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Chuyun Hu ◽  

Since its outbreak in late 2019, the COVID-19 (the new coronavirus pandemic disease) has spread throughout the globe at an unexpectedly rapid pace. It brought severe negative effects to all walks of life, and this paper analyzes especially its impacts on Chinese students studying or planning to study abroad by sending out a survey. As the United States has become the country with most confirmed cases as well as most related deaths since May 27th, 2020, the survey mainly focused on the Chinese students planning to study in the U.S. It asked the respondents about their decisions regarding their plan of studying abroad, and the reasons behind them by different scales of significance. Considering that the questions of the survey are relatively detailed and that the number of respondents (269) is limited, this paper applied qualitative analysis to the study. The hypothesis is that students making different decisions (generally either choosing in-person study or virtual/online study) are impacted by different considerations, which is generally tested as effective. However, the epidemic-related elements are the most influential among all options for those who decide not to go abroad for their studies. The result of the study is partially consistent with the hypothesis that the number of students staying home exceeds that of students going abroad. There are also unexpected outcomes, including that the deteriorating U.S.-China relationship plays an overwhelming part in the avoidance of going to the States.

Aike C. Horstmann ◽  
Nicole C. Krämer

AbstractSince social robots are rapidly advancing and thus increasingly entering people’s everyday environments, interactions with robots also progress. For these interactions to be designed and executed successfully, this study considers insights of attribution theory to explore the circumstances under which people attribute responsibility for the robot’s actions to the robot. In an experimental online study with a 2 × 2 × 2 between-subjects design (N = 394), people read a vignette describing the social robot Pepper either as an assistant or a competitor and its feedback, which was either positive or negative during a subsequently executed quiz, to be generated autonomously by the robot or to be pre-programmed by programmers. Results showed that feedback believed to be autonomous leads to more attributed agency, responsibility, and competence to the robot than feedback believed to be pre-programmed. Moreover, the more agency is ascribed to the robot, the better the evaluation of its sociability and the interaction with it. However, only the valence of the feedback affects the evaluation of the robot’s sociability and the interaction with it directly, which points to the occurrence of a fundamental attribution error.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Gal Ziv ◽  
Orly Fox

Humans are emotionally affected by cute or infantile appearances, typical of baby animals and humans, which in turn often leads to careful and cautious behavior. The purpose of this pre-registered study was to examine whether looking at cute images of baby pets improves performance of computerized cognitive-motor tasks. Ninety-eight participants were recruited for this online study and were randomly assigned to two experimental groups. The participants in one group performed two cognitive-motor tasks (Simon task and alternate task-switching task) before and after viewing images of adult pets and the participants in the other group performed the tasks before and after viewing images of baby pets. The participants who viewed images of baby pets rated them as significantly cuter (Cohen’s d = 0.50) and more infantile (Cohen’s d = 1.56) compared with those who viewed images of adult pets. All participants improved their performance from the pre-test to the post-test, but no differences in correct responses and reaction times were seen between the groups. However, pet ownership appeared to serve as a moderating variable with pet owners performing the Simon task faster than non-pet owners. In addition, pet owners reacted faster in the alternate task-switching task after viewing cute and infantile images but not after viewing images of adult pets. This effect was not found among non-pet owners. In conclusion, this study did not find that viewing cute images improves cognitive-motor performance, yet this may be dependent on moderators like pet ownership.

2022 ◽  
Isabelle Verhulst ◽  
Keren MacLennan ◽  
Anthony Haffey ◽  
Teresa Tavassoli

Rates of anxiety are inordinately high in autistic adults. Sensory reactivity differences, such as hyperreactivity (e.g., strong reactions to sound), hyporeactivity (e.g., no, or slower reactions to pain), and seeking (e.g., fascination with spinning objects) are a diagnostic criterion of autism and have been linked with anxiety. Understanding how individuals perceive these to be causally related can impact assessment and treatment of anxiety. Therefore, we examined the perceived causal relations between sensory reactivity differences and anxiety in autistic adults.246 autistic adults aged 18 – 76 years took part in an online study. They completed self-report assessments of sensory reactivity differences, and anxiety, followed by the perceived causal relations scale; indicating if they perceived their sensory reactivity differences to be more of a cause or an effect of their anxiety symptoms.Sensory reactivity differences were found to be significantly related to anxiety. Furthermore, total sensory hyperreactivity and visual, auditory, and olfactory hyperreactivity was perceived to be more of a cause of anxiety, whilst total sensory seeking and tactile and vestibular seeking was perceived to be more of an effect of anxiety. Therefore, sensory hyperreactivity and sensory seeking may be important to consider in anxiety treatments for autistic individuals.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 796
Donghee N. Lee ◽  
Myiah J. Hutchens ◽  
Janice L. Krieger

Clear and memorable environmental messaging has been scarce. Recycling contamination is an urgent environmental concern because the public is confused about which items can and cannot be recycled. Environmental campaigns utilizing message framing, a method used to emphasize either the benefits of performing or loss of avoiding an action, may help combat this problem. We conducted an online study (n = 1199) and randomly assigned participants to view positively or negatively framed (do vs. do not) messages. Results revealed that participants who viewed negative messages with do not descriptors increased recycling intention, mediated by increased recycling contamination knowledge and recycling efficacy (95% CI: 0.03, 0.08). The findings suggest that recycling instructions may be more effective when messages are framed negatively using inhibitive descriptors. Results of this study can inform development of environmental campaigns to improve sustainable lifestyles.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Jan S. Pfetsch ◽  
Anja Schultze-Krumbholz ◽  
Katrin Lietz

Connecting with peers online to overcome social isolation has become particularly important during the pandemic-related school closures across many countries. In the context of contact restrictions, feelings of isolation and loneliness are more prevalent and the regulation of these negative emotions to maintain a positive well-being challenges adolescents. This is especially the case for those individuals who might have a high need to belong and difficulties in emotional competences. The difficult social situation during contact restrictions, more time for online communication and maladaptive emotion regulation might lead to aggressive communication patterns in the form of cyberbullying perpetration. In an online study with N = 205 adolescents aged 14–19 (M = 15.83, SD = 1.44; 57% girls), we assessed the frequency of online and offline contacts, need to belong, emotion regulation problems, feelings of loneliness, and cyberbullying perpetration as predictors of adolescents’ well-being. In particular, we explored whether cyberbullying perpetration might function as a maladaptive strategy to deal with feelings of loneliness and therefore predicts well-being. This effect was expected to be stronger for those with a higher need to belong and with higher emotion regulation problems. Results of a hierarchical regression analysis revealed that well-being was significantly predicted by less emotion regulation difficulties, less feeling isolated and more cyberbullying perpetration. We also tested whether the need to belong or emotion regulation problems moderated the association between cyberbullying and well-being. While the results for emotion regulation problems were not significant, the moderation effect for the need to belong was significant: For students with a high need to belong, well-being was more strongly related to cyberbullying perpetration than for students with a medium need to belong. For students with a low need to belong, cyberbullying was not significantly associated with well-being. That cyberbullying perpetration predicted well-being positively is rather surprising in the light of previous research showing negative psychosocial outcomes also for cyberbullying perpetrators. The moderation analysis provides a hint at underlying processes: In times of distance learning and contact restrictions, cyberbullying may be a way of coming into contact with others and to regulate loneliness maladaptively.

Mindfulness ◽  
2022 ◽  
Emma L. Osborne ◽  
Melissa J. Atkinson

Abstract Objectives Mindfulness-based interventions have shown effectiveness in reducing risk factors for disordered eating; however, little is known about mechanisms. This online study evaluated two isolated metacognitive components of mindfulness, adopting a decentered or non-judgemental stance towards internal experiences, respectively, for reducing body dissatisfaction and negative affect. Methods Women (N = 330, Mage = 25.18, SD = 4.44) viewed appearance-ideal media images before listening to a 5-min audio recording that guided them to (a) distance themselves from their experience (decentering), (b) accept their experience without judgement (non-judgement), or (c) rest (active control). Participants reported state body dissatisfaction and negative affect at baseline, post-media exposure, and final assessment. Trait measurements (weight and shape concerns, mindfulness, emotion regulation) were assessed as potential moderators. Participants self-reported engagement and acceptability. Results All groups reported significant reductions in body dissatisfaction and negative affect following the recording (d = 0.15–0.38, p < 0.001), with no between-group differences. Trait measurements did not moderate effects. Conclusions The results suggest rest was as effective as the metacognitive components in ameliorating immediate negative impacts of appearance-related threats. Alternatively, coping strategies spontaneously adopted by the control group may have supplied temporary relief. Findings highlight the importance of including suitable control; further research should investigate when and for whom specific aspects of mindfulness-based interventions may be particularly helpful.

2022 ◽  
Sebastian Korb ◽  
Nace Mikus ◽  
Claudia Massaccesi ◽  
Jack Grey ◽  
Suvarnalata Xanthate Duggirala ◽  

Appraisals can be influenced by cultural beliefs and stereotypes. In line with this, past research has shown that judgments about the emotional expression of a face are influenced by the face’s sex, and vice versa that judgments about the sex of a person somewhat depend on the person’s facial expression. For example, participants associate anger with male faces, and female faces with happiness or sadness. However, the strength and the bidirectionality of these effects remain debated. Moreover, the interplay of a stimulus’ emotion and sex remains mostly unknown in the auditory domain. To investigate these questions, we created a novel stimulus set of 121 avatar faces and 121 human voices (available at with matched, fine-scale changes along the emotional (happy to angry) and sexual (male to female) dimensions. In a first experiment (N=76), we found clear evidence for the mutual influence of facial emotion and sex cues on ratings, and moreover for larger implicit (task-irrelevant) effects of stimulus’ emotion than of sex. These findings were replicated and extended in two preregistered studies – one laboratory categorisation study using the same face stimuli (N=108;, and one online study with vocalisations (N=72; Overall, results show that the associations of maleness-anger and femaleness-happiness exist across sensory modalities, and suggest that emotions expressed in the face and voice cannot be entirely disregarded, even when attention is mainly focused on determining stimulus’ sex. We discuss the relevance of these findings for cognitive and neural models of face and voice processing.

Atik Dwi Kurniasih

<p><em>To realize the Pancasila Student Profile, the Ministry of Education and Culture, Research and Technology issued one of the Independent Learning Program policies, namely the "Sekolah Penggerak". "Sekolah Penggerak" is implemented by strengthening the capacity roles of principals and driving teachers. The principal is a learning leader in each academic unit who is expected to move the school by collaborating with stakeholders to realize a student-centred school. "Guru Penggerak" are learning leaders who apply independent learning and move the entire educational ecosystem to realize learner-centred education. Becoming a learning leader as a "Sekolah Penggerak" Principal or "Guru Penggerak" requires a new paradigm shift. There is one Javanese local wisdom that can be actualized as a leadership model, namely Astha  Brata . This research is a descriptive study by examining the actualization of Astha  Brata 's leadership to realize the Pancasila Student Profile in the "Sekolah Penggerak". The method used is literature study through books, journals related documents and news/online. Study results show that Astha  Brata 's leadership values are still relevant and can be actualized to answer the challenges of being a school principal and "Guru Penggerak", who is expected to become a learning leader to realize the Pancasila Student Profile.</em></p>

Linus W. Dietz ◽  
Sameera Thimbiri Palage ◽  
Wolfgang Wörndl

AbstractConversational recommender systems have been introduced to provide users the opportunity to give feedback on items in a turn-based dialog until a final recommendation is accepted. Tourism is a complex domain for recommender systems because of high cost of recommending a wrong item and often relatively few ratings to learn user preferences. In a scenario such as recommending a city to visit, conversational content-based recommendation may be advantageous, since users often struggle to specify their preferences without concrete examples. However, critiquing item features comes with challenges. Users might request item characteristics during recommendation that do not exist in reality, for example demanding very high item quality for a very low price. To tackle this problem, we present a novel conversational user interface which focuses on revealing the trade-offs of choosing one item over another. The recommendations are driven by a utility function that assesses the user’s preference toward item features while learning the importance of the features to the user. This enables the system to guide the recommendation through the search space faster and accurately over prolonged interaction. We evaluated the system in an online study with 600 participants and find that our proposed paradigm leads to improved perceived accuracy and fewer conversational cycles compared to unit critiquing.

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