Research Article
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Rajashree Naik ◽  
L.K. Sharma

Globally, saline lakes occupying 23% by area 44% by volume among all the lakes might desiccate by 2025 due to agricultural diversion, illegal encroachment, pollution, and invasive species. India’s largest saline lake, Sambhar is currently shrinking at the rate of 4.23% due to illegal saltpan en-croachment. This research article aims to identify the trend of migratory birds and monthly wetland status. Birds survey was conducted for 2019, 2020 and 2021 and combined with literature data of 1994, 2003, and 2013 for visiting trend, feeding habit, migratory and resident ratio, and ecological diversity index analysis. Normalized Difference Water Index was scripted in Google Earth Engine. Results state that it has been suitable for 97 species. Highest NDWI values for the was whole study period was 0.71 in 2021 and lowest 0.008 in 2019 which is highly fluctuating. The decreasing trend of migratory birds coupled with decreasing water level indicates the dubious status for its existence. If the causal factors are not checked, it might completely desiccate by 2059 as per its future prediction. Certain steps are suggested that might help conservation. Least, the cost of restoration might exceed the revenue generation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (615) ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Iqra Shamas ◽  
Saif Ur Rehman ◽  
Naeem Jan ◽  
Abdu Gumaei ◽  
Mabrook Al-Rakhami

The key objective of this research article includes the study of some rational type coincidence point and deriving common fixed point (CFP) results for rational type weakly-compatible three self-mappings in fuzzy metric (FM) space. The “triangular property of FM” is used as a fundamental tool. Moreover, some unique coincidence points and CFP theorems were presented for three self-mappings in an FM space under the conditions of rational type weakly-compatible fuzzy-contraction. In addition, some suitable examples are also given. Furthermore, an application of fuzzy differential equations is provided in the aid of the proposed work. Hence, the innovative direction of rational type weakly-compatible fuzzy-contraction with the application of fuzzy differential equations in FM space will certainly play a vital role in the related fields. It has the potential to be extended in any direction with different types of weakly-compatible fuzzy-contraction conditions for self-mappings with different types of differential equations.

Electronics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (20) ◽  
pp. 2462
Cosmin-Constantin Mihai ◽  
Ciprian Lupu

Graphics processing units and video cards have seen a surge of usage in domains other than graphics computers, due to advances in hardware and software technologies; however, little uptake has been in the domain of systems engineering and real time control. This research article will demonstrate the use of video cards in multimodel adaptive robust control, using openGL and compute shaders. A software simulation will show the behavior of the adaptive robust multimodel control scheme as the target process is exposed to both parametric and structural disturbances and will show the viability of using graphics processing units in real time systems control.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (11) ◽  
Rouhollah Daneshvar Rad ◽  
Hosein Heidari Sharifabad ◽  
Masoud Torabi ◽  
Reza Azizinejad ◽  
Hamidreza Salemi ◽  

Abstract Drought stress is the most important limiting factor in crop plants including maize (Zea mays L.), which is the third important world crop after wheat and rice. To examine the quantity and quality of forage as well as energy and water productivity of two maize varieties to drought stress, a field experiment was carried out as a split plot based on a completely randomized block design with three replications in Isfahan, Iran, during 2017 and 2018 growing seasons. The main and sub-plots were three irrigation regimes (100%, 80, and 60% full irrigation) and two maize varieties (704 and Maxima), respectively. Data analysis showed that drought stress harmed wet and dry forage yield and energy productivity, while its effect was positive on some forage quality such as ash, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), hemicellulose free cell wall (ADF), and lignin (ADL). Based on results, drought stress of 60% full irrigation resulted in reduced wet and dry forage maize yields. In addition, drought stress affected relationships among measured traits. According to increasing dried fodder and decreasing output energy under stress conditions, early mature variety Maxima is more proper to be used under drought stress. Besides, the Maxima variety was shown to be a suitable variety due to increasing dry matter and crude protein as well as decrease ADF and ADL than the 704 variety. Article Highlights We submit an original research article entitled Effect of water stress on forage yield and quality and water and energy productivity in Maize (Zea mays L.). In this paper, we indicated regarding to impacts of climate change phenomenon throughout the world on crop production, especially in arid regions such as Iran, choosing proper variety can be one of the best candidates to provide for forage. The results of present paper have shown that the drought stress had no effect on water productivity of two maize varieties. The superiority of some forage quality traits in drought stress compared to the control in maize means that in drought conditions, maize forage can be used and increase the profitability of livestock products.

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (19) ◽  
pp. 5880
Ariadna Chueca de Bruijn ◽  
Giovanni Gómez-Gras ◽  
Marco A. Pérez

Additive manufacturing technologies are increasingly being used in production systems because they shorten product development time and production cost, but surface integrity remains a limitation to meet the standards set by conventional manufacturing. In this research article, two chemical, one thermal, and three mechanical finishing operations are proposed to post-process fused filament fabricated Ultem 9085 parts. Their effects on the parts’ surface quality and dimensional accuracy (changes in their width, height, length, and mass) are examined through optical and electron scanning microscopy, and the advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed. Microscope evaluation has proven to be a powerful tool to observe apparent differences and understand the nature of different morphological changes. Results indicate that chemical and thermal treatments and ball burnishing are good candidates to significantly enhance the finish of the parts, despite requiring the use of solvents or provoking dimensional changes to the parts. The effects of abrasive mechanical treatments are more moderate at a macroscopic scale, but the surface of the filaments suffers the most remarkable changes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Balram Tamrakar ◽  
Krishna Singh ◽  
Parvin Kumar

Abstract In this research article, the radio over fiber (RoF) Architecture using dual-parallel Mach–Zehnder modulator (DP-MZM) is analyzed and simulated. The nonlinearity is the main issues which degrade the performance of the RoF links. Using DP-MZM modulators, the nonlinearity can be reducing in the significant amount by controlling the bias voltages. The DP-MZM consists of two MZM modulators in parallel form with the variations of extinction ratio (ER). The proposed RoF link operated with single tone frequency signal at 10 GHz and the optical signal is transmitted further on Single mode optical fiber. The electrical spectrum at the output of photodetector confirms the quality of received signal while having desired and undesired terms. The proposed structure is designed using Optical Simulator simulation Software to confirm and validate the proposed results. The simulation output shows that the RF power of DP-MZM based RoF link has been found a decrement of 6.95 dB corresponding to undesired components with respect to desired RF signal for the increment in fiber length from 10 to 30 km. The digital transmission RoF link model is proposed and optimized for fiber impairments for 2–30 km, using 10 Gbps digital data string. electrical spectrum analyzer shows that very good eye openings for different fiber impairments, its shoes that proposed RoF model is optimized and having good SNR.

2021 ◽  
Vol 58 (3) ◽  
pp. 210-216
Balakrishnan Somasekaran ◽  
Alwarsamy Thirunarayanaswamy ◽  
Ilamathi Palanivel

Graphene, a two-dimensional crystalline allotrope of carbon, has received greater attention from numerous researchers due to its excellent properties. Graphene could be produced by various techniques, each method has its advantages and disadvantages. In this research article, a novel method using agricultural waste rice husk as a precursor and chemical activation to produce few-layer graphene nanosheets was developed. Traditional approaches significant shortcomings and the environmental concern of agricultural waste have been eliminated. The synthesized material was characterized using FESEM, Raman Spectroscopy, X-Ray diffractometer, UV-Vis absorbance and FTIR analysis. FESEM analysis of the surface morphology revealed smooth edge few-layer graphene. The formation of sp2 hybridized atoms can be seen in XRD spectra at 26.3 degrees. The C=C stretching bonds detected at 1612 cm-1 wavelength are responsible for the graphitic structure.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (4) ◽  
pp. 183-189
Palaniammal A

Sangam literature are used to clearly understand the development of civilized society and literary richness or off luence. The literature named after the parable can be said to be sangam literature. We call a parable, an analogy that composes one object to another. We could find this kind of analogy in writings of noble laureates naturally this parable is nurtured with human birth. Through the beautiful usages of parable in sangam literary pieces one can see the growth of culture. The parable is the supreme tool for cultivating culture and the key used to open the springs of emotions to the pinnacle of languages. Through this research article we come to know how parable works as the highly appreciatable tool of language and how it can beanty one’s writing.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
pp. 211-222
Navya Thirumaleshwar Hegde ◽  
Aldrin Claytus Vaz ◽  
C. G. Nayak

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) guidance, control and navigation have directed the attention of many researchers in both aerospace engineering as well as control theory. Due to the unique rotor structure of Tiltrotor hybrid UAVs, they exhibit special application value. Quad Tiltrotor UAVs set up a distinctive platform that satisfies the needs of the varying mission requirements by combining the conventional features of high-speed cruise capabilities of an aircraft and hovering capabilities of a helicopter and by tilting its four rotors. The aim of this research article is to control the attitude and altitude of the UAV in the presence of uncertainty using two different control techniques. This paper addresses the comparative analysis of the robust H-infinity controller with classical PID control designs for the transition manoeuvre of a hybrid UAV: the VTOL Tiltrotor UAV. The proposed controllers achieve hover to cruise mode transition and vice-versa. The main idea behind the design of controller is to model and analyze the UAV’s position and attitude dynamics. The desired flight trajectory and the transition manoeuvre is achieved by controlling the tilt angle in 15° intervals from 90° to 0° and vice-versa. Performance index subjected to IAE is estimated and compared for both the controllers in the presence of noise, disturbances and uncertainties. The results of simulation illustrate that the robust H-infinity controller achieves better transition, good adaptability, robust performance and robust stability for the whole flight envelope when compared with the PID controller.

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