angiogenic factors
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Genes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 152
Peace Mabeta ◽  
Rodney Hull ◽  
Zodwa Dlamini

Angiogenesis is one of the hallmarks of cancer, and the establishment of new blood vessels is vital to allow for a tumour to grow beyond 1–2 mm in size. The angiogenic switch is the term given to the point where the number or activity of the pro-angiogenic factors exceeds that of the anti-angiogenic factors, resulting in the angiogenic process proceeding, giving rise to new blood vessels accompanied by increased tumour growth, metastasis, and potential drug resistance. Long noncoding ribonucleic acids (lncRNAs) have been found to play a role in the angiogenic switch by regulating gene expression, transcription, translation, and post translation modification. In this regard they play both anti-angiogenic and pro-angiogenic roles. The expression levels of the pro-angiogenic lncRNAs have been found to correlate with patient survival. These lncRNAs are also potential drug targets for the development of therapies that will inhibit or modify tumour angiogenesis. Here we review the roles of lncRNAs in regulating the angiogenic switch. We cover specific examples of both pro and anti-angiogenic lncRNAs and discuss their potential use as both prognostic biomarkers and targets for the development of future therapies.

Ali Reza Khoshdel ◽  
Omid Emami Aleagha ◽  
Alireza Shahriary ◽  
Hossein Aghamollaei ◽  
Farshad Najjar Asiabani

Biomedicine ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 41 (4) ◽  
pp. 694-700
Anil Kumar K. V. ◽  
Kavitha S. ◽  
Sreekanth K. S.

The vasculature of the placenta plays a crucial role during the course of pregnancy in order to maintain the growing need of the fetus. Abnormal placental structure and function significantly increase the risk of stillbirth. Various growth factors and cytokines play an important role in the vasculogenesis and angiogenesis of placenta. These processes are stimulated by various pro-angiogenic factors. The activities of these factors are also stimulated by hypoxia. In some of the physiological phenomenon like ovulation, embryogenesis as well as in wound healing intense blood vessel growth can be seen similar to that seen in placenta. Therefore, factors that induce and maintain placental vascular growth and function are of considerable developmental and clinical significance. The total arterial architecture may also depend upon the pro-angiogenic factors. Hormones and other growth factors are other contributors of this vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Any dysfunction of factors can lead to foetal hypoxia and related complications. This review describes the major growth factors and their significant role in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis of placenta.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Haoxin Shi ◽  
Dong Li ◽  
Qing Shi ◽  
Zhenxia Han ◽  
Yuwei Tan ◽  

Macrophages play important roles in angiogenesis; however, previous studies on macrophage angiogenesis have focused on traditional 2D cultures. In this study, we established a 3D culture system for macrophages using collagen microcarriers and assessed the effect of 3D culture on their angiogenic capabilities. Macrophages grown in 3D culture displayed a significantly different morphology and arrangement under electron microscopy compared to those grown in 2D culture. Tube formation assays and chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane assays further revealed that 3D-cultured macrophages were less angiogenic than those in 2D culture. Whole-transcriptome sequencing showed that nearly 40% of genes were significantly differently expressed, including nine important angiogenic factors of which seven had been downregulated. In addition, the expression of almost all genes related to two important angiogenic pathways was decreased in 3D-cultured macrophages, including the two key angiogenic factors, VEGFA and ANG2. Together, the findings of our study improve our understanding of angiogenesis and 3D macrophage culture in tissues, and provide new avenues and methods for future research on macrophages.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-4
Yoshiteru Morio ◽  

Bronchiectasis (BE) often causes life-threatened hemoptysis. There raises a higher risk for relapsed hemoptysis when complicated with chronic pulmonary infection in BE patients

Biomolecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 7
Luka Roškar ◽  
Irena Roškar ◽  
Tea Lanišnik Rižner ◽  
Špela Smrkolj

Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most frequent gynecological malignancy in developed countries and requires a relatively invasive diagnostic evaluation and operative therapy as the primary therapeutic approach. Angiogenesis is one of the main processes needed for cancer growth and spread. The production of angiogenic factors (AFs) appears early in the process of carcinogenesis. The detection of AFs in plasma and tissue and a better understanding of the angiogenic properties of EC may contribute not only to earlier but also more specific diagnosis and consequently tailored and individual therapeutic approaches. AFs and their receptors also have high potential as binding sites for targeted cancer therapy. In this review, we discuss angiogenesis in EC and the characteristics of the AFs that most contribute to angiogenesis in EC. We also highlight therapeutic strategies that target angiogenesis as potential EC therapy.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Devy Zisman ◽  
Mirna Safieh ◽  
Elina Simanovich ◽  
Joy Feld ◽  
Amalia Kinarty ◽  

BackgroundAngiogenesis is a major contributor to the development of inflammation during Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), as the vascularization of the pannus provides nutrients and oxygen for the infiltrating immune cells and proliferating synoviocytes. Tocilizumab (TCZ) is an anti-IL-6 receptor antibody that is used in the treatment of RA patients, and has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects. However, its effects on angiogenesis are not fully elucidated, and the molecular mechanisms regulating this effect are unknown.MethodsWe evaluated the concentrations of several pro- and anti-angiogenic factors and the expression levels of several microRNA molecules that are associated with RA and angiogenesis in serum samples obtained from 40 RA patients, before and 4 months after the initiation of TCZ treatment. Additionally, we used an in vitro co-culture system of fibroblasts (the HT1080 cell line) and monocytes (the U937 cell line) to explore the mechanisms of TCZ action.ResultsSerum samples from RA patients treated with TCZ exhibited reduced circulating levels of EMMPRIN/CD147, enhanced expression of circulating miR-146a-5p and miR-150-5p, and reduced the angiogenic potential as was manifested by the lower number of tube-like structures that were formed by EaHy926 endothelial cell line. In vitro, the accumulation in the supernatants of the pro-angiogenic factors EMMPRIN, VEGF and MMP-9 was increased by co-culturing the HT1080 fibroblasts and the U937 monocytes, while the accumulation of the anti-angiogenic factor thrombospondin-1 (Tsp-1) and the expression levels of miR-146a-5p were reduced. Transfection of HT1080 cells with the miR-146a-5p mimic, decreased the accumulation of EMMPRIN, VEGF and MMP-9. When we neutralized EMMPRIN with a blocking antibody, the supernatants derived from these co-cultures displayed reduced migration, proliferation and tube formation in the functional assays.ConclusionsOur findings implicate miR-146a-5p in the regulation of EMMPRIN and propose that TCZ affects angiogenesis through its effects on EMMPRIN and miR-146a-5p.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (4) ◽  
pp. 100572
János Sikovanyecz ◽  
Márió Vincze ◽  
Imre Földesi ◽  
Gábor Németh ◽  
Zoltan Kozinszky

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