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2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 938
Olubodun Michael Lateef ◽  
Michael Olawale Akintubosun ◽  
Olamide Tosin Olaoba ◽  
Sunday Ocholi Samson ◽  
Malgorzata Adamczyk

The evolutional development of the RNA translation process that leads to protein synthesis based on naturally occurring amino acids has its continuation via synthetic biology, the so-called rational bioengineering. Genetic code expansion (GCE) explores beyond the natural translational processes to further enhance the structural properties and augment the functionality of a wide range of proteins. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic ribosomal machinery have been proven to accept engineered tRNAs from orthogonal organisms to efficiently incorporate noncanonical amino acids (ncAAs) with rationally designed side chains. These side chains can be reactive or functional groups, which can be extensively utilized in biochemical, biophysical, and cellular studies. Genetic code extension offers the contingency of introducing more than one ncAA into protein through frameshift suppression, multi-site-specific incorporation of ncAAs, thereby increasing the vast number of possible applications. However, different mediating factors reduce the yield and efficiency of ncAA incorporation into synthetic proteins. In this review, we comment on the recent advancements in genetic code expansion to signify the relevance of systems biology in improving ncAA incorporation efficiency. We discuss the emerging impact of tRNA modifications and metabolism in protein design. We also provide examples of the latest successful accomplishments in synthetic protein therapeutics and show how codon expansion has been employed in various scientific and biotechnological applications.


It is with profound sadness that we write this statement for the former editor of this journal, our colleague and friend, Michael McAleer. Mike passed away peacefully on July 8, 2021, and he will be sorely missed by his vast number of colleagues and friends. Mike served on the editorial board of the Annals of Financial Economics (AFE) for more than 16 years and was the Editor-in-Chief since 2016. Mike was a wonderful friend, colleague, and mentor to all that knew him, and provided countless hours of service to AFE. He touched our lives deeply and was ever ready to lend a hand in any way he could, whether through his vast knowledge of econometrics, his willingness to work together on research projects, his efforts on behalf of this journal, or his contagious joie de vivre. We will miss him greatly. In the remainder of this editorial, we include a short biography, as well as a number of statements from co-authors, colleagues and friends of Mike.

Xiaoyan Zhu ◽  
Yang Xu ◽  
Cuimei Cao ◽  
Tian Shang ◽  
Yali Xie ◽  

Abstract It is fascinating how the binary alloy FeRh has been the subject of a vast number of studies almost solely for a single-phase transition. This is, however, reasonable, considering how various degrees of freedom are intertwined around this phase transition. Furthermore, the tunability of this phase transition—the large response to tuning parameters, such as electric field and strain—endows FeRh huge potential in applications. Compared to the bulk counterpart, FeRh in the thin-film form is superior in many aspects: Materials in thin-film form are often more technologically relevant in the first place; in addition, the substrates add extra dimensions to the tunability, especially when the substrate itself is multiferroic. Here we review recent developments on the magnetic and transport properties of heterostructures based on FeRh and its end-member Rh, with the latter providing a new route to exploiting spin-orbit interactions in functional spintronic heterostructures other than the more often employed 5d metals. The methods utilized in the investigation of the physical properties in these systems, and the design principles employed in the engineering thereof may conceivably be extended to similar phase transitions to other magnetic materials.

2022 ◽  

In the 19th century, foreigners had unprecedented access to Spanish America, as the newly independent nations welcomed travelers as readily as they accepted foreign loans and investment capital. Britons were able to freely travel into the South American interior, and commercial ties between Britain and Latin America grew quickly. Cultural and economic exchanges proceeded in two major waves: the first occurred during and in the immediate aftermath of the Wars of Independence, and then, after a cooling-off period, during the second half of the century, when infrastructural and technological advances opened up the Latin American hinterlands to capitalist expansion. International trade grew after 1850, along with Britain’s role in Latin American culture. Britain remained the hegemonic foreign power in Latin America until the First World War. These relationships left their mark on both British and Latin American literatures. In addition to a vast number of travel books about Latin American countries by adventurers, explorers, and tourists, British poets, novelists, philosophers, and historians also drew inspiration from this still relatively unknown territory. Toward the end of the 20th century, Victorian studies began to focus more insistently on British and Latin American exchanges, often making use of historical analyses that interpreted the British-Latin American relationship in terms of dependency theory and world-systems theory. These analyses have generally characterized Britain’s enormous economic, cultural, and political influence in terms of informal imperialism, a strategy for establishing domination over a territory without ruling it directly; however, the nature of British imperialism in Latin America, and its implications for cultural analysis, remain much debated. Currently, literary studies of Britain’s role in Latin America, and Latin America’s role within the British literary imaginary, constitute a large and growing body of scholarship. This bibliographic introduction offers an overview of important texts produced in the 19th century, as well as major currents of scholarship in literary studies and related humanities disciplines.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 460
Tímea R. Kégl ◽  
László T. Mika ◽  
Tamás Kégl

Palladium-catalyzed carbonylation reactions, in the presence of nucleophiles, serve as very potent tools for the conversion of aryl and alkenyl halides or halide equivalents to carboxylic acid derivatives or to other carbonyl compounds. There are a vast number of applications for the synthesis of simple building blocks as well as for the functionalization of biologically important skeletons. This review covers the history of carbonylative coupling reactions in Hungary between the years 1994 and 2021.

Drones ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 17
Carlo Giorgio Grlj ◽  
Nino Krznar ◽  
Marko Pranjić

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles have advanced rapidly in the last two decades with the advances in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology. It is crucial, however, to design better power supply technologies. In the last decade, lithium polymer and lithium-ion batteries have mainly been used to power multirotor UAVs. Even though batteries have been improved and are constantly being improved, they provide fairly low energy density, which limits multirotors’ UAV flight endurance. This problem is addressed and is being partially solved by using docking stations which provide an aircraft to land safely, charge (or change) the batteries and to take-off as well as being safely stored. This paper focuses on the work carried out in the last decade. Different docking stations are presented with a focus on their movement abilities. Rapid advances in computer vision systems gave birth to precise landing systems. These algorithms are the main reason that docking stations became a viable solution. The authors concluded that the docking station solution to short ranges is a viable option, and numerous extensive studies have been carried out that offer different solutions, but only some types, mainly fixed stations with storage systems, have been implemented and are being used today. This can be seen from the commercially available list of docking stations at the end of this paper. Nevertheless, it is important to be aware of the technologies being developed and implemented, which can offer solutions to a vast number of different problems.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 709
Agata Gabryelska ◽  
Szymon Turkiewicz ◽  
Filip Franciszek Karuga ◽  
Marcin Sochal ◽  
Dominik Strzelecki ◽  

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a chronic condition characterized by recurrent pauses in breathing caused by the collapse of the upper airways, which results in intermittent hypoxia and arousals during the night. The disorder is associated with a vast number of comorbidities affecting different systems, including cardiovascular, metabolic, psychiatric, and neurological complications. Due to abnormal sleep architecture, OSA patients are at high risk of circadian clock disruption, as has been reported in several recent studies. The circadian clock affects almost all daily behavioral patterns, as well as a plethora of physiological processes, and might be one of the key factors contributing to OSA complications. An intricate interaction between the circadian clock and hypoxia may further affect these processes, which has a strong foundation on the molecular level. Recent studies revealed an interaction between hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), a key regulator of oxygen metabolism, and elements of circadian clocks. This relationship has a strong base in the structure of involved elements, as HIF-1 as well as PER, CLOCK, and BMAL, belong to the same Per-Arnt-Sim domain family. Therefore, this review summarizes the available knowledge on the molecular mechanism of circadian clock disruption and its influence on the development and progression of OSA comorbidities.

2022 ◽  
Núbia Rosa Da Silva ◽  
Victor Deklerck ◽  
Jan Baetens ◽  
Jan Van den Bulcke ◽  
Maaike De Ridder ◽  

Abstract Background: The identification of tropical African wood species based on microscopic imagery is a challenging problem due to the heterogeneous nature of the composition of wood combined with the vast number of candidate species. Image classification methods that rely on machine learning can facilitate this identification, provided that sufficient training material is available. Despite the fact that the three main anatomical sections contain information that is relevant for species identification, current methods only rely on the transversal section. Additionally, commonly used procedures for evaluating the performance of these methods neglect the fact that multiple images often originate from the same tree, leading to an overly optimistic estimate of the performance. Results: We introduce a new image dataset containing microscopic images of the three main anatomical sections of 77 Congolese wood species. A dedicated multiview image classification method is developed and obtains an accuracy (computed using the naive but common approach) of 95%, outperforming the singleview methods by a large margin. An in-depth analysis shows that naive accuracy estimates can lead to a dramatic over-prediction, of up to 60%, of the accuracy. Conclusions: Additional images from the non-transversal sections can boost the performance of machine-learning-based wood species identification methods. Additionally, care should be taken when evaluating the performance of machine-learningbased wood species identification methods to avoid an overestimation of the performance.

2022 ◽  
Vol 35 (1) ◽  
Yolanda Ruiz-Ordóñez ◽  
Amparo Salcedo-Mateu ◽  
Ángel Turbi ◽  
Carlos Novella ◽  
Carmen Moret-Tatay

AbstractThe service-learning disciplines can offer a unique opportunity for civic development in university students, as there is a large body of research that links it to values and civic attitudes including a vast number of ecological issues and citizen variables. Moreover, one should bear in mind that these students are future generations that will face many pressing social and environmental issues. Given the need to develop instruments to measure the impact of a service-learning methodology in university students’ values as well as civic attitudes, VAL-U is proposed. As the university can be considered a learning step prior to the professional field, the main objective of this study was to analyse the internal consistency and factor structure of the proposed VAL-U scale in the Spanish population. The scale confirmed acceptable psychometric properties. Furthermore, the results have shown high reliability and optimal goodness of fit. Promising results are offered to employ VAL-U as a valuable tool for assessing Values and Civic Attitudes Scale for Spanish-speaking University Students’ Service-Learning.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Kevin F. Boreskie ◽  
Jacqueline L. Hay ◽  
Patrick E. Boreskie ◽  
Rakesh C. Arora ◽  
Todd A. Duhamel

AbstractHealthcare systems need to adapt to better serve an aging population with complex presentations. Frailty assessments are a potential means to address this heterogeneity in aging to identify individuals at increased risk for adverse health outcomes. Furthermore, frailty assessments offer an opportunity to optimize patient care in various healthcare settings. While the vast number of frailty assessment tools available can be a source of confusion for clinicians, each tool has features adaptable to the constraints and goals of different healthcare settings. This review discusses and compares barriers, facilitators, and the application of frailty assessments in primary care, the emergency department/intensive care unit and surgical care to cover a breadth of settings with different frailty assessment considerations. The implementation of frailty-aware care across healthcare settings potentiates better healthcare outcomes for older adults.

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