N Use Efficiency
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Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (10) ◽  
pp. 1936
John Kormla Nyameasem ◽  
Enis Ben Halima ◽  
Carsten Stefan Malisch ◽  
Bahar S. Razavi ◽  
Friedhelm Taube ◽  

Soil–plant interactions affecting nitrous oxide (N2O) are not well-understood, and experimental data are scarce. Therefore, a greenhouse experiment was conducted in a 3 × 3 full factorial design, comprising three mineral N fertilizer rates (0, 150 and 300 kg N ha−1) applied to monoculture swards and a binary mixture of Plantago lanceolata and Lolium perenne. The parameters measured included daily N2O emissions, aboveground (AG) and belowground biomass (BG), N and C yields, as well as leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) activity in the soil as an indicator for soil microbial activity. Nitrous oxide emission and LAP were measured using the static chamber method and fluorimetric microplate assays, respectively. Cumulative N2O emissions were about two times higher for P. lanceolata than L. perenne monoculture swards or the mixture (p < 0.05). The binary mixtures also showed the highest N use efficiency and LAP activity, which significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with the C concentration in the belowground biomass. Plantago lanceolata was generally ineffective at reducing N2O emissions, probably due to the young age of the swards. Among the biological factors, N2O emission was significantly associated with biomass productivity, belowground C yield, belowground N use efficiency and soil microbial activity. Thus, the results suggested belowground resource allocation dynamics as a possible means by which swards impacted N2O emission from the soils. However, a high N deposition might reduce the N2O mitigation potential of grasslands.

Atmosphere ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (9) ◽  
pp. 1223
Jie Li ◽  
Shuai Wang ◽  
Jiafa Luo ◽  
Stuart Lindsey ◽  
Lingli Wang ◽  

The large amount of ammonia released during agricultural application of urea fertilizer can result in a partial loss of applied nitrogen, having a detrimental effect on air quality. Although Chamomile recutita has nitrogen transformation inhibitory properties, providing potential agricultural and environmental benefits, the full extent of the effects of the major constituents of this plant on urease activity and NH3 volatilization in soils is currently unknown. Soil incubation experiments were established using 2-Cyclopenten-1-one and Eugenol, two major constituents of C. recutita, to evaluate their effects on inorganic soil nitrogen pools, urease activity, and NH3 volatilization in grey desert soil and red soil. An application rate of 0.25 g N kg−1 soil fertilizer was applied as urea with and without additives. An unfertilized treatment was also included as a control. In order to compare results, N(butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT), a common synthetic urease inhibitor, was also used. NBPT, 2-Cyclopenten-1-one and Eugenol were applied at a rate of 0.00125 g kg−1 soil (equivalent to 0.5% N). The results indicated that the rate of urea hydrolysis was higher in grey desert soil compared to red soil. Soil in the urea-only treatments recorded urea hydrolysis to be almost complete within seven days of application. The rate of hydrolysis was inhibited by the two natural compounds, and higher concentrations of urea were maintained for more than two weeks. Soil amended with the two materials exhibited strong soil urease inhibition in both soil treatments (75.1% in the alkaline grey desert soil and 72.8% in the acidic red soil). The strongest inhibitory effect occurred one to three days after incubation in the Eugenol treatment. Moreover, the inhibitory effects of Cyclopenten-1-one and Eugenol were superior to that of NBPT in the two soils. Cyclopenten-1-one and Eugenol also significantly reduced soil NH3 emissions by 14.2 to 45.3%, especially in the acidic red soil. Molecular docking studies confirmed inhibition mechanisms, highlighting that natural compounds interacted with the amino acid residues of the urease active center. This action resulted in the urease active pocket being blocked, thereby inhibiting enzyme activity. Overall, our findings suggest that 2-Cyclopenten-1-one and Eugenol are both capable of hindering urease activity and reducing the risk of N loss in the two tested soils. Results highlight their applicability as urease inhibitors and their effect in delaying the release of ammonia nitrogen, thereby increasing fertilizer N use efficiency. However, in order to fully assess N use efficiency and the N balance due to the presence of Chamomile extract in soil-crop systems, further field scale investigations are required.

Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (9) ◽  
pp. 1858
Lingling Jiang ◽  
Wentian He ◽  
Rong Jiang ◽  
Jun Zhang ◽  
Yu Duan ◽  

Excessive nitrogen (N) application rate led to low N use efficiency and environmental risks in a potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production system in northwest China. Process-based models are effective tools in agroecosystems that can be used to optimize integrated management practices for improving potato yield and N use efficiency. The objectives of this study were (1) to calibrate and evaluate the DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) and soil Water Heat Carbon Nitrogen Simulator of Vegetable (WHCNS_Veg) models using the measurements of potato yield, above-ground biomass, N uptake, soil moisture and temperature, and soil inorganic N based on a field experiment in northwest China (2017–2020) and (2) to explore optimal management practices for improving yield and N use efficiency under long-term climate variability (1981–2020). Both models overall performed well in simulating potato tuber yield (normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) = 5.4–14.9%), above-ground biomass (NRMSE = 6.0–14.7%), N uptake (NRMSE = 18.1–25.6%), daily soil temperature (index of agreement (d) > 0.9 and Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (EF) > 0.8), and acceptable in-soil moisture and inorganic N content (d > 0.6 and EF > ‒1) for N-applied treatments. However, the two models underestimated tuber yield and soil N content for no N fertilization treatment which was partially attributed to the underestimated soil N mineralization rate under N stress conditions. The sensitivity analysis showed that the greatest tuber yield and N use efficiency were achieved at the N rate of 150–180 kg ha−1 with 2–3 splits, fertilization depth of 15–25 cm, and planting date of 25 April to 10 May in both models. This study highlights the importance of integrated management strategies in obtaining high N use efficiency and crop yield in potato production systems.

PeerJ ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
pp. e12107
Wenfeng Hou ◽  
Juan Shen ◽  
Weitao Xu ◽  
Muhammad Rizwan Khan ◽  
Yin Wang ◽  

Modern rice production systems need a reliable, easy-to-use, efficient, and environmentally-friendly method to determine plant nitrogen (N) status , predict grain yield, and optimize N management. We conducted field experiments to determine the influence of different N rates on Soil Plant Analysis Development (SPAD) readings of rice leaves. We also performed field validations to evaluate the grain yield and N use efficiency under recommended N rates. Our results showed that leaf SPAD readings increased as N rates increased. We applied the recommended N based on the relationships between the N rates and leaf SPAD readings at the tillering and booting stages. The recommended N decreased N rates and improved N use efficiency without sacrificing grain yield. When compared to farmer practices (FP), the recommended N rates of optimization (OPT) decreased by 5.8% and 10.0%, respectively. In comparison with FP, the N agronomic efficiency of OPT increased by 5.8 and 10.0% while the partial factor productivity of N increased by 6.0 and 14.2%, respectively. The SPAD meter may be a reliable tool to analyze the N in rice, estimate real-time N fertilization, and improve N use efficiency.

Dairy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (3) ◽  
pp. 435-451
Wumaierjiang Aizimu ◽  
Omar Al-Marashdeh ◽  
Simon Hodge ◽  
Richard J. Dewhurst ◽  
Ao Chen ◽  

This study aimed to identify suitable predictors of nitrogen (N) use efficiency (NUE; milk N/N intake) for cows that differed in breeds and were fed with ryegrass pasture, using existing data from the scientific literature. Data from 16 studies were used to develop models based on the relationships between NUE and dietary and animal-based factors. Data from a further 10 studies were used for model validation. Milk urea N (MUN) and dietary water-soluble carbohydrate-to-crudeprotein ratio (WSC/CP) were the best and most practical animal- and diet-based proxies to predict NUE. The results indicate that it might be necessary to adopt separate models for different breeds when using WSC/CP to predict NUE but not when using MUN.

PeerJ ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
pp. e11834
Baizhao Ren ◽  
Juan Hu ◽  
Peng Liu ◽  
Bin Zhao ◽  
Jiwang Zhang

Waterlogging was one of the main abiotic stresses affecting maize yield and growth in the North China Plain, while ridge tillage effectually improved soil environment, enhanced crop stress resistance to waterlogging, and increased grain yield of waterlogged maize. In order to explore the responses of nitrogen (N) efficiency and antioxidant system of summer maize to waterlogging stress under different tillage, a field experiment was conducted to explore N use efficiency, leaf activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) content of waterlogged maize Denghai 605 (DH605) and Zhengdan 958 (ZD958) under different tillage system (ridge planting and flat planting). Our results showed that ridge tillage was beneficial to ameliorate waterlogging damages on antioxidant system by increasing SOD, POD, and CAT activities, and decreasing MDA content. Moreover, ridge tillage significantly increased N efficiency of waterlogged maize. N translocation amount (NTA), N translocation efficiency (NTE), N contribution proportion (NCP), N harvest index (NHI), and N use efficiency (NUE) of waterlogging treatment under ridge planting system (W-V3+R) for DH605 was increased by 108%, 69%, 60%, 8% and 16%, while ZD958 increased by 248%, 132%, 146%, 13% and 16%, respectively, compared to those of waterlogging treatment under flat planting system (W-V3). Ultimately, ridge tillage led to a significant yield improvement by 39% and 50% for DH605 and ZD958, respectively, compared to that of W-V3. In conclusion, ridge tillage was conducive to retard leaf aging, and enhance nitrogen efficiency, thereby resulting in a yield improvement of waterlogged summer maize.

Plants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (7) ◽  
pp. 1459
Heba S. A. Salama ◽  
Ali I. Nawar ◽  
Hassan E. Khalil ◽  
Ahmed M. Shaalan

The sequence of the preceding crops in a no-tillage farming system, could interact with the integrated use of mineral and organic nitrogen (N) sources in a way that improves the growth and productivity of the terminal maize crop, meanwhile, enhancing its N use efficiency (NUE). In the current study, six legume-cereal crop sequences, including faba bean, soybean, Egyptian clover, wheat, and maize were evaluated along two experimental rotations that ended up by planting the terminal maize crop. In addition, the effects of applying variable mineral nitrogen (MN) rates with and without the incorporation of farmyard manure (FYM) on the productive performance of maize and its NUE were tested. The field experiments were conducted in a no-tillage irrigated farming system in Northern Egypt, a location that is characterized by its arid, Mediterranean climate. Results revealed that increasing the legume component in the evaluated crop sequences, up to 75%, resulted in improved maize ear leaf area, 1000-grain weight, and harvest index, thus, a higher final grain yield, with the inclusion of Egyptian clover was slightly better than faba bean. Comparing the crop sequences with 50% legume contribution uncovered the positive effects of soybean preceding crop on the terminal maize crop. Substituting 25% of the applied MN with FYM resulted in similar maize yields to the application of the equivalent 100% MN rates. The fertilizer treatments significantly interacted with the crop sequences in determining the maize grain yield, where the highest legume crop contribution in the crop sequence (75%) equalized the effects of the different fertilizer treatments on maize grain yield. The integrated use of FYM with MN in maize fertilization improved the NUE compared to the application of MN alone. Comparing fertilization treatments with similar MN content, with and without FYM, revealed that the difference in NUE was attributed to the additional amount of FYM. In similar conditions to the current study, it is recommended to grow faba bean two years before maize, while Egyptian clover could be grown directly preceding maize growth, with frequent inclusion of soybean in the sequence, this could be combined with the application of an average of 200 kg MN ha−1 in addition to FYM.

2021 ◽  
Vol 319 ◽  
pp. 107546
Guillermo Guardia ◽  
Sandra García-Gutiérrez ◽  
Rocío Rodríguez-Pérez ◽  
Jaime Recio ◽  
Antonio Vallejo

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (12) ◽  
pp. 2349
Jingchun Ji ◽  
Jianli Liu ◽  
Jingjing Chen ◽  
Yujie Niu ◽  
Kefan Xuan ◽  

Topdressing accounts for approximately 40% of the total nitrogen (N) application of winter wheat on the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain in China. However, N use efficiency of topdressing is low due to the inadaptable topdressing method used by local farmers. To improve the N use efficiency of winter wheat, an optimization method for topdressing (THP) is proposed that uses unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-based remote sensing to accurately acquire the growth status and an improved model for growth potential estimation and optimization of N fertilizer amount for topdressing (NFT). The method was validated and compared with three other methods by a field experiment: the conventional local farmer’s method (TLF), a nitrogen fertilization optimization algorithm (NFOA) proposed by Raun and Lukina (TRL) and a simplification introduced by Li and Zhang (TLZ). It shows that when insufficient basal fertilizer was provided, the proposed method provided as much NFT as the TLF method, i.e., 25.05% or 11.88% more than the TRL and TLZ methods and increased the yields by 4.62% or 2.27%, respectively; and when sufficient basal fertilizer was provided, the THP method followed the TRL and TLZ methods to reduce NFT but maintained as much yield as the TLF method with a decrease of NFT by 4.20%. The results prove that THP could enhance crop production under insufficient N preceding conditions by prescribing more fertilizer and increase nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) by lowering the fertilizer amount when enough basal fertilizer is provided.

S. B. Z. Sharna ◽  
S. Islam ◽  
A. Huda ◽  
M. Jahiruddin ◽  
M. R. Islam

Nitrogen is one of the most deficient plant nutrients in Bangladesh soils. The use nitrogenous fertilizer especially urea is a commonly used fertilizer for rice production but its efficiency very low about 30-40% under traditional broadcast method A field experiment was carried out  in the Soil Science Field Laboratory of Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh during Aus rice growing season of 2014 to investigate the effects of prilled urea, urea briquettes and NPK briquettes on the growth, yield, and nitrogen use efficiency of BRRI dhan48. There were six treatments as T1 [check (N0P16K42], T2 [Urea briquette (one-3.4 g) (N52P16K42)], T3 (Urea briquette (one-2.7 g (N78P16K42)], T4 [NPK briquette (one-3.4g)(N51P13K32], T5 [Prilled urea (N78P16K42)] and T6 [NPK briquettes(two-2.4 g briquettes (N78P15K42)]. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with six treatments and four replications. Prilled urea was applied in two equal splits application; at 8 days after transplanting (DAT) and the second dose after 38 DAT, while for urea briquettes and NPK briquettes were deep placed (8-10 cm depth) at 8 DAT between four hills at alternate rows. Water samples were collected for every 7 consecutive days and analyzed for NH4-N. The results showed that the NH4-N concentration in floodwater reached to maximum on day 2 in PU treated plots and then decreased  with time, while the urea briquettes and NPK briquettes treated plots slowly produced NH4-N over the growth period. The highest grain yield of 4.75 t ha-1 (69% over control) was obtained in the treatment T3 [Urea briquette (one-2.7g) (N78P16K42)]. The treatment T3 also produced the highest straw yield of 5.49 t ha-1. The maximum apparent N recovery and the maximum N use efficiency were found in the treatment T4 [NPK briquette (one-3.4g) (N51P13K32)]. It appeared that the deep placement of urea briquettes and NPK briquettes reduced N-losses and enhanced the recovery of applied N as well as N use efficiency in comparison with PU application.

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