mendelian randomization
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Changqing Mu ◽  
Yating Zhao ◽  
Chen Han ◽  
Dandan Tian ◽  
Na Guo ◽  

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive and devastating neurodegenerative disease with increasing incidence and high mortality, resulting in a considerable socio-economic burden. Till now, plenty of studies have explored the potential relationship between circulating levels of various micronutrients and ALS risk. However, the observations remain equivocal and controversial. Thus, we conducted a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) study to investigate the causality between circulating concentrations of 9 micronutrients, including retinol, folate acid, vitamin B12, B6 and C, calcium, copper, zinc as well as magnesium, and ALS susceptibility. In our analysis, several single nucleotide polymorphisms were collected as instrumental variables from large-scale genome-wide association studies of these 9 micronutrients. Then, inverse variance weighted (IVW) approach as well as alternative MR-Egger regression, weighted median and MR-pleiotropy residual sum and outlier (MR-PRESSO) analyses were performed to evaluate causal estimates. The results from IVW analysis showed that there was no causal relationship of 9 micronutrients with ALS risk. Meanwhile, the three complementary approaches obtained similar results. Thus, our findings indicated that supplementation of these 9 micronutrients may not play a clinically effective role in preventing the occurrence of ALS.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yalan Li ◽  
Jun Lu ◽  
Jie Wang ◽  
Peizhi Deng ◽  
Changjiang Meng ◽  

Background: Observational studies have revealed the association between some inflammatory cytokines and the occurrence of ischemic stroke, but the causal relationships remain unclear.Methods: We conducted a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis to assess the causal effects of thirty inflammatory cytokines and the risk of ischemic stroke. For exposure data, we collected genetic variants associated with inflammatory cytokines as instrumental variables (IVs) from a genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis from Finland (sample size up to 8,293). For the outcome data, we collected summary data of ischemic stroke from a large-scale GWAS meta-analysis involved 17 studies (34,217 cases and 406,111 controls). We further performed a series of sensitivity analyses as validation of primary MR results.Results: According to the primary MR estimations and further sensitivity analyses, we established one robust association after Bonferroni correction: the odds ratio (95% CI) per unit change in genetically increased IL-4 was 0.84 (0.89–0.95) for ischemic stroke. The chemokine MCP3 showed a nominally significant association with ischemic stroke risk (OR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.88–0.99, unadjusted p < 0.05). There was no evidence of a causal effect of other inflammatory cytokines and the risk of ischemic stroke.Conclusions: Our study suggested that genetically increased IL-4 levels showed a protective effect on the risk of ischemic stroke, which provides important new insights into the potential therapeutic target for preventing ischemic stroke.

2022 ◽  
Zheran Liu ◽  
Yaxin Luo ◽  
Yonglin Su ◽  
Zhigong Wei ◽  
Ruidan Li ◽  

Abstract Study Objectives Sleep and circadian phenotypes are associated with several diseases. The present study aimed to investigate whether sleep and circadian phenotypes were causally linked with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related outcomes. Methods Habitual sleep duration, insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, daytime napping, and chronotype were selected as exposures. Key outcomes included positivity and hospitalization for COVID-19. In the observation cohort study, multivariable risk ratios (RRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses were conducted to estimate the causal effects of the significant findings in the observation analyses. Beta values and the corresponding 95% CIs were calculated and compared using the inverse variance weighting, weighted median, and MR-Egger methods. Results In the UK Biobank cohort study, both often excessive daytime sleepiness and sometimes daytime napping were associated with hospitalized COVID-19 (excessive daytime sleepiness [often vs. never]: RR=1.24, 95% CI=1.02-1.5; daytime napping [sometimes vs. never]: RR=1.12, 95% CI=1.02-1.22). In addition, sometimes daytime napping was also associated with an increased risk of COVID-19 susceptibility (sometimes vs. never: RR= 1.04, 95% CI=1.01-1.28). In the MR analyses, excessive daytime sleepiness was found to increase the risk of hospitalized COVID-19 (MR IVW method: OR = 4.53, 95% CI = 1.04-19.82), whereas little evidence supported a causal link between daytime napping and COVID-19 outcomes. Conclusions Observational and genetic evidence supports a potential causal link between excessive daytime sleepiness and an increased risk of COVID-19 hospitalization, suggesting that interventions targeting excessive daytime sleepiness symptoms might decrease severe COVID-19 rate.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Shabab Noor Islam ◽  
Tanvir Ahammed ◽  
Aniqua Anjum ◽  
Olayan Albalawi ◽  
Md. Jamal Uddin

Abstract Background Mendelian randomization (MR) studies using Genetic risk scores (GRS) as an instrumental variable (IV) have increasingly been used to control for unmeasured confounding in observational healthcare databases. However, proper reporting of methodological issues is sparse in these studies. We aimed to review published papers related to MR studies and identify reporting problems. Methods We conducted a systematic review using the clinical articles published between 2009 and 2019. We searched PubMed, Scopus, and Embase databases. We retrieved information from every MR study, including the tests performed to evaluate assumptions and the modelling approach used for estimation. Using our inclusion/exclusion criteria, finally, we identified 97 studies to conduct the review according to the PRISMA statement. Results Only 66 (68%) of the studies empirically verified the first assumption (Relevance assumption), and 40 (41.2%) studies reported the appropriate tests (e.g., R2, F-test) to investigate the association. A total of 35.1% clearly stated and discussed theoretical justifications for the second and third assumptions. 30.9% of the studies used a two-stage least square, and 11.3% used the Wald estimator method for estimating IV. Also, 44.3% of the studies conducted a sensitivity analysis to illuminate the robustness of estimates for violations of the untestable assumptions. Conclusions We found that incompleteness of the justification of the assumptions for the instrumental variable in MR studies was a common problem in our selected studies. This may misdirect the findings of the studies.

eLife ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Michael Chong ◽  
Pedrum Mohammadi-Shemirani ◽  
Nicolas Perrot ◽  
Walter Nelson ◽  
Robert Morton ◽  

Background: Mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA-CN) is an accessible blood-based measurement believed to capture underlying mitochondrial function. The specific biological processes underpinning its regulation, and whether those processes are causative for disease, is an area of active investigation.Methods: We developed a novel method for array-based mtDNA-CN estimation suitable for biobank-scale studies, called 'AutoMitoC'. We applied AutoMitoC to 395,781 UKBiobank study participants and performed genome and exome-wide association studies, identifying novel common and rare genetic determinants. Finally, we performed two-sample Mendelian Randomization to assess whether genetically low mtDNA-CN influenced select mitochondrial phenotypes.Results: Overall, genetic analyses identified 71 loci for mtDNA-CN, which implicated several genes involved in rare mtDNA depletion disorders, dNTP metabolism, and the mitochondrial central dogma. Rare variant analysis identified SAMHD1 mutation carriers as having higher mtDNA-CN (beta=0.23 SDs; 95% CI, 0.18- 0.29; P=2.6x10-19), a potential therapeutic target for patients with mtDNA depletion disorders, but at increased risk of breast cancer (OR=1.91; 95% CI, 1.52-2.40; P=2.7x10-8). Finally, Mendelian randomization analyses suggest a causal effect of low mtDNA-CN on dementia risk (OR=1.94 per 1 SD decrease in mtDNA-CN; 95% CI, 1.55-2.32; P=7.5x10-4).Conclusions: Altogether, our genetic findings indicate that mtDNA-CN is a complex biomarker reflecting specific mitochondrial processes related to mtDNA regulation, and that these processes are causally related to human diseases.Funding: No funds supported this specific investigation. Awards and positions supporting authors include: Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) Frederick Banting and Charles Best Canada Graduate Scholarships Doctoral Award (MC, PM); CIHR Post-Doctoral Fellowship Award (RM); Wellcome Trust Grant number: 099313/B/12/A; Crasnow Travel Scholarship; Bongani Mayosi UCT-PHRI Scholarship 2019/2020 (TM); Wellcome Trust Health Research Board Irish Clinical Academic Training (ICAT) Programme Grant Number: 203930/B/16/Z (CJ); European Research Council COSIP Grant Number: 640580 (MO); E.J. Moran Campbell Internal Career Research Award (MP); CISCO Professorship in Integrated Health Systems and Canada Research Chair in Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology (GP).

2022 ◽  
Laurence Howe ◽  
Humaira Rasheed ◽  
Paul R Jones ◽  
Dorret I Boomsma ◽  
David M Evans ◽  

Previous Mendelian randomization (MR) studies using population samples (population-MR) have provided evidence for beneficial effects of educational attainment on health outcomes in adulthood. However, estimates from these studies may have been susceptible to bias from population stratification, assortative mating and indirect genetic effects due to unadjusted parental genotypes. Mendelian randomization using genetic association estimates derived from within-sibship models (within-sibship MR) can avoid these potential biases because genetic differences between siblings are due to random segregation at meiosis. Applying both population and within-sibship MR, we estimated the effects of genetic liability to educational attainment on body mass index (BMI), cigarette smoking, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and all-cause mortality. MR analyses used individual-level data on 72,932 siblings from UK Biobank and the Norwegian HUNT study and summary-level data from a within-sibship Genome-wide Association Study including over 140,000 individuals. Both population and within-sibship MR estimates provided evidence that educational attainment influences BMI, cigarette smoking and SBP. Genetic variant-outcome associations attenuated in the within-sibship model, but genetic variant-educational attainment associations also attenuated to a similar extent. Thus, within-sibship and population MR estimates were largely consistent. The within-sibship MR estimate of education on mortality was imprecise but consistent with a putative effect. These results provide evidence of beneficial individual-level effects of education (or liability to education) on adulthood health, independent of potential demographic and family-level confounders.

2022 ◽  
pp. 0271678X2210742
Xue-Qing Zhang ◽  
Yu-Xiang Yang ◽  
Can Zhang ◽  
Xin-Yi Leng ◽  
Shi-Dong Chen ◽  

The exposome characterizes all environmental exposures and their impact on a disease. To determine the causally-associated components of the exposome for cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD), we performed mendelian randomization analysis of 5365 exposures on six clinical and subclinical CSVD measures. We found statistically significant evidence (FDR-corrected P < 0.05) that hypertension, high cholesterol, longer television-watching time, lower educational qualifications, younger age of first sexual intercourse, smoking, reduced pulmonary function, higher subjective overall health rating, and frequent tiredness were associated with increased risk of intracerebral hemorrhage or small vessel stroke. Adiposity, diabetes, frequent alcoholic drinks, higher white blood cell count and neutrophil count were significantly associated with higher risk of non-lobar hemorrhage or small vessel stroke, but not lobar hemorrhage. Hypertension, higher arm or leg fat-free mass and higher sitting height were significantly associated with higher white matter hyperintensities. The results were robust to sensitivity analyses and showed no evidence of horizontal pleiotropy. We also identified 41 exposures suggestively associated (uncorrected P < 0.05) with multiple CSVD measures as the “the CSVD exposome”. This exposome-wide association study provides insight into CSVD development and prevention.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Amanda Ly ◽  
Beate Leppert ◽  
Dheeraj Rai ◽  
Hannah Jones ◽  
Christina Dardani ◽  

AbstractHigher prevalence of autism in offspring born to mothers with rheumatoid arthritis has been reported in observational studies. We investigated (a) the associations between maternal and offspring’s own genetic liability for rheumatoid arthritis and autism-related outcomes in the offspring using polygenic risk scores (PRS) and (b) whether the effects were causal using Mendelian randomization (MR). Using the latest genome-wide association (GWAS) summary data on rheumatoid arthritis and individual-level data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, United Kingdom, we constructed PRSs for maternal and offspring genetic liability for rheumatoid arthritis (single-nucleotide polymorphism [SNP] p-value threshold 0.05). We investigated associations with autism, and autistic traits: social and communication difficulties, coherence, repetitive behaviours and sociability. We used modified Poisson regression with robust standard errors. In two-sample MR analyses, we used 40 genome-wide significant SNPs for rheumatoid arthritis and investigated the causal effects on risk for autism, in 18,381 cases and 27,969 controls of the Psychiatric Genetics Consortium and iPSYCH. Sample size ranged from 4992 to 7849 in PRS analyses. We found little evidence of associations between rheumatoid arthritis PRSs and autism-related phenotypes in the offspring (maternal PRS on autism: RR 0.89, 95%CI 0.73–1.07, p = 0.21; offspring’s own PRS on autism: RR 1.11, 95%CI 0.88–1.39, p = 0.39). MR results provided little evidence for a causal effect (IVW OR 1.01, 95%CI 0.98–1.04, p = 0.56). There was little evidence for associations between genetic liability for rheumatoid arthritis on autism-related outcomes in offspring. Lifetime risk for rheumatoid arthritis has no causal effects on autism.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document