Demographic Characteristics
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2021 ◽  
Vol 31 (2) ◽  
pp. 133-142
Raphael Abiodun OLAWEPO ◽  
Afolabi Monisola TUNDE ◽  
Nurudeen Adesola MALIK ◽  
Abdulrazaq Kamal DAUDU ◽  

This study makes a spatial analysis of mobile pastoralism and socioeconomic problems among rural Fulani communities in Irepodun Local Government Area of Kwara State, Nigeria. Specifically, the study assesses the socioeconomic characteristics of mobile pastoralists; identify the length of stay of mobile pastoralists in their host communities and identify socioeconomic problems confronting Fulani herdsmen in their economic activities. A multistage sampling technique was employed to sample 740 Fulani herdsmen from twenty Fulani settlements and from four adjoining villages. Descriptive statistical techniques such as tables cross tabulations, percentages and graphs were employed to analyze the demographic characteristics of the pastoralists, length of stay in their host communities and other sources of income. Matrix scoring was used to rank the socioeconomic problems identified. The results revealed that the mean average age of sampled respondents was 44.8years, 83.8% married and average household size of 11people. Dwindling pasture, land degradation and drought were the most pressing socioeconomic problems identified. The study concludes by recommending adult education for the Fulani pastoralists as this will assist in enhancing and improving the socio-economic life of the mobile pastoralists.

Risks ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
pp. 219
Rafał Balina ◽  
Marta Idasz-Balina

The main aim of the research was to determine the key factors determining the level of credit risk of individual clients (clients in the form of natural persons, excluding companies) on the example of Polish cooperative banks according to the following features: transaction characteristics, socio-demographic characteristics of the customer, the customer’s financial situation, the customer’s history of cooperation with the cooperative bank where they applied for a loan, and the customer’s history of cooperation with other financial institutions. For the research gathered data from 1000 credit applications submitted by individual customers when applying for a credit in five different cooperative banks were used for the analyses. To assess the credit risk of retail clients we use logit regression models, and additionally, score cards were calculated. The results of the research indicate that among the factors with high predictive power there were the features characterizing the client’s history of cooperation with the cooperative bank, where they applied for a loan. It may mean that when assessing credit risk related to financing individual customers, cooperative banks due to their local character, have an advantage over other financial institutions.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (12) ◽  
pp. e0260678
Marianna Liotti ◽  
Grazia Fernanda Spitoni ◽  
Vittorio Lingiardi ◽  
Antonella Marchetti ◽  
Anna Maria Speranza ◽  

The term “mentalized affectivity” describes the ability to reflect on, process, modulate and express emotions through the prism of autobiographical memory. It represents a bridge concept that integrates previous contributions on emotion regulation and mentalization, offering a quite unique perspective on affective and reflective functioning. The overall aim of this study was to validate the Brief-Mentalized Affectivity Scale (B-MAS), a 12-items self-report instrument, on the Italian population. We tested both the factorial validity of the instrument and its reliability and convergent validity with other similar constructs. We also obtained normative data for the Italian population, broken down by gender. Participants (n = 389) were recruited through snowball sampling. Data was collected through an online survey. Besides the Brief-Mentalized Affectivity Scale, the survey included an ad hoc schedule with questions investigating socio-demographic characteristics, and self-report measures of empathy and reflective functioning. Statistical analysis has shown a three-component (Identifying, Processing, and Expressing emotions) hierarchical structure underlying mentalized affectivity, mirroring the model already proposed in the original validation of the instrument. Moreover, the B-MAS showed good psychometric properties for what regards both reliability and convergent validity. The results of our study highlight the good operationalization and robust empirical foundation of the construct, revealing that the B-MAS is a promising instrument to assess mentalized affectivity. Its brevity makes it particularly valuable both in clinical and research contexts, and the normative data provided in this study will allow an easy comparison with the scores obtained by other samples (clinical and non-clinical).

2021 ◽  
pp. 175857322110607
Michelle Xiao ◽  
Daniel M Curtis ◽  
Emilie V Cheung ◽  
Michael T Freehill ◽  
Geoffrey D Abrams

Background The purpose of this investigation was to compare rates of filled opioid prescriptions and prolonged opioid use in opioid naïve patients undergoing total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) in inpatient versus outpatient settings. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted using a national insurance claims database. Inpatient and outpatient cohorts were created by identifying continuously enrolled, opioid naïve TSA patients. A greedy nearest-neighbor algorithm was used to match baseline demographic characteristics between cohorts with a 1:1 inpatient to outpatient ratio to compare the primary outcomes of filled opioid prescriptions and prolonged opioid use following surgery between cohorts. Results A total of 11,703 opioid naïve patients (mean age 72.5 ± 8.5 years, 54.5% female, 87.6% inpatient) were included for analysis. After propensity score matching (n = 1447 inpatients; n = 1447 outpatients), outpatient TSA patients were significantly more likely to fill an opioid prescription in the perioperative window compared to inpatients (82.9% versus 71.5%, p < 0.001). No significant differences in prolonged opioid use were detected (5.74% inpatient versus 6.77% outpatient; p = 0.25). Conclusions Outpatient TSA patients were more likely to fill opioid prescriptions compared to inpatient TSA patients. The quantity of opioids prescribed and rates of prolonged opioid use were similar between the cohorts. Level of evidence Therapeutic Level III.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Xiangxi Zhou ◽  
Fan Zhang ◽  
Yongping Ao ◽  
Chunli Lu ◽  
Tingting Li ◽  

Abstract Background The aim of this study was to provide recommendations for reducing the impact of hepatitis B infection on patients with chronic hepatitis B by describing their experiences during the diagnosis process. Methods We conducted face-to-face interviews with 50 hepatitis B patients recruited by convenient sampling from an infectious diseases department of a teaching hospital in Chongqing, China from July to August 2019. Thematic analysis framework included interviewees’ social demographic characteristics, diagnosis approach, signs and symptoms before diagnosis, feelings after diagnosis, and doctor’s instructions. Results Most patients first detected hepatitis B through various types of physical examinations when the patients were asymptomatic or had only mild symptoms. Most patients were shocked, scared, or overwhelmed when they were diagnosed with hepatitis B. They were able to remember the doctor’s instructions about maintaining a healthy lifestyle, but not impressed by the doctor’s advice about regular follow-up liver function tests. The lack of regular follow-up has caused irreversible damage to some patients. Conclusions Most patients are passively diagnosed with hepatitis B due to their lack of awareness on active hepatitis B prevention. Patients need professional mental health care to overcome the negative emotions that following the diagnosis. Physicians’ instruction should emphasize the importance of regular follow-up liver function tests in addition to a healthy lifestyle.

Farah Al Souheil ◽  
Bahia Chahine

Abstract Introduction Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a multi-spectrum disease where a failure to address it correctly can result in various clinical complications. This study aimed to assess the Lebanese women's knowledge and perceptions of PCOS and its management. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study included women whose ages ranged between 18 and 45 years. Women's demographic characteristics, reproductive health, knowledge, and perception of PCOS were analyzed through an online validated questionnaire. Results Among the 450 included women, 196 (43.6%) had good knowledge about PCOS. The majority of participants were aware that menstrual irregularity is a symptom of PCOS, 327 (72.7%), while only 231 (51.3%) women knew that PCOS may lead to infertility. Almost two-thirds of women were aware of the contribution of metformin, diet, and exercise in refining the progress of the disease. More than 60% of participants believed that PCOS patients need social support and have a low body image. Married women (p < 0.001) and those with undergraduate/ postgraduate degrees (p < 0.001) had better PCOS knowledge. Conclusion A significant percentage of Lebanese women have inadequate knowledge of PCOS and its complications.

2021 ◽  
Vol 36 (4) ◽  
pp. 245-262
Lara Haikal ◽  
Ève Boissonnault ◽  
Mathieu Boudier-Revéret ◽  
Jehane H Dagher

OBJECTIVE: To understand dancers’ perception of accessibility to care and quality of the relationship with healthcare practitioners in Quebec; to identify the key elements of an optimal dancer–physician relationship; and to propose recommendations for improvement. METHODS: An online questionnaire consisting of multiple choice, “yes/no,” and short answer questions was sent to professional dance organizations, companies, agencies, and schools in Quebec, Canada. Information regarding the dance artists’ sociodemographics, dance background, dance-related injuries, and access to a primary care physician were collected. Experiences and expectations regarding the dancer–physician relationship were surveyed. One-way ANOVA analyses and Pearson correlations were performed to assess differences of perception between dancers’ demographic characteristics and associations between the variables. RESULTS: Out of 161 participants, 144 met inclusion criteria, consisting of largely French-speaking females, North American or European decent, self-employed contemporary dancers with an average age of 33.13 ± 10.81 yrs. Dance artists sought medical care from osteopaths (47.9%) and physiotherapists (36.1%) more frequently than from physicians (8.3%). Fully employed dancers had more favorable perceptions of the dancer–physician relationship compared to self-employed dancers and those who had mixed streams of income. The perception of most participants was that physicians do not comprehend the unique dance-associated impacts on health (81.8%). The most important aspect affecting perception of the relationship with the physician was diagnostic acumen (41.3%). Most participants (79.0%) selected “works with other health professionals [...] and gives expert advice” as an important expectation from physicians. CONCLUSION: This research is the first investigation of the dancer–physician relationship in Quebec. It reveals a desire amongst the dance artist community to improve the dancer–physician relationship and the overall quality of their unique healthcare requirements.

2021 ◽  
Vol 28 (4) ◽  
pp. E202141
Oryna Detsyk ◽  
Natalia Fedorkiv ◽  
Olha Burak ◽  
Roksolana Kaluzhna

The Covid-19 pandemic has a substantial impact on socioeconomic, political, demographic, and other aspects of life. Effective healthcare is, however, a primary determinant of successful fighting against Covid-19. The analysis of local healthcare indicators serves as a source for estimating pandemic magnitude and the adaptation of healthcare at a national level. In this study, the rates of Covid-19 hospital admissions to the Ivano-Frankivsk City Hospital, Ukraine, from April 2020 to May 2021 were analysed. All cases were grouped by age, sex, and the type of admission; data were analyzed monthly and seasonally. The peaks of hospital admissions were observed in November 2020 and March 2021; however, the highest mortality rates were seen from August to November 2020. The analysis of age- and sex-disaggregated Covid-19 mortality data showed the predominance of elderly males (61.9%, 66.6 ± 3.9 years) over females (38.1%, 71.8 ± 2.3 years). The ratio of hospital admissions was unstable: the percentage of emergency, GP-referred and self-referred admissions was similar from April to May 2020; however, GP-referred admissions prevailed, and the number of self-referral patients decreased twice between March and May 2021. In conclusions, the trends in hospital admissions were similar to those reported in other studies. However, the differences in time frames and socio-demographic characteristics were observed that highlights the importance of considering regional, social and geographic aspects of the population when improving the capacity of healthcare system and establishing effective preventive measures against the pandemic at the local level.

2021 ◽  
Si-Jing Tu ◽  
Xiao-Fei Zhang ◽  
Chen Jin ◽  
Bi-Yan Wang ◽  
Chao Luo ◽  

Abstract Background: As more than 200,000 neonates participate in newborn congenital hypothyroidism (CH) screening in Guangxi each year, the overall number of false positives has increased. Concerns arise regarding the potential demographic impact on parental stress and knowledge of CH results has emerged. Methods: 255 parents were invited to participate in the false-positive (FP) group, and 1040 parents were invited to participate in the control group. After providing consent, the parents completed a semistructured questionnaire on demographic characteristics, knowledge of CH and the parental stress index-short form (PSI-SF). Results: The parents in the FP group had better knowledge of CH and higher PSI scores than did the parents in the control group (both P <0.001). The result of Logistic Regression showed that the major influence factors of knowledge of CH were FP experience and source of knowledge (both P <0.001). The parents in the FP group who were well-informed during the recall phone call had lower PSI scores than did the other parents (P = 0.001). The results suggested that FP screening results may affect parental stress and the parent-child relationships. Conclusion: Targeted health education should be carried out to increase prospective parents’ knowledge of NBS and reduce parental stress when false-positive results are received.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (3) ◽  
pp. 91-96
Ayşe Turan ◽  
Pelin Duru Çetinkaya ◽  
Mehmet Atilla Uysal

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