Neuropsychiatric Disorders
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2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Romina Moavero ◽  
Alessandra Voci ◽  
Francesca La Briola ◽  
Sara Matricardi ◽  
Irene Toldo ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Rupinder Kaur Sodhi ◽  
Raghunath Singh ◽  
Yashika Bansal ◽  
Mahendra Bishnoi ◽  
Ishwar Parhar ◽  
...  

Neuropsychiatric disorders (NPDs) are a huge burden to the patient, their family, and society. NPDs have been greatly associated with cardio-metabolic comorbidities such as obesity, type-2 diabetes mellitus, dysglycaemia, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, and other cardiovascular disorders. Antipsychotics, which are frontline drugs in the treatment of schizophrenia and off-label use in other NPDs, also add to this burden by causing severe metabolic perturbations. Despite decades of research, the mechanism deciphering the link between neuropsychiatric and metabolic disorders is still unclear. In recent years, transient receptor potential Ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel has emerged as a potential therapeutic target for modulators. TRPA1 agonists/antagonists have shown efficacy in both neuropsychiatric disorders and appetite regulation and thus provide a crucial link between both. TRPA1 channels are activated by compounds such as cinnamaldehyde, allyl isothiocyanate, allicin and methyl syringate, which are present naturally in food items such as cinnamon, wasabi, mustard, garlic, etc. As these are present in many daily food items, it could also improve patient compliance and reduce the patients’ monetary burden. In this review, we have tried to present evidence of the possible involvement of TRPA1 channels in neuropsychiatric and metabolic disorders and a possible hint towards using TRPA1 modulators to target appetite, lipid metabolism, glucose and insulin homeostasis and inflammation associated with NPDs.


2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Nobuyuki Sudo

AbstractAnorexia nervosa (AN), an eating disorder, is characterized by extreme weight loss and fear of weight gain. Psychosocial factors are thought to play important roles in the development and progression of AN; however, biological factors also presumably contribute to eating disorders. Recent evidence has shown that the gut microbiota plays an important role in pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders including AN. In this article, we describe the possible role of the gut microbiota in the development and persistence of AN, based on the latest research works, including those of our group.


2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (23) ◽  
pp. 12862
Author(s):  
Rune Kleppe ◽  
Qaiser Waheed ◽  
Peter Ruoff

Dopamine (DA) is an important signal mediator in the brain as well as in the periphery. The term “dopamine homeostasis” occasionally found in the literature refers to the fact that abnormal DA levels can be associated with a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. An analysis of the negative feedback inhibition of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) by DA indicates, with support from the experimental data, that the TH-DA negative feedback loop has developed to exhibit 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) homeostasis by using DA as a derepression regulator. DA levels generally decline when DOPA is removed, for example, by increased oxidative stress. Robust DOPA regulation by DA further implies that maximum vesicular DA levels are established, which appear necessary for a reliable translation of neural activity into a corresponding chemical transmitter signal. An uncontrolled continuous rise (windup) in DA occurs when Levodopa treatment exceeds a critical dose. Increased oxidative stress leads to the successive breakdown of DOPA homeostasis and to a corresponding reduction in DA levels. To keep DOPA regulation robust, the vesicular DA loading requires close to zero-order kinetics combined with a sufficiently high compensatory flux provided by TH. The protection of DOPA and DA due to a channeling complex is discussed.


Author(s):  
Maisumu Gulimiheranmu ◽  
Shuang Li ◽  
Junmei Zhou

Adolescent neuropsychiatric disorders have been recently increasing due to genetic and environmental influences. Abnormal brain development before and after birth contribute to the pathology of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, it is difficult to experimentally investigate because of the complexity of brain and ethical constraints. Recently generated human brain organoids from pluripotent stem cells are considered as a promising in vitro model to recapitulate brain development and diseases. To better understand how brain organoids could be applied to investigate neuropsychiatric disorders, we analyzed the key consideration points, including how to generate brain organoids from pluripotent stem cells, the current application of brain organoids in recapitulating neuropsychiatric disorders and the future perspectives. This review covered what have been achieved on modeling the cellular and neural circuit deficits of neuropsychiatric disorders and those challenges yet to be solved. Together, this review aims to provide a fundamental understanding of how to generate brain organoids to model neuropsychiatric disorders, which will be helpful in improving the mental health of adolescents.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Cassandra M J Wannan ◽  
Christos Pantelis ◽  
Antonia Merritt ◽  
Bruce Tonge ◽  
Warda T Syeda

Background: Population-centric frameworks of biomarker identification for psychiatric disorders focus primarily on comparing averages between groups and assume that diagnostic groups are (1) mutually-exclusive, and (2) homogeneous. There is a paucity of individual-centric approaches capable of identifying individual-specific fingerprints across multiple domains. To address this, we propose a novel framework, combining a range of biopsychosocial markers, including brain structure, cognition, and clinical markers, into higher-level fingerprints, capable of capturing intra-illness heterogeneity and inter-illness overlap. Methods: A multivariate framework was implemented to identify individualised patterns of brain structure, cognition and clinical markers based on affinity to other participants in the database. First, individual-level affinity scores defined a neighbourhood for each participant across each measure based on variable-specific hop sizes. Next, diagnostic verification and classification algorithms were implemented based on multivariate affinity score profiles. To perform affinity-based classification, data were divided into training and test samples, and 5-fold nested cross-validation was performed on the training data. Affinity-based classification was compared to weighted K-nearest neighbours (KNN) classification. K-means clustering was used to create clusters based on multivariate affinity score profiles. The framework was applied to the Australian Schizophrenia Research Bank (ASRB) dataset. Results: Individualised affinity scores provided a fingerprint of brain structure, cognition, and clinical markers, which described the affinity of an individual to the representative groups in the dataset Diagnostic verification capability was moderate to high depending on the choice of multivariate affinity metric. Affinity score-based classification achieved a high degree of accuracy in the training, nested cross-validation and prediction steps, and outperformed KNN classification in the training and test datasets. Conclusion: Affinity scores demonstrate utility in two keys ways: (1) Early and accurate diagnosis of neuropsychiatric disorders, whereby an individual can be grouped within a diagnostic category/ies that best matches their fingerprint, and (2) identification of biopsychosocial factors that most strongly characterise individuals/disorders, and which may be most amenable to intervention.


2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Author(s):  
Siyuan Bu ◽  
Yihan Lv ◽  
Yusheng Liu ◽  
Sen Qiao ◽  
Hongmei Wang

Zinc finger proteins (ZNF) are among the most abundant proteins in eukaryotic genomes. It contains several zinc finger domains that can selectively bind to certain DNA or RNA and associate with proteins, therefore, ZNF can regulate gene expression at the transcriptional and translational levels. In terms of neurological diseases, numerous studies have shown that many ZNF are associated with neurological diseases. The purpose of this review is to summarize the types and roles of ZNF in neuropsychiatric disorders. We will describe the structure and classification of ZNF, then focus on the pathophysiological role of ZNF in neuro-related diseases and summarize the mechanism of action of ZNF in neuro-related diseases.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (11) ◽  
pp. 1193
Author(s):  
Yoshihiro Noda

The goal of this Special Issue is to introduce the cutting-edge research in clinical neurophysiology, neuroimaging, and neuromodulation [...]


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