N = 33) and those treated in second–third-line treatment got 11 months (95% CI: 3.4 – 18.5). A total of 64.51% of patients presented some adverse events to pembrolizumab however, only, 9.38% of them were grade 3. Conclusion Pembrolizumab represents an effective and feasible alternative in terms of progression-free survival. It is a well-tolerated treatment option.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Jiawei Yang ◽  
Xueyan Liu

Autoimmune encephalitis (AE) is an immune-mediated disease involving the central nervous system, usually caused by antigen-antibody reactions. With the advent of autoantibody-associated diseases, AE has become a hot research frontier in neuroimmunology. The first-line conventional treatments of autoimmune encephalitis consist of steroids, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), plasma exchange (PLEX), and second-line therapy includes rituximab. Despite considerable research and expanding clinical experience, current treatments are still ineffective for a significant number of patients. Although there is no clear consensus, clinical trial evidence limited, and the level of evidence for some of the drugs based on single reports, third-line therapy is a viable alternative for refractory encephalitis patients. With the current rapid research progress, a breakthrough in the treatment of AE is critical. This article aims to review the third-line therapy for refractory AE

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