Soil Samples
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Laldingngheta Ralte

Abstract: In order to identify the distribution of radon mass exhalation soil samples from fault regions of Kolasib District were obtained. These were measured and analysed using scintillation based smart RnDuo device. The soil samples were collected from three different points in each selected fault. The exhalation rates from different locations ranges from 2.3 mBq/kg/hr – 54.19 mBq/kg/hr with an average of 20.42 mBq/kg/hr. Gamma survey measurement was also carried out which ranges between 89 nSv/hr – 157 nSv/hr with an average of 117.13 nSv/hr. The correlation graph between mass exhalation and gamma survey was plotted and a very weak correlation was obtained. Keywords: Radon, mass exhalation, soil samples, RnDuo, fault

Camila P. Cagna ◽  
Osvaldo Guedes Filho ◽  
Alexandre R. C. Silva ◽  
Cássio A. Tormena

ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to automate the acquisition of water travel time, as well as the computation of hydraulic conductivity of saturated soil by the falling head method, using water sensors and the Arduino platform. To automate the measurement of travel time, the Arduino Uno board was used, and two water sensors were installed at the initial (h0) and final (h1) heights of the water inside the core. When the water flows across the soil and the water level passes the bottom part of the initial sensor (h0), the time recording starts; it ends when the water is absent from the final height of the second sensor (h1). The equation for calculating the hydraulic conductivity was inserted into the algorithm so the calculation was automatic. Undisturbed soil samples were taken in a long-term no-tillage area. There were no significant differences for the time and hydraulic conductivity means between the permeameters. The coefficient of the residual mass index showed an overestimation of the time variable; thus, the automated permeameter improves the precision of time recording and saturated hydraulic conductivity estimated by the falling head method.

J.N. Nwite ◽  
A.J. Ajana ◽  
I. Alinchi

Background: Low soil productivity in Nigeria and Africa sub sahara is considered as one of the major causes of food insecurity and under nutrition. This area is considered among the most regions affected by acidity on soil nutrients optimization. Despite of its severity, there is limited knowledge about limiting effect of pH on nutrients availability and maize yield in the state. Evolving a technology that does not depend on traditional system of amendment for pH assessment for increased soil productivity must first of all go through a good knowledge of the nature and distribution of soil studied. The present study aimed to evaluate three pH (4, 7 and 9) values on soil chemical properties in the state and assess maize performance under these conditions in order to control and manage pH related problems. Methods: In the field-laboratory investigation during 2018-2019 at different localities of Ebonyi State were surveyed. Three sampling localities were selected based on geographical situation, climate and local condition. In the laboratory, the soil samples of natural stock collected were processed for mean pH values and confirmed with pH meter using standard laboratory method. Maize was used as test crop to assess effect of pH on its performance. Result: Our investigations in Ebonyi State have allowed us to inventory three pH values. Among the inventoried pH values, some are regarded adverse for soil productivity. The implication of soil pH on nutrients availability and maize performance was discussed. The current work will be a complementary contribution of detailed study of effect of pH on soil productivity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 46 (1) ◽  
Odunayo Emmanuel Oyewole ◽  
Iyabo Adepeju Simon-Oke

Abstract Background Soil-Transmitted Helminths are a group of parasites that cause gastrointestinal infections in humans and require the soil to develop into their infective forms. Ecological factors such as soil temperature, soil pH and rainfall patterns are, however, important determinants for the successful transmission of soil helminths as they play a major role in their abundance and survival in the soil. The study investigated the ecological factors influencing the transmission of soil-transmitted helminths in Ifedore district, Southwest Nigeria. Results Out of the one hundred and ninety-two (192) soil samples from the study area, one hundred and fifty-two 152 (79.2%) were positive for the presence of soil helminths’ larvae and ova. Higher occurrence of soil helminths was recorded during the rainy months (n = 416) than during the months with no records of rainfall (n = 290). Sandy soil had the highest number of soil helminths 285 (40.4%), while clay soil recorded the least 88 (12.5%). Soil temperature showed negative correlations with the occurrence of Ancylostoma duodenale (r =  − 0.53) and Strongyloides stercoralis larvae (r =  − 0.36), while soil conductivity showed positive correlations with the occurrence of Ascaris lumbricoides (r = 0.28) and A. duodenale (r = 0.34). Conclusion It is evident from the study that ecological factors played a significant role in the occurrence and abundance of soil-transmitted helminths. This research is important for predicting and monitoring soil-transmitted helminthiasis in endemic countries, and to devise effective control measures.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2 ◽  
Sefinew Tilahun ◽  
Marye Alemu ◽  
Mesfin Tsegaw ◽  
Nega Berhane

Ginger diseases caused by fungal pathogens have become one of the most serious problems causing reduced production around the world. It has also caused a major problem among farmers in different parts of Ethiopia resulting in a huge decline in rhizome yield. However, the exact causative agents of this disease have not been identified in the state. Although there are few studies related to pathogenic fungus identification, molecular level identification of fungal pathogen was not done in the area. Therefore, this study was undertaken to isolate and characterized the fungal causative agent of ginger disease from the diseased plant and the soil samples collected around the diseased plant from Chilga district, Gondar, Ethiopia. Samples from infected ginger plants and the soil around the infected plant were collected. Culturing and purification of isolates were made using Potato Dextrose Agar supplemented with antibacterial agent chloramphenicol. The morphological characterization was done by structural identification of the isolates under the microscope using lactophenol cotton blue stains. Isolated fungi were cultured and molecular identification was done using an internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of ribosomal DNA (rDNA). A total of 15 fungal morphotypes including 11 Aspergillus spp. (73.3%), 2 Penicillium spp. (13.3%), and single uncultured fungus clone S23 were isolated from the samples representing all the plant organs and the soil. Aspergillus spp. (73.3%) was the most common and seems to be the major causative agent. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of ginger pathogenic fungi in Ethiopia identified using ITS rDNA molecular techniques. This study will lay foundation for the development of management strategies for fungal diseases infecting ginger.

2022 ◽  
Doaa Eissa ◽  
Rehab Hegab ◽  
Ahmed Abou Shady ◽  
yousra kotp

Abstract The term of nanotechnology has emerged recently in several fields of interest that refers to the researches and innovations that are concerned with making materials on a very small size close to the scale of atoms and molecules. In the present work, the effects of green synthesis of different nanoparticles on the quality of irrigation water, the availability of some heavy metals content in soil and the plant, and the productivity of Marjoram were studied in detail. The obtained results showed that the addition of nanoparticles (NPs) materials has resulted in noticeable variations in the removal percentages of Cu and Fe from aqueous solution. The maximum values obtained for adsorption of Cu (II) on ZnO, MgO, and SiO2 NPs, within pH (3–5) were 89.9%, 83.3%, and 68.36%, respectively. Whereas, the maximum adsorption values of Fe (III) at pH 3.3 were 82%, 80%, and 65% for ZnO, MgO, and SiO2 NPs, respectively. It was clearly seen that the effective of NPs application on reduction of the available Cu in the studied soil samples. The order of sequence for the effects of NPs application was found to take the following order Zn2 > Zn1 > Mg2 > Si2 > Mg 1 > Si1 > C (control). The highest values of the available Cu were observed in the control treatment, whereas the lowest values were obtained when Zn2 was added, and the same tendency was observed with the substantial concentrations of Fe. The addition of NPs to the soil samples had positively affected the Cu uptake via plant. The effects of NPs and the additions of Cu and Fe on the availability of NPK in the soil system were very completed and osculated from one treatment to another. The same tendency was observed with the total concentration of NPK in the plant.

2022 ◽  
Begna Tesema Bekana ◽  
Tolera Megersa Gudeta ◽  
Fedhasa Benti Chalchisa

Abstract BackgroundThe complex nature of the relationship and interaction between LULC and slope gradients resulted in the decline of soil fertility parameters, which aggravate the reduction of sustainable productivity in Ethiopia in general and the study area in particular. This study was aimed to determine the effects of land use land cover and slope gradients on the physicochemical properties of soil in study area A total of 27 composite soil samples were collected from 0-20cm depth under three dominant adjacent LULC across three slope with three replications. The collected soil samples were analyzed for selected soil physicochemical properties. Two-way ANOVA was used to test the mean differences of the soil fertility parameters. ResultThe mean values of soil physicochemical parameters showed that, SOC, TN, AvP, CEC, exchangeable bases (Ca2+ Mg2+, K+, and Na+), PBS, and percentage of clay contents of cultivated land and steep slope gradient (15-30%) were low and significantly different at (P≤0.05) than forest and grad grassland of the same slope gradient.. The gentle slope (3-8%) gradients of the forest lands had the lowest BD and high TP as compared to the others.ConclusionThe overall soil fertility status of the steep slope gradient (15-30%) of cultivated lands is lower than others and cultivating the steep slope is the cause for productivity loss in the study sub-watershed. Therefore, proper land-use planning and the use of integrated soil fertility management strategy give better production and keep the soil fertility status to a better level.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 93-100
Gabriela Pisarčíková ◽  
Lucia Závodská ◽  
Juraj Lesný

85Sr as radioindicator has been applied to strontium separation selectivity study using cisdicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DCH18C6) as extraction agent and picric acid as counter ion with the aim to contribute to the development of a rapid method of strontium extraction. The same radioindicator has been used for strontium fractionation study in chosen soils by application of Tessier- and BCR sequential extraction procedures. Experimental results have shown, that the mentioned extraction system is applicable for IDA determination of Sr2+ in ∼1000-fold abundance of Ca2+, ∼1000-fold abundance and Mg2+, ∼10-fold abundance of K+ and ∼0.2-fold abundance of Ba2+. For the soil samples - chernozems developed on loess - from the near vicinity of NPP Jaslovské Bohunice the exchangeable strontium fraction reached as much as 50 – 60 %.

2022 ◽  
Iyobosa Timothy Asowata ◽  
A.L. Adisa

Abstract Trace elements (TE) concentrations of subsoil and the underlying parent rocks of Labunwa – Odele area were determined in other to ascertain the enrichment level, distribution and sources of these TEs in the subsoil in the study area. Twenty-one (21) subsoil (at depth of 30 -100 cm) and thirteen (13) rock samples were collected, pulverised and digested using aqua regia for soil samples and near total digestion of HClO4, HF, HCl and HNO3of different proportions for the rocks. The samples were analysed using Inductively Coupled Plasma- Mass Spectrometry, (ICP-MS). The mean TE concentrations in ppm for subsoil showed Cu (40.0), Pb, (24.2), Zn (56.3), As (0.9) and U (2.7) among other elements as against the mean concentrations of granite gneiss (GGN) with Cu (22.9), Pb (61.4), Zn (64.6), As (1.0), U (2.6) and Pegmatite, (PGM) Cu(128.4), Pb(17.0), Zn(108.8), As (1.1), U (1.3) among other TEs. The relatively low concentrations of the TEs in the subsoil compared to the underlying parent rocks suggests that TEs in the subsoil may have been influenced by geogenic factors, such as weathering of the underlying rocks. TEs source apportionments in the subsoil using Bivariant plots, correlation coefficient, Bi-polar and dendogram analyses showed that these TEs are essentially from the underlying GGN and PGM in the area. Pollution status indices, I-geo, Contamination factor and PLI showed that the study area is practically unpolluted. This suggests that locations with relatively higher concentrations of some TEs are probably due to mineralisation and since most of the subsoil TEs are significantly lower in concentrations compared to the underlying bedrock, the area is safe for agricultural activities.

2022 ◽  
Vol 02 ◽  
Nkem Torimiro ◽  
Oluwafemi B. Daramola ◽  
Richard K. Omole ◽  
Ifeyimika Z. Adesina

Introduction: The health challenges associated with cassava products as a common staple food for approximately 70% of Africans and part of Asia pose a looming danger due to Bacillus enterotoxins’ presence in the processing environment. Objective: This study investigated the presence of enterotoxigenic genes namely, Bacillus cereus enterotoxin T (bceT), hemolysin bl (hblC, hblD) and non-haemolytic enterotoxin (nheA, nheB and nheC) from Bacillus species isolated from soil of cassava processing environment. Methods: Soil samples from 20 cassava processing sites in Ile-Ife and Modakeke, Nigeria were collected and cultured on Nutrient agar at 37 ºC for 24 hours. Colonies phenotypically identified as Bacillus were identified using Bacillus-specific 16S rRNA-targeted PCR technique. Screened Bacillus spp were assessed for the presence of enterotoxigenic genes using PCR with previously reported primers. Results: A total of 100 Bacillus isolates were selected from this study with Bacillus macerans (33 %) showing the highest frequency of occurrence among the identified species, however, 74 isolates were molecularly confirmed as Bacillus. Amongst the 74 molecularly confirmed Bacillus isolates, 28 (37.84%), 35 (47.30 %) and 37 (50 %) has nhe, hbl and bceT genes respectively. Investigation showed that 42 (56.76 %) of the Bacillus species encoded at least one of the screened enterotoxin genes. Conclusion: The presence of these 3 sets of enterotoxin genes in Bacillus isolated from cassava processing sites calls for immediate attention as they could be pivotal in the release of toxins in cassava products, cause lethal effects via consumption. This study demonstrates the possibility of foodborne disease outbreaks in Bacillus toxin-laden cassava products processed under unhygienic conditions.

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