soil samples
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Laldingngheta Ralte

Abstract: In order to identify the distribution of radon mass exhalation soil samples from fault regions of Kolasib District were obtained. These were measured and analysed using scintillation based smart RnDuo device. The soil samples were collected from three different points in each selected fault. The exhalation rates from different locations ranges from 2.3 mBq/kg/hr – 54.19 mBq/kg/hr with an average of 20.42 mBq/kg/hr. Gamma survey measurement was also carried out which ranges between 89 nSv/hr – 157 nSv/hr with an average of 117.13 nSv/hr. The correlation graph between mass exhalation and gamma survey was plotted and a very weak correlation was obtained. Keywords: Radon, mass exhalation, soil samples, RnDuo, fault

Toxics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 39
Eka Djatnika Nugraha ◽  
June Mellawati ◽  
Wahyudi ◽  
Chutima Kranrod ◽  
Makhsun ◽  

Mamuju, Indonesia, is an area with high natural background radiation. This study assesses heavy metal content in soil samples from this area to determine the level of public and environmental hazard it presents. This study analyzes natural radionuclide elements using high purity germanium (HPGe) gamma spectrometry and performs heavy metals analysis using a flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Moreover, pollution indices and descriptive analyses were used to assess heavy metal contamination in the environment and the correlation between heavy metals and radionuclides. The results demonstrate that soil samples in several areas of Mamuju contain a high concentration of the natural radionuclides 226Ra and 232Th, and that heavy metal concentrations in the soil decrease in the sequence Zn > Pb > Cr > Cu > Ni > Cd. This study revealed that soil samples from Mamuju are moderately contaminated. There was a strong positive relationship between 226Ra, 232Th, ambient dose equivalent rate, and Pb. Ecological risk index (RI) and cumulative pollution index (IPI) values in Mamuju are 2.05 and 125, respectively, which are possible hazards to human health as a result. Pb concentration in the Mamuju soil samples ranged from 109 to 744 mg kg−1, exceeding the worldwide average of 27 mg kg−1.

Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 236
Xuebang Huang ◽  
Zizhao Zhang ◽  
Ruihua Hao ◽  
Zezhou Guo

Particle size grading impacts salt-frost heaving and dissolution collapse events of salinized soil on northwestern China’s arid and cold region highways. However, the influencing mechanisms remain unclear and the impact of varying particle size grading needs further investigation. Hence, this study focused on these effects and the number of freeze–thaw cycles on the characteristic changes in highway salinized soil in arid and cold regions. Three soil columns with different gradations were prepared to explore the gradation and the number of freeze–thaw cycle affects on salinized soil’s salt-frost heaving and dissolution collapse characteristics. The multi-functional physical simulation platform conducted multiple freeze–thaw cyclic tests in the laboratory. Test results confirmed significant and conclusive effects of gradation and the number of freeze–thaw cycles on salinized soil’s salt-frost heaving and dissolution collapse behaviors. Poorly graded salinized soil with high coarse particle content caused repeated freeze and thaw engineering hazards, significantly affecting salinized soil’s displacement and deformation behaviors during freezing. Contrarily, an increased range of fine particles more easily involved the characteristics of salinized soil during thawing. Therefore, the fourth freeze–thaw cycle was a crucial time node. After four freeze–thaw cycles, the displacement and deformation of original salinized soil and B-grade salinized soil samples (poorly graded with high fine particle content) tended to be stable. In contrast, the displacement and deformation of A-grade salinized soil samples (poorly graded with high coarse particle content) increased the growth rate. The present research results contribute to in-depth knowledge of the effects of gradation and freeze–thaw cycles on the characteristics of salinized soil in northwestern China, providing excellent referenced data support for the prevention and control of highway salinized soil failures and other engineering projects in arid and cold regions of northwest China.

2022 ◽  
Doaa Eissa ◽  
Rehab Hegab ◽  
Ahmed Abou Shady ◽  
yousra kotp

Abstract The term of nanotechnology has emerged recently in several fields of interest that refers to the researches and innovations that are concerned with making materials on a very small size close to the scale of atoms and molecules. In the present work, the effects of green synthesis of different nanoparticles on the quality of irrigation water, the availability of some heavy metals content in soil and the plant, and the productivity of Marjoram were studied in detail. The obtained results showed that the addition of nanoparticles (NPs) materials has resulted in noticeable variations in the removal percentages of Cu and Fe from aqueous solution. The maximum values obtained for adsorption of Cu (II) on ZnO, MgO, and SiO2 NPs, within pH (3–5) were 89.9%, 83.3%, and 68.36%, respectively. Whereas, the maximum adsorption values of Fe (III) at pH 3.3 were 82%, 80%, and 65% for ZnO, MgO, and SiO2 NPs, respectively. It was clearly seen that the effective of NPs application on reduction of the available Cu in the studied soil samples. The order of sequence for the effects of NPs application was found to take the following order Zn2 > Zn1 > Mg2 > Si2 > Mg 1 > Si1 > C (control). The highest values of the available Cu were observed in the control treatment, whereas the lowest values were obtained when Zn2 was added, and the same tendency was observed with the substantial concentrations of Fe. The addition of NPs to the soil samples had positively affected the Cu uptake via plant. The effects of NPs and the additions of Cu and Fe on the availability of NPK in the soil system were very completed and osculated from one treatment to another. The same tendency was observed with the total concentration of NPK in the plant.

2022 ◽  
Begna Tesema Bekana ◽  
Tolera Megersa Gudeta ◽  
Fedhasa Benti Chalchisa

Abstract BackgroundThe complex nature of the relationship and interaction between LULC and slope gradients resulted in the decline of soil fertility parameters, which aggravate the reduction of sustainable productivity in Ethiopia in general and the study area in particular. This study was aimed to determine the effects of land use land cover and slope gradients on the physicochemical properties of soil in study area A total of 27 composite soil samples were collected from 0-20cm depth under three dominant adjacent LULC across three slope with three replications. The collected soil samples were analyzed for selected soil physicochemical properties. Two-way ANOVA was used to test the mean differences of the soil fertility parameters. ResultThe mean values of soil physicochemical parameters showed that, SOC, TN, AvP, CEC, exchangeable bases (Ca2+ Mg2+, K+, and Na+), PBS, and percentage of clay contents of cultivated land and steep slope gradient (15-30%) were low and significantly different at (P≤0.05) than forest and grad grassland of the same slope gradient.. The gentle slope (3-8%) gradients of the forest lands had the lowest BD and high TP as compared to the others.ConclusionThe overall soil fertility status of the steep slope gradient (15-30%) of cultivated lands is lower than others and cultivating the steep slope is the cause for productivity loss in the study sub-watershed. Therefore, proper land-use planning and the use of integrated soil fertility management strategy give better production and keep the soil fertility status to a better level.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 93-100
Gabriela Pisarčíková ◽  
Lucia Závodská ◽  
Juraj Lesný

85Sr as radioindicator has been applied to strontium separation selectivity study using cisdicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DCH18C6) as extraction agent and picric acid as counter ion with the aim to contribute to the development of a rapid method of strontium extraction. The same radioindicator has been used for strontium fractionation study in chosen soils by application of Tessier- and BCR sequential extraction procedures. Experimental results have shown, that the mentioned extraction system is applicable for IDA determination of Sr2+ in ∼1000-fold abundance of Ca2+, ∼1000-fold abundance and Mg2+, ∼10-fold abundance of K+ and ∼0.2-fold abundance of Ba2+. For the soil samples - chernozems developed on loess - from the near vicinity of NPP Jaslovské Bohunice the exchangeable strontium fraction reached as much as 50 – 60 %.

2022 ◽  
Dipsikha Dasgupta ◽  
Santanu Majumder ◽  
Jishnu Adhikari ◽  
Pinaki Ghosh ◽  
Diane Purchase ◽  

Abstract Inappropriate e-waste processing in the informal sector is a serious issue in developing countries. Field investigations in microscale informal recycling sites have been performed to study the impact of hazardous metal(loid)s (released from e-waste dismantling) on the environment (water and soil). Eight hazardous metal(loid)s (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, As, Hg, Ni and Cr) were found at elevated levels in the monitored water and soil samples (Sangrampur, West Bengal) as a consequence of widespread informal e-waste handling and primitive processing. Pd, Cu and As were found in high concentrations in water samples (1.62, 1.40, 0.03 mgL-1 respectively). Significant levels of Cu, Pd and Cd were detected in collected soil samples, both topsoil (Cu up to 2328.60 ± 217.60, Pb up to 342.90 ± 32.36 and Cd 18.34 ± 3.81 mgkg-1) and subsurface soil (2491.40 ± 276.20, 1853.33 ± 144.79, 25.90 ± 9.53 mgkg-1), compared to the levels of Zn, As, Hg, Ni and Cr. The results of seasonal variation indicated that higher levels of these hazardous meta(loids) were detected in the pre-monsoon (Nov – May) season than the rest of the year, as open dumping/burning of e-waste were practiced commonly and frequently in the monitored sites. The results highlighted that the composition and the handling of e-waste were important factors affecting the metal(loid) concentrations. E-waste policy and legislation have great influence on the handling and disposal procedures. A novel improved e-waste management practice has been proposed to encourage eco-friendly and safe e-waste disposal. It is recommended that regulatory agencies and manufacturers should create a road map to convince the informal sector to develop a systematic approach towards a more standardized formal e-waste management practices at the microscale field level.

2022 ◽  
Vol 02 ◽  
Nkem Torimiro ◽  
Oluwafemi B. Daramola ◽  
Richard K. Omole ◽  
Ifeyimika Z. Adesina

Introduction: The health challenges associated with cassava products as a common staple food for approximately 70% of Africans and part of Asia pose a looming danger due to Bacillus enterotoxins’ presence in the processing environment. Objective: This study investigated the presence of enterotoxigenic genes namely, Bacillus cereus enterotoxin T (bceT), hemolysin bl (hblC, hblD) and non-haemolytic enterotoxin (nheA, nheB and nheC) from Bacillus species isolated from soil of cassava processing environment. Methods: Soil samples from 20 cassava processing sites in Ile-Ife and Modakeke, Nigeria were collected and cultured on Nutrient agar at 37 ºC for 24 hours. Colonies phenotypically identified as Bacillus were identified using Bacillus-specific 16S rRNA-targeted PCR technique. Screened Bacillus spp were assessed for the presence of enterotoxigenic genes using PCR with previously reported primers. Results: A total of 100 Bacillus isolates were selected from this study with Bacillus macerans (33 %) showing the highest frequency of occurrence among the identified species, however, 74 isolates were molecularly confirmed as Bacillus. Amongst the 74 molecularly confirmed Bacillus isolates, 28 (37.84%), 35 (47.30 %) and 37 (50 %) has nhe, hbl and bceT genes respectively. Investigation showed that 42 (56.76 %) of the Bacillus species encoded at least one of the screened enterotoxin genes. Conclusion: The presence of these 3 sets of enterotoxin genes in Bacillus isolated from cassava processing sites calls for immediate attention as they could be pivotal in the release of toxins in cassava products, cause lethal effects via consumption. This study demonstrates the possibility of foodborne disease outbreaks in Bacillus toxin-laden cassava products processed under unhygienic conditions.

Separations ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 12
Renli Ma ◽  
John R. Dean

The former St. Antony’s Lead Works site, now the central part of an urban recreational park (Walker Riverside Park) in the east end of Newcastle upon Tyne (England, UK), has been assessed based on the Pb concentration in topsoil according to recently derived Category 4 Screening Level (C4SL) for public open space–park (POSpark, 1300 mg/kg). The site was divided into eight sampling areas following its physical layout. In total 79 soil samples were collected, characterised for acidity and organic matter content, and analysed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF). The Pb levels in most of the samples, particularly those from the fringes of the site, are below the generic guideline value (down to 70 mg/kg). More than 16% of the samples from nearly all sampling areas, especially those sampling points around the former horizontal condenser flue and main chimney, contain levels of Pb significantly exceeding the limit (up to 206,000 mg/kg). No correlation is found between the Pb concentration in soil samples and their acidity (mostly neutral, pH 7.0 ± 0.5) or organic matter content (15.5 ± 4.1%). Using the Contaminated Land Exposure Assessment (CLEA) model (version 1.071), the site-specific risk assessment criteria (SSAC) for Lead (C4SL child), 2862 mg/kg, is obtained based on adjusted exposure frequency and occupancy period. Nearly 9% of the individual sample Pb concentrations (n = 79) across sample locations B, C, D and H are still above the specific value. Further statistical evaluation based on 95% upper confidence limit confirms that the site still represents a potential human health risk. This is because Pb concentrations, from two areas in the centre of the site (sample locations B and C), are greatly over the SSAC specific threshold (sample mean at location B is 12,350 mg/kg and at location C is 11,745 mg/kg).

2022 ◽  
Antônio Sérgio Ferreira de Sá ◽  
Lucas Leonardo-Silva ◽  
Solange Xavier-Santos

Saccharomycetales are ascomycetic yeasts and among them the genus Blastobotrys has approximately 30 known species. Blastobotrys malaysiensis is a yeast species, described from cave samples, known until then only from Malaysia. In this study, we characterize a new strain and report the second occurrence record of this species. Here, Blastobotrys malaysiensis SXS675, was collected from soil samples from a cave in the Parque Estadual de Terra Ronca (PETER) in Goiás, Brazil. Phylogenetic analyzes revealed strong support with the sequence of the species type, as well as with other species of the clade. This new record contributes by providing new molecular data for the species and expanding the knowledge of its distribution beyond the Asian continent. First record of a yeast for the American continent and its second mention for the world. 

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