Phase Relationships
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2022 ◽  
Joana Cabral ◽  
Francisca F Fernandes ◽  
Noam Shemesh

The fundamental principles driving spontaneous long-range correlations between distant brain areas - known as intrinsic functional connectivity - remain unclear. To investigate this, we develop an ultrafast functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) approach with unprecedented temporal resolution (38 milliseconds) in the rat brain. We detect a repertoire of principal components exhibiting standing wave properties, i.e., with phase relationships varying gradually across space and oscillating in time, driving in- and anti-phase synchronization across distinct cortical and subcortical structures. The spatial configuration, stability and peak frequency of these standing waves is found to depend on the sedation/anaesthesia state, with medetomidine sedation revealing the most stable (i.e., less damped) standing waves, resonating at frequencies extending up to 0.25 Hz. Our findings show that the complex activity patterns observed in resting-state fMRI signals result from the superposition of standing waves, supporting the hypothesis that intrinsic functional connectivity is inherently associated to resonance phenomena.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (24) ◽  
pp. 18531-18542
William J. Randel ◽  
Fei Wu ◽  
Alison Ming ◽  
Peter Hitchcock

Abstract. Observations show strong correlations between large-scale ozone and temperature variations in the tropical lower stratosphere across a wide range of timescales. We quantify this behavior using monthly records of ozone and temperature data from Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesonde (SHADOZ) tropical balloon measurements (1998–2016), along with global satellite data from Aura microwave limb sounder and GPS radio occultation over 2004–2018. The observational data demonstrate strong in-phase ozone–temperature coherence spanning sub-seasonal, annual and interannual timescales, and the slope of the temperature–ozone relationship (T / O3) varies as a function of timescale and altitude. We compare the observations to idealized calculations based on the coupled zonal mean thermodynamic and ozone continuity equations, including ozone radiative feedbacks on temperature, where both temperature and ozone respond in a coupled manner to variations in the tropical upwelling Brewer–Dobson circulation. These calculations can approximately explain the observed (T / O3) amplitude and phase relationships, including sensitivity to timescale and altitude, and highlight distinct balances for “fast” variations (periods < 150 d, controlled by transport across background vertical gradients) and “slow” coupling (seasonal and interannual variations, controlled by radiative balances).

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Hyoungkyu Kim ◽  
Amy McKinney ◽  
Joseph Brooks ◽  
George A. Mashour ◽  
UnCheol Lee ◽  

Delirium is a major public health issue associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, particularly after surgery. While the neurobiology of delirium remains incompletely understood, emerging evidence suggests that cognition requires close proximity to a system state called criticality, which reflects a point of dynamic instability that allows for flexible access to a wide range of brain states. Deviations from criticality are associated with neurocognitive disorders, though the relationship between criticality and delirium has not been formally tested. This study tested the primary hypothesis that delirium in the postanesthesia care unit would be associated with deviations from criticality, based on surrogate electroencephalographic measures. As a secondary objective, the impact of caffeine was also tested on delirium incidence and criticality. To address these aims, we conducted a secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial that tested the effects of intraoperative caffeine on postoperative recovery in adults undergoing major surgery. In this substudy, whole-scalp (16-channel) electroencephalographic data were analyzed from a subset of trial participants (n = 55) to determine whether surrogate measures of neural criticality – (1) autocorrelation function of global alpha oscillations and (2) topography of phase relationships via phase lag entropy – were associated with delirium. These measures were analyzed in participants experiencing delirium in the postanesthesia care unit (compared to those without delirium) and in participants randomized to caffeine compared to placebo. Results demonstrated that autocorrelation function in the alpha band was significantly reduced in delirious participants, which is important given that alpha rhythms are postulated to play a vital role in consciousness. Moreover, participants randomized to caffeine demonstrated increased alpha autocorrelation function concurrent with reduced delirium incidence. Lastly, the anterior-posterior topography of phase relationships appeared most preserved in non-delirious participants and in those receiving caffeine. These data suggest that early postoperative delirium may reflect deviations from neural criticality, and caffeine may reduce delirium risk by shifting cortical dynamics toward criticality.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (11) ◽  
pp. 1300
Troels Aagaard ◽  
Joost Brinkkemper ◽  
Drude F. Christensen ◽  
Michael G. Hughes ◽  
Gerben Ruessink

The existence of sandy beaches relies on the onshore transport of sand by waves during post-storm conditions. Most operational sediment transport models employ wave-averaged terms, and/or the instantaneous cross-shore velocity signal, but the models often fail in predictions of the onshore-directed transport rates. An important reason is that they rarely consider the phase relationships between wave orbital velocity and the suspended sediment concentration. This relationship depends on the intra-wave structure of the bed shear stress and hence on the timing and magnitude of turbulence production in the water column. This paper provides an up-to-date review of recent experimental advances on intra-wave turbulence characteristics, sediment mobilization, and suspended sediment transport in laboratory and natural surf zones. Experimental results generally show that peaks in the suspended sediment concentration are shifted forward on the wave phase with increasing turbulence levels and instantaneous near-bed sediment concentration scales with instantaneous turbulent kinetic energy. The magnitude and intra-wave phase of turbulence production and sediment concentration are shown to depend on wave (breaker) type, seabed configuration, and relative wave height, which opens up the possibility of more robust predictions of transport rates for different wave and beach conditions.

Olaf Ellers ◽  
Melody Khoriaty ◽  
Amy S. Johnson

Sea stars have slower crawling and faster bouncing gaits. Both speed and oscillation amplitude increase during the transition from crawling to oscillating. In the bouncy gait, oscillating vertical velocities precede oscillating horizontal velocities by 90 degrees, as reflected by clockwise circular hodographs. Potential energy precedes horizontal kinetic energy by 9.6 degrees and so are nearly in phase. These phase relationships resemble terrestrial running gaits, except that podia are always on the ground. Kinetic and potential energy scale as mass1.1, with the change in kinetic energy consistently two orders of magnitude less, indicating that efficient exchange is not feasible. Frequency of the bouncy gait scales with mass−0.14, which is similar to continuously running vertebrates and indicates that gravitational forces are important. This scaling differs from the Hill model, in which scaling of muscle forces determine frequency. We propose a simple torque stabilized inverted pendulum (TS-IP) model to conceptualize the dynamics of this gait. The TS-IP model incorporates mathematics equivalent to an angular spring, but implemented by a nearly constant upward force generated by the podia in each step. That upward force is just larger than the force required to sustain the underwater weight of the sea star. Even though the bouncy gait is the rapid gait for these sea stars, the pace of movement is still very slow. In fact, the observed Froude numbers (10−2 to 10−3) are much lower than those typical of vertebrate locomotion and are as low or lower than those reported for slow walking fruit flies, which are the lowest values for pedestrian Froude numbers of which we are aware.

Kiyoaki Tanaka ◽  
Yuko Wasada-Tsutsui

The molecular orbitals (MOs) of diformohydrazide have been determined from the electron density measured by X-ray diffraction. The experimental and refinement procedures are explained in detail and the validity of the obtained MOs is assessed from the crystallographic point of view. The X-ray structure factors were measured at 100 K by a four-circle diffractometer avoiding multiple diffraction, the effect of which on the structure factors is comparable to two-centre structure factors. There remained no significant peaks on the residual density map and the R factors reduced significantly. Among the 788 MO coefficients, 731 converged, of which 694 were statistically significant. The C—H and N—H bond distances are 1.032 (2) and 1.033 (3) Å, respectively. The electron densities of theoretical and experimental MOs and the differences between them are illustrated. The overall features of the electron density obtained by X-ray molecular orbital (XMO) analysis are in good agreement with the canonical orbitals calculated by the restricted Hartree Fock (RHF) method. The bonding-electron distribution around the middle of each bond is well represented and the relative phase relationships of the π orbitals are reflected clearly in the electron densities on the plane perpendicular to the molecular plane. However, differences are noticeable around the O atom on the molecular plane. The orbital energies obtained by XMO analysis are about 0.3 a.u. higher than the corresponding canonical orbitals, except for MO10 to MO14 which are about 0.7 a.u. higher. These exceptions are attributed to the N—H...O′′ intermolecular hydrogen bond, which is neglected in the MO models of the present study. The hydrogen bond is supported by significant electron densities at the saddle points between the H(N) and O′′ atoms in MO7, 8, 14 and 17, and by that of O′′-p extended over H(N) in MO21 and 22, while no peaks were found in MO10, 11, 13 and 15. The electron density of each MO clearly exhibits its role in the molecule. Consequently, the MOs obtained by XMO analysis give a fundamental quantum mechanical insight into the real properties of molecules.

Ledger ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 6 ◽  
Nirvik Sinha ◽  
Yuan Yang

Non-linear interactions between cryptocurrency price movements can elicit cross-frequency coupling (CFC) wherein one set of frequencies in the 1st timeseries is coupled to another set of frequencies in the 2nd timeseries. To investigate this, we use a generalized coherence approach to detect and quantify both linear (i.e., iso-frequency coupling, IFC) and non-linear coherence (CFC) and the associated phase relationships between the intra-day price changes of various pairs of cryptocurrencies for the year 2020. Using this information, we further assess the risk reduction associated with diversification of portfolios between each pair of a small market capital and a large market capital cryptocurrency, for both synchronous and asynchronous trading conditions. While mean pairwise IFC values were lower for smaller cryptocurrencies, pairwise CFC values were more heterogeneous and had no correlation with the market capital size. Diversification of portfolios resulted in reduced risk for synchronously-traded pairs of those cryptocurrencies which had low IFC. For asynchronous trading conditions, if the larger market capital cryptocurrency was traded at a higher frequency, diversification almost always reduced risk. Thus, the novel approach used in this study reveals important insights into the complex dynamics that govern the price trends of cryptocurrencies.

eLife ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
Yann Roussel ◽  
Stephanie F Gaudreau ◽  
Emily R Kacer ◽  
Mohini Sengupta ◽  
Tuan V Bui

Many spinal circuits dedicated to locomotor control have been identified in the developing zebrafish. How these circuits operate together to generate the various swimming movements during development remains to be clarified. In this study, we iteratively built models of developing zebrafish spinal circuits coupled to simplified musculoskeletal models that reproduce coiling and swimming movements. The neurons of the models were based upon morphologically or genetically identified populations in the developing zebrafish spinal cord. We simulated intact spinal circuits as well as circuits with silenced neurons or altered synaptic transmission to better understand the role of specific spinal neurons. Analysis of firing patterns and phase relationships helped identify possible mechanisms underlying the locomotor movements of developing zebrafish. Notably, our simulations demonstrated how the site and the operation of rhythm generation could transition between coiling and swimming. The simulations also underlined the importance of contralateral excitation to multiple tail beats. They allowed us to estimate the sensitivity of spinal locomotor networks to motor command amplitude, synaptic weights, length of ascending and descending axons, and firing behaviour. These models will serve as valuable tools to test and further understand the operation of spinal circuits for locomotion.

Ketong Luo ◽  
Jianlie Liang ◽  
Jinming Zhu ◽  
Xuehong Cui

Abstract The Fe-rich corner of the Ce–Nd–B–Fe quaternary system at 773 K has been experimentally investigated by means of X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy techniques. No quaternary compound was observed in this system. Ce2Fe14B and Nd2Fe14B were found to form the continuous solid solution (Ce,Nd)2Fe14B. Ce-Fe4B4 and NdFe4B4 also form the solid solution (Ce,Nd)-Fe4B4. The isothermal section consists of 8 three-phase regions and 2 four-phase regions.

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