Treated Effluents
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2021 ◽  
Yazan Ibrahim

Testing SARS-CoV-2 viral loads in wastewater has recently emerged as a method of tracking the prevalence of the virus and an early-warning tool for predicting outbreaks in the future. This study reports SARS-CoV-2 viral load in wastewater influents and treated effluents of 11 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), as well as untreated wastewater from 38 various locations, in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) in May and June 2020. Composite samples collected over twenty-four hours were thermally deactivated for safety, followed by viral concentration using ultrafiltration, RNA extraction using commercially available kits, and viral quantification using RT-qPCR. Furthermore, estimates of the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in different regions were simulated using Monte Carlo. Results showed that the viral load in wastewater influents from these WWTPs ranged from 7.50E+02 to over 3.40E+04 viral gene copies/L with some plants having no detectable viral RNA by RT-qPCR. The virus was also detected in 85% of untreated wastewater samples taken from different locations across the country, with viral loads in positive samples ranging between 2.86E+02 and over 2.90E+04 gene copies/L. It was also observed that the precautionary measures implemented by the UAE government correlated with a drop in the measured viral load in wastewater samples, which were in line with the reduction of COVID-19 cases reported in the population. Importantly, none of the 11 WWTPs' effluents tested positive during the entire sampling period, indicating that the treatment technologies used in the UAE are efficient in degrading SARS-CoV-2, and confirming the safety of treated re-used water in the country. SARS-CoV-2 wastewater testing has the potential to aid in monitoring or predicting an outbreak location and can shed light on the extent viral spread at the community level.

Water ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (7) ◽  
pp. 932
Ayodeji C. Osunla ◽  
Oluwatayo E. Abioye ◽  
Anthony I. Okoh

Treated sewage harbours pathogenic microbes, such as enteric bacteria and protozoa, are capable of causing several diseases. Some of these are emerging pathogens sometimes recovered in the absence of common water quality indicator organisms. The possibility of selected treatments plants serving as momentary reservoirs of Vibrio pathogens during a non-outbreak period was assessed. The occurrence and diversity of Vibrio pathogens were monitored for one year (December 2016 to November 2017) in the treated effluents and upstream and downstream areas of the receiving water bodies of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), designated AL and TS. Physicochemical parameters of TS and AL WWTPs’ water samples were analysed using a multi-parameter meter (Hanna, model HI 9828, Padova, Italy) and a turbidimeter (HACH, model 2100P, Johannesburg, South Africa). Water samples were augmented with alkaline peptone water and cultured on thiosulfate citrate bile salts sucrose agar at 37 °C for 24 h. The recovered probable pathogens were confirmed via PCR amplification, using primers specific for Vibrio species of public health significance. The distribution of Vibrio species positively and significantly (p < 0.01) correlated with turbidity (r = 0.630), temperature (r = 0.615), dissolved oxygen (r = 0.615), pH (r = 0.607), biological oxygen demand (r = 0.573), total dissolved solid (r = 0.543), total suspended solid (r = 0.511), electrical conductivity (r = 0.499), residual chlorine (r = 0.463) and salinity (r = 0.459). The densities of Vibrio species were found to be significantly higher (p < 0.05) in effluents from both AL and TS WWTPs than upstream and downstream of the receiving rivers across the sampling regime. Furthermore, the maximum Vibrio species density across the sampling regime were observed during the warmer Summer and Spring season. Moreover, six medically important Vibrio species were detected in the water samples, indicating that the methods employed were efficient in revealing that WWTPs are potential reservoirs of Vibrio pathogens, which could pose a substantial public health risk if the receiving water is used for domestic purposes. Our findings further strengthen existing calls for the inclusion of emerging bacterial pathogens, including Vibrio species, as water quality indicators by the South African Department of Water Affairs. Hence, we recommend regular monitoring of treated effluents and receiving water bodies to ensure early control of potential outbreaks of vibriosis and cholera.

Marcus Metri Corrêa ◽  
Marília Costa Cavalcanti ◽  
Dário Costa Primo ◽  
Fernando Cartaxo Rolim Neto ◽  
Jean Manuel Martins ◽  

The main process that opposes the Greenhouse Effect is called “carbon sequestration”, a phenomenon that essentially seeks to establish a dynamic balance between greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the immobilization of its elements, especially C and N. This work evaluated the stocks of carbon and nitrogen in soils of the Brazilian semi-arid submitted to irrigation with treated wastewater from domestic sewage. For this purpose, the carbon and nitrogen stocks in the soil of the semi-arid region of Brazil were compared for four different uses: Open Native Caatinga (ONC); Treated Wastewater Effluent Irrigation (TSEI); Surface Water Irrigation (SWI); and Traditional Rainfed Agriculture (TRA). The hypothesis considered in this research was that the application of treated effluents in agriculture, besides being an alternative that can mitigate the problem of water scarcity of the semiarid region, is also capable of influencing the storage capacity of C and N in the soil, due to its organic load. The results indicate that among the different land uses evaluated, soil C and N stocks were highest in ONC, and decreased with the agricultural land use. The greatest accumulation of C and N in Caatinga is due to the presence of forest litter, and the influence of irrigation with treated sewage effluent was not detected in the present study. It can be concluded that the contribution of vegetation residues to the soil surface is the main factor contributing to C and N storage.

2020 ◽  
pp. 51-61
Madhu kumari Alok kumar

In view of understanding the impact of effluents and on the occurrence and distribution of macrobenthic organisms, an investigation has been carried out for a period of 8 months from October 2006 to May 2007 in the nearshore water of Thannirbhavi and Chitrapur receiving treated industrial effluents and Bengre coast having estuarine influences. The quality composition of benthic organism revealed the presence of hydroids such as Obeliasp,Cordylophorasp and companularia sp. Polychaetes belonging to 15 diferent families have been identified and their distribution revealed variation with respect to the type of  the effluents.  24 different types of molluscss have been identified and their occurrence and distribution was found to be related to type of sediment and the quality of the effluents. Bulks of crustaceans were formed mainly due to species of Gammarus, Caprellids and Tanaidaceans. The great abundance and diversity of benthic organisms was observed in the Thannirbhavi receiving effluents from a fertilizer industry, when compare to the Chitrapur receiving treated effluents from a dye industry and an oil refinery industry. Silty-clayey sediment harbored higher density of polychaetes where as sandy-silty sediment supported greater abundance of molluscs.

Water ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 12 (10) ◽  
pp. 2766
Yajun Wang ◽  
Binghua Li ◽  
Ying Ma ◽  
Lihu Yang ◽  
Xianfang Song

Long-term wastewater and reclaimed water irrigation systems constitute the major processes in local water circulation, which concomitantly introduce plenty of undesirable substances that can threaten water quality, ecosystem functions and human health. At the Southeast Reclaimed Water Irrigation Region (SRWIR) of Beijing, wastewater irrigation was adopted from 1969 to 2002, and second-treated effluents (reclaimed water) has been used thereafter. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were the most ubiquitously detected contaminant in wastewater and reclaimed water and are reported to be carcinogenic. Hence, we measured the concentrations of dissolved sixteen United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) priority PAHs in surface water and groundwater at the SRWIR to characterize their spatial and temporal variations, and to clarify the role of reclaimed water to natural water. The concentration of 16 individual PAHs in reclaimed water, rivers and groundwater varied from 339.4 to 636.2 ng/L, 359.1 to 3,435.0 ng/L and 216.5 to 488,205.2 ng/L, respectively. The lower aromatic rings of PAHs prevailed in aquatic environments rather than the higher ones. Thereinto, naphthalene was the predominant isomer within the highest concentration reached to 486,600 µg/L. The groundwater samples had higher PAHs concentrations at Tongzhou district which attributed to the higher vulnerability of aquifer. Additionally, strong correlations between PAHs and total nitrogen, nitrate, dissolved oxygen and electrical conductivity suggested those potential factors affecting the photo degradation and/or biodegradation of PAHs. The relationship identified between PAHs concentrations and physical and chemical indices would help us to enhance the understanding migration and transformation of PAHs spatially and temporally, enable us to assess the potential risks of the environmental pollutants to aquatic organisms and human water supplies.

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