free space optical
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Hasan Aldiabat ◽  
Nedal Al-ababneh

In this paper, the bandwidth density of misaligned free space optical interconnects (FSOIs) system with and without coding under a fixed bit error rate is considered. In particular, we study the effect of using error correction codes of various codeword lengths on the bandwidth density and misalignment tolerance of the FSOIs system in the presence of higher order modes. Moreover, the paper demonstrates the use of the fill factor of the detector array as a design parameter to optimize the bandwidth density of the communication. The numerical results demonstrate that the bandwidth density improves significantly with coding and the improvement is highly dependent on the used codeword length and code rate. In addition, the results clearly show the optimum fill factor values that achieve the maximum bandwidth density and misalignment tolerance of the system.

2022 ◽  
Vol 150 ◽  
pp. 106880
Yin Xiao ◽  
Lina Zhou ◽  
Zilan Pan ◽  
Yonggui Cao ◽  
Mo Yang ◽  

Huu Ai Duong ◽  
Van Loi Nguyen ◽  
Khanh Ty Luong

<span>The continuous development of internet of things (IoT) technology enables many devices to be interconnected through the external environment. Meanwhile, 5G technology provides an enhanced quality of services with high data transmission rates, requiring IoT implementation in the 5G architecture. Free-space optical communication (FSO) is considered a promising technique that can provide high-speed communication links, so FSO is an optimal choice for wireless networks to fulfill the full potential of 5G technology, providing speeds of 100 Gb/s or more. By implementing 5G features in IoT, IoT coverage and performance will be enhanced by using FSO models. Therefore, the paper proposed and investigated the multiple-input and multiple-output/free-space optical communication (MIMO/FSO) model using subcarrier quadrature amplitude modulation (SC-QAM) and relay stations over atmospheric turbulence channels by log-normal and gamma-gamma distribution under different turbulence conditions. The performance is examined based on the average channel capacity (ACC), which is expressed in terms of average spectral efficiency (ASE) parameters while changing the different parameters of the model. The mathematical formulas of ACC for atmospheric turbulence cases are calculated and discussed the influence of turbulence strength, the different number of relay stations, misalignment effects, and different MIMO configurations.</span>

2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Zhongli Yi ◽  
Fuzhai Wang ◽  
Lianjie Jin ◽  
Yueying Zhan

Abstract In this study, we propose an application scheme of free space optical communication technology in INMARSAT, and propose a 1.12 Tbit/s coherent free-space optical (FSO) communication system based on wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) and polarization-multiplexing quadrature phase shift keying (PM-QPSK) modulation technology. Based on optisystem software platform, the spectrum, bit error rate (BER), received power, error vector magnitude (EVM), and receiver sensitivity of the edge and middle channels of the system are analyzed. The simulation results show that the transmission rate and channel capacity of INMARSAT communication system are greatly improved by selecting the channel spacing and transmission environment reasonably.

Nanophotonics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Jian Wang ◽  
Jun Liu ◽  
Shuhui Li ◽  
Yifan Zhao ◽  
Jing Du ◽  

Abstract Orbital angular momentum (OAM), which describes tailoring the spatial physical dimension of light waves into a helical phase structure, has given rise to many applications in optical manipulation, microscopy, imaging, metrology, sensing, quantum science, and optical communications. Light beams carrying OAM feature two distinct characteristics, i.e., inherent orthogonality and unbounded states in principle, which are suitable for capacity scaling of optical communications. In this paper, we give an overview of OAM and beyond in free-space optical communications. The fundamentals of OAM, concept of optical communications using OAM, OAM modulation (OAM modulation based on spatial light modulator, high-speed OAM modulation, spatial array modulation), OAM multiplexing (spectrally efficient, high capacity, long distance), OAM multicasting (adaptive multicasting, N-dimensional multicasting), OAM communications in turbulence (adaptive optics, digital signal processing, auto-alignment system), structured light communications beyond OAM (Bessel beams, Airy beams, vector beams), diverse and robust communications using OAM and beyond (multiple scenes, turbulence-resilient communications, intelligent communications) are comprehensively reviewed. The prospects and challenges of optical communications using OAM and beyond are also discussed at the end. In the future, there will be more opportunities in exploiting extensive advanced applications from OAM beams to more general structured light.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Hai-Han Lu ◽  
Chung-Yi Li ◽  
Wen-Shing Tsai ◽  
Poh-Suan Chang ◽  
Yan-Yu Lin ◽  

AbstractA two-way 224-Gbit/s four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM4)-based fibre-free-space optical (FSO) converged system through a 25-km single-mode fibre (SMF) transport with 500-m free-space transmission is successfully constructed, which adopts injection-locked vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with polarisation-multiplexing mechanism for a demonstration. Compared with one-way transmission, two-way transmission is an attractive architecture for fibre-FSO converged system. Two-way transmission over SMF transport with free-space transmission not only reduces the required number of fibres and the setups of free-space transmission, but also provides the advantage of capacity doubling. Incorporating dual-wavelength four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM4) modulation with polarisation-multiplexing mechanism, the transmission capacity of fibre-FSO converged system is significantly enhanced to 224 Gbit/s (56 Gbit/s PAM4/wavelength × 2-wavelength × 2-polarisation) for downlink/uplink transmission. Bit error rate and PAM4 eye diagrams (downstream/upstream) perform well over 25-km SMF transport with 500-m free-space transmission. This proposed two-way fibre-FSO converged system is a prominent one not only because of its development in the integration of fibre backbone with optical wireless extension, but also because of its advantage in two-way transmission for affording high downlink/uplink data rate with good transmission performance.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 619
Meng Jin ◽  
Wenyi Liu ◽  
Yuan Hao ◽  
Ruihuan Wu ◽  
Zhongchao Wei ◽  

Free-space optical communication (FSO) technology has wide prospects in deep space exploration, but it will encounter coronal turbulence during superior solar conjunction, and solar scintillation will seriously affect the communication quality. In this paper, we propose a terrestrial–deep space hybrid radio frequency (RF)/FSO system with the hybrid L-pulse position modulation-binary phase shift keying-subcarrier intensity modulation (L-PPM–BPSK–SIM) scheme, where the RF channel of the satellite-terrestrial relay follows the Rayleigh distribution, and the FSO channel of the relay satellite to the deep space probe adopts Gamma–Gamma distribution. Considering the pointing error, the expression of the bit error rate (BER), the outage probability, and the average channel capacity of the hybrid system are derived. In addition, we evaluated the influence of coronal turbulence parameters on the system through amplitude fluctuations. The simulation results demonstrate that the hybrid RF/FSO system improves the BER performance by 10 to 30 times in a deep space environment, and the use of a hybrid modulation can further reduce the BER. The non-Kolmogorov spectral index, outer scale, solar wind density fluctuation factor, and optical wavelength comprehensively affect the BER through amplitude fluctuations. Our research results have potential application value for evaluating the link performance of future deep space communications.

Yuqing Huang ◽  
Zhongqi Sun ◽  
Tianqi Dou ◽  
Jipeng Wang ◽  
Zhenhua Li ◽  

Future quantum communication networks envisaged on a global scale will include various networks interlinked via optical fiber and free space channels. In recent years, quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol based on optical fiber has been extensively studied. Twin-field QKD (TF-QKD) may enable 550 km QKD using standard optical fiber without quantum repeaters. However, the performance of TF-QKD in free-space channel is still unclear. In this paper, a free-space channel model is proposed with specific turbulence characterization discussed. Here, the key rate of TF-QKD under multiple scenarios considering the variation of turbulence and different link configuration is investigated. Simulation results demonstrate that the performance of free-space TF-QKD is related to link configuration and turbulence motion which is determined by surface feature, time and height. Furthermore, TF-QKD protocol is a potential scheme for the free-space quantum communication.

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