carbon accumulation
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2022 ◽  
Vol 505 ◽  
pp. 119884
Jiacheng Lan ◽  
Qixia Long ◽  
Mingzhi Huang ◽  
Yongxiang Jiang ◽  
Ning Hu

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Thomas J. Rodengen ◽  
Marlow G. Pellatt ◽  
Karen E. Kohfeld

Paleoecological investigation of two montane lakes in the Kootenay region of southeast British Columbia, Canada, reveal changes in vegetation in response to climate and fire throughout the Holocene. Pollen, charcoal, and lake sediment carbon accumulation rate analyses show seven distinct zones at Marion Lake, presently in the subalpine Engelmann Spruce-Subalpine Fir (ESSF) biogeoclimatic (BEC) zone of Kootenay Valley, British Columbia. Comparison of these records to nearby Dog Lake of Kootenay National Park of Canada in the Montane Spruce (MS) BEC zone of Kootenay Valley, British Columbia reveals unique responses of ecosystems in topographically complex regions. The two most dramatic shifts in vegetation at Marion Lake occur firstly in the early Holocene/late Pleistocene in ML Zone 3 (11,010–10,180 cal. yr. B.P.) possibly reflecting Younger Dryas Chronozone cooling followed by early Holocene xerothermic warming noted by the increased presence of the dry adapted conifer, Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and increasing fire frequency. The second most prominent change occurred at the transition from ML Zone 5 through 6a (∼2,500 cal. yr. B.P.). This zone transitions from a warmer to a cooler/wetter climate as indicated by the increase in western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) and subsequent drop in fire frequency. The overall cooling trend and reduction in fire frequency appears to have occurred ∼700 years later than at Dog Lake (∼43 km to the south and 80 m lower in elevation), resulting in a closed montane spruce forest, whereas Marion Lake developed into a subalpine ecosystem. The temporal and ecological differences between the two study sites likely reflects the particular climate threshold needed to move these ecosystems from developed forests to subalpine conditions, as well as local site climate and fire conditions. These paleoecological records indicate future warming may result in the MS transitioning into an Interior Douglas Fir (IDF) dominated landscape, while the ESSF may become more forested, similar to the modern MS, or develop into a grassland-like landscape dependent on fire frequency. These results indicate that climate and disturbance over a regional area can dictate very different localized vegetative states. Local management implications of these dynamic landscapes will need to understand how ecosystems respond to climate and disturbance at the local or ecosystem/habitat scale.

Forests ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 105
Jianxiong Hu ◽  
Pei Sun Loh ◽  
Siriporn Pradit ◽  
Thi Phuong Quynh Le ◽  
Chantha Oeurng ◽  

Mangroves are highly productive blue carbon ecosystems that preserve high organic carbon concentrations in soils. In this study, particle size, bulk elemental composition and stable carbon isotope were determined for the sediment cores collected from the landward and seaward sides of two mangrove forests of different ages (M1, ca. 60; M2, ca. 4 years old) to determine the effects of geomorphic setting and age (L1 = old mangrove and S1 = salt marsh stand in M1; L2 = young mangrove and S2 = bare mudflat in M2) on sediments and organic carbon accumulation. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of the northernmost human-planted mangroves in China to accumulate sediment and carbon. Our results showed that fine-grained materials were preserved well in the interior part of the mangroves, and the capacity to capture fine-grained materials increased as the forest aged. The biogeochemical properties (C/N: 5.9 to 10.8; δ13C: −21.60‰ to −26.07‰) indicated that the local organic carbon pool was composed of a mixture of autochthonous and allochthonous sources. Moreover, the accumulation of organic carbon increased with the forest age. The interior part of the old mangrove had the highest organic carbon stock (81.93 Mg Corg ha−1). These findings revealed that mangrove reforestation had positive effects on sediments and organic carbon accretion.

2022 ◽  
Catherine E. Lovelock ◽  
M. Fernanda Adame ◽  
Don W. Butler ◽  
Jeffrey J. Kelleway ◽  
Sabine Dittmann ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 ◽  
Andre S. Rovai ◽  
Robert R. Twilley ◽  
Thomas A. Worthington ◽  
Pablo Riul

Mangroves are known for large carbon stocks and high sequestration rates in biomass and soils, making these intertidal wetlands a cost-effective strategy for some nations to compensate for a portion of their carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. However, few countries have the national-level inventories required to support the inclusion of mangroves into national carbon credit markets. This is the case for Brazil, home of the second largest mangrove area in the world but lacking an integrated mangrove carbon inventory that captures the diversity of coastline types and climatic zones in which mangroves are present. Here we reviewed published datasets to derive the first integrated assessment of carbon stocks, carbon sequestration rates and potential CO2eq emissions across Brazilian mangroves. We found that Brazilian mangroves hold 8.5% of the global mangrove carbon stocks (biomass and soils combined). When compared to other Brazilian vegetated biomes, mangroves store up to 4.3 times more carbon in the top meter of soil and are second in biomass carbon stocks only to the Amazon forest. Moreover, organic carbon sequestration rates in Brazilian mangroves soils are 15–30% higher than recent global estimates; and integrated over the country’s area, they account for 13.5% of the carbon buried in world’s mangroves annually. Carbon sequestration in Brazilian mangroves woody biomass is 10% of carbon accumulation in mangrove woody biomass globally. Our study identifies Brazilian mangroves as a major global blue carbon hotspot and suggest that their loss could potentially release substantial amounts of CO2. This research provides a robust baseline for the consideration of mangroves into strategies to meet Brazil’s intended Nationally Determined Contributions.

M. E. Holmes ◽  
P. M. Crill ◽  
W. C. Burnett ◽  
C. K. McCalley ◽  
R. M. Wilson ◽  

2022 ◽  
Jefferson S. Hall ◽  
Joshua S. Plisinski ◽  
Stephanie K. Mladinich ◽  
Michiel van Breugel ◽  
Hao Ran Lai ◽  

Abstract Context Tropical forest loss has a major impact on climate change. Secondary forest growth has potential to mitigate these impacts, but uncertainty regarding future land use, remote sensing limitations, and carbon model accuracy have inhibited understanding the range of potential future carbon dynamics. Objectives We evaluated the effects of four scenarios on carbon stocks and sequestration in a mixed-use landscape based on Recent Trends (RT), Accelerated Deforestation (AD), Grow Only (GO), and Grow Everything (GE) scenarios. Methods Working in central Panama, we coupled a 1-ha resolution LiDAR derived carbon map with a locally derived secondary forest carbon accumulation model. We used Dinamica EGO 4.0.5 to spatially simulate forest loss across the landscape based on recent deforestation rates. We used local studies of belowground, woody debris, and liana carbon to estimate ecosystem scale carbon fluxes. Results Accounting for 58.6 percent of the forest in 2020, secondary forests (< 50 years) accrue 88.9 percent of carbon in the GO scenario by 2050. RT and AD scenarios lost 36,707 and 177,035 ha of forest respectively by 2030, a carbon gain of 7.7 million Mg C (RT) and loss of 2.9 million Mg C (AD). Growing forest on all available land (GE) could achieve 56 percent of Panama’s land-based carbon sequestration goal by 2050. Conclusions Our estimates of potential carbon storage demonstrate the important contribution of secondary forests to land-based carbon sequestration in central Panama. Protecting these forests will contribute significantly to meeting Panama’s climate change mitigation goals and enhance water security.

2022 ◽  
Vol 215 ◽  
pp. 105193
Gurpreet Singh ◽  
Manpreet Singh Mavi ◽  
Om Parkash Choudhary ◽  
Manpreet Kaur ◽  
Bhupinderpal Singh

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