ricinus communis
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2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
M. Shahzad ◽  
M. Chaudhry ◽  
M. G. Shahid ◽  
A. Ahsan ◽  
M. Dar ◽  

Abstract Bacteria were isolated from samples of Fresh Apple juices from shops of three different localities of Lahore. Analysis of samples from Liberty, Anarkali and Yateem khana Markets show different levels of contamination. There were pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria in all samples and were identified by the morphological and biochemical tests. Most of the plasmids of pathogenic bacteria were 4kb in their molecular size. Ribotyping of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing was done to confirm Helicobacter pylori strain and Gluconobacter oxydans. The highest sensitivity of 210mm was shown by Enterobacter sp. against Aztheromysine disk (15µg) while Micrococcus sp. was highly resistant against all of the Antibiotics applied. The antibiotic resistance of pathogenic bacteria was also checked against Ricinus communis plant's extracts, all isolated bacterial pathogens were resistant but only, E.coli was inhibited at 300µl of the extracts. Presence of pathogenic bacteria in Apple juice samples was due to contamination of sewage water in drinking water while some of these pathogenic bacteria came from Apple's tree and other from store houses of fruits.

2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  
pp. 288-309
Govindaraj Vengateswari ◽  
Kandhasamy Lalitha ◽  
Muthugounder Subramanian Shivakumar ◽  

Antimicrobial peptides constitute key factors in insect humoral immune response against invading microorganisms. In this study, biochemical approach was identified antimicrobial peptides which appeared in larval hemolymph of Spodoptera litura after bacterial challenge. HPLC profile showed two major peaks in two samples, Brassica oleracea and Ricinus communis fed S. litura that were collected at 5 min interval. It was shown to be active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The highest zone of inhibition was observed in Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in B. oleracea fed S. litura hemolymph fraction II and R. communis fed S. litura hemolymph fraction I and it also contributes the increased antioxidant, lysozyme, and less hemolytic activity were increase in treated groups. TLC activity was tested with hemolymph extract samples, pink color pots was identified the protein present in the samples. An SDS-PAGE result shows that high expression of antimicrobial peptide present in the treated sample. The appearance of peptides with such different properties in insect hemolymph in response to immune challenge indicates the complexity of the insect immune system.

2022 ◽  
pp. 51-78
Is Fatimah ◽  
Suresh Sagadevan ◽  
Baranya Murugan ◽  
Oki Muraza

2022 ◽  
Vol 162 ◽  
pp. 106557
Jessica D.O. Rodrigues ◽  
Carlos K.Z. Andrade ◽  
Rafael L. Quirino ◽  
Maria J.A. Sales

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-8
Fardaneh Osati ◽  
Touraj Mir Mahmoudi ◽  
Bahman Paseban Eslam ◽  
Saman Yazdan Seta ◽  
Hassan Monirifar

To study the effect of irrigation levels and foliar application of fertilizers on some agronomic and oil characteristics of castor bean, an experiment was conducted at the East Azarbaijan Agricultural Research and Education Center, Tabriz, Iran in 2017-2019 cropping seasons. The experiment was laid out as a split-plot design based on a completely randomized block design with three replications. In the present study, main cluster length, number of branches, number of capsules per plant, number of seeds per capsule, 100-grain weight biological yield, grain yield, oil percent and oil yield were measured. Irrigation intervals (normal irrigation (irrigation after 60 mm), irrigation after 80 mm and 140 mm of evaporation) was established as main plots and the foliar applications of fertilizers (N, K, S, N + K, and N + S, K + S, N + K + S and control) input as sub-plots. The results showed that, except for the oil percentage, all the examined traits were decreased by water limitation. The highest values of the traits, other than the 100-grain weight, were obtained for foliar application of N + K + S. This treatment improved the grain yield per unit area under normal irrigation and moderate irrigation and severe stresses by 62.76%, 41.46% and 28.98% respectively. Thus, the foliar application of S (2000 ppm) + N (3000 ppm) + K (3000 ppm) fertilizer is the best treatment for mitigating some harmful effects of water deficit on castor bean.

Heng Li ◽  
Jeroen Dickschat

Isotopic labelling experiments gave insights into the enzyme mechanism of casbene synthase from Ricinus communis, showing a clear stereochemical course for the cyclisation reaction, in agreement with the reported absolute...

H. H. Kumaraswamy ◽  
V. Dinesh Kumar ◽  
C. Lavanya ◽  
B. Ushakiran ◽  
S. Senthilvel ◽  

2021 ◽  
zhe liu ◽  

Abstract Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a worldwide pest that damages more than 900 host plant species. The infestation behavior of this pest is affected by the volatile organic compounds (volatiles) of different plants and their growth stage. We investigated the chemical constituents of the volatiles extracted from three plants (Gossypium hirsutum, Abutilon theophrasti and Ricinus communis) at different growth stages (pre-flowering, florescence and fruiting) and their effects on the behavior of adult B. tabaci. The selectivity studies on three plants showed that the B. tabaci preferred piemarker. The olfactometer studies showed that growth periods of the three plants also affected the preference of B. tabaci. Volatiles of piemarker and cotton plant had different levels of attraction to adults during all stages. Volatile substances released by castor at stage of flowering have a repellent effect on B. tabaci. In the plant VS plant combination ,the adults showed the strongest preference to volatiles from before and during anthesis of piemarker, followed by cotton, and then castor. A total of 23, 22 and 18 compounds were detected from volatiles of piemarker, cotton and castor, respectively, and proportions among the compounds changed during different stages of plant development. The olfactory responses of B. tabaci to volatile compounds showed that linalool and high concentration of leaf acetate had strong trapping effect on this pest, while 1-nonanal had significant repellent effect at high concentration. This study indicates that different plants and their growth stage affects their attractiveness or repellency to B. tabaci adults which is mediated by plant constitutive and dynamic changes. The compounds obtained by analysis screening can be used as potential attractants or repellents to control Mediterranean (MED) B. tabaci.

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