Splicing glass fiber–reinforced polymer (GFRP)-concrete–steel double-skin tubular column (DSTC) is to set connection component at the joint of two or more separated GFRP tubes, and then pour concrete in the double-tube interlayer to form a continuous composite member. In this paper, the splicing DSTC composite members based on steel bar connection were designed and tested under axial compression to determine its mechanical performance. The main parameters include the connection steel ratio, the hollow ratio, and the thickness of GFRP tube. The results show that the GFRP tube presents apparent constraint effect on the concrete at about 60% of the ultimate load. The failure of splicing specimen occurred in the non-splicing section at a certain distance from the splice joint, and the stirrups at the splice joint provide effective constraint effect on the internal concrete. The proposed DSTC splicing method based on steel cage connection can satisfy the strength requirements of splice joint. Nevertheless, the increase of axial steel bar ratio cannot improve the bearing capacity of the splicing column, and the steel ratio of 2.44% is suggested for the splice joint of DSTCs under axial compression. The axial bearing capacity of splicing DSTCs significantly increases with the increase of GFRP tube thickness, but the amount of stirrups should be increased properly when a larger tube thickness is used. Two models were selected to calculate the bearing capacity of splicing members and it is found that Yu’s model is more accurate in predicting splicing DSTCs.
Fiber-reinforced rubber composites with integrated shape memory alloy (SMA) actuator wires present a promising approach for the creation of soft and highly elastic structures with adaptive functionalities for usage in aerospace, robotic, or biomedical applications. In this work, the flat-knitting technology is used to develop glass-fiber-reinforced fabrics with tailored properties designed for active bending deformations. During the knitting process, the SMA wires are integrated into the textile and positioned with respect to their actuation task. Then, the fabrics are infiltrated with liquid silicone, thus creating actively deformable composites. For dimensioning such structures, a comprehensive understanding of the interactions of all components is required. Therefore, a simulation model is developed that captures the properties of the rubber matrix, fiber reinforcement, and the SMA actuators and that is capable of simulating the active bending deformations of the specimens. After model calibration with experimental four-point-bending data, the SMA-driven bending deformation is simulated. The model is validated with activation experiments of the actively deformable specimens. The simulation results show good agreement with the experimental tests, thus enabling further investigations into the deformation mechanisms of actively deformable fiber-reinforced rubbers.
This study inspects the viability of engaging the discarded paper wastes in concrete by varying the volume proportions from 0%–20% with each 5% increment in replacement of the weight of cement. A physiomechanical study was conducted, and the results were presented. A glass fiber reinforced rectangular slab with a longer span (ly) to shorter span (lx) ratio of (ly: lx) 1.16 was cast with optimum replacement of waste-paper mass and compared the force-deformation characteristics with the conventional concrete slab without waste paper. The optimum percentage of discarded papers for the replacement of cement is 5%. Also, the results imply that the compressive strength at the age of 28 days is 30% improved for the optimum replacement. Based on the outcomes of the investigation, it can be inferred that the compressive strength gets progressively reduced if the volume of the discarded paper gets increases. The incorporation of glass fibers improves the split and flexural strength of the concrete specimens considerably. The ultimate load-carrying capacity of the glass fiber reinforced waste paper incorporated concrete slab measured 42% lower than that of the conventional slab. However, development of the new type of concrete incorporating waste papers is the new trend in ensuring the sustainability of construction materials.
In this study, the load level, soil cover height, rise-span ratio, and arch foot constraint state were utilized to explore the mechanical properties of buried arch glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) structures. Through the indoor scale-down test, the stress and deformation of arched GFRP structures under different load and soil cover height were investigated. Additionally, through the three-dimensional finite element method, the influence of the rise-span ratio and the constraint state of arch foot on the mechanical properties were obtained. The results indicate the new buried composite arch structure has excellent bearing capacity for the possible traffic load. Simultaneously, the semi-elliptical arch structure was believed to outperform the semi-circular arch structure when considering the external load. Specifically, increasing the soil cover height and reducing rise-span ratio were found to achieve the load-reduction effect.
The weak interfacial adhesion has significantly affected the durability, long-term reliability, and performance of glass fiber–reinforced epoxy composites. The coating of graphene and carbon nanotubes on the glass fiber can have a positive effect on the strength, toughness, and thermal insulation performance of glass fiber-reinforced composites. However, the strengthening mechanism of carbon nanomaterial coating on the interfacial adhesion between glass fiber and epoxy has not been fully explored. In this work, the effect of graphene and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) on the interfacial properties of the glass fiber–reinforced epoxy has been investigated at atomistic scale. The graphene and SWCNTs are sandwiched between epoxy and silica to study the debonding behavior of the sandwiched structures. It is found that the interfacial energy is significantly improved with the incorporation of graphene and SWCNTs between epoxy and silica, causing an obvious improvement in adhesion stress for graphene coating and in debonding displacement for SWCNT coating. Compared with the epoxy/silica without coatings where the silica and epoxy detach from the contact surface, the sandwiched structures display different failure modes. The sandwiched structure with graphene coating fails at the epoxy matrix close to the interface, exhibiting a cohesive failure mode because of the relatively stronger interfacial interactions. The structures with SWCNTs fail at the interface between silica and SWCNTs, representing an adhesive failure mode due to the interlocking between SWCNTs and polymer chains. This work provides a theoretical guideline to optimize the interface adhesion of coated glass fiber–reinforced epoxy via structure design and surface modification of coating materials.
Glass fiber reinforced plastics are widely used in civil engineering because of their advantages such as light weight, high strength, good pollution resistance, and corrosion resistance. This study investigated the buckling bearing capacity, failure characteristics, and slenderness ratios of GFRP solid bars with circular cross-sections subjected to axial compression. A total of 18 specimens were categorized into six groups. The slenderness ratios ranged from 57 to 123. It was found from experiments that the instability mode of the specimens was extreme point instability, and a bearing capacity platform phenomenon was observed when overall lateral instability occurred. The failure mode was axial and transverse tearing failure of the material in the middle of the specimen. During buckling, the tensile side was transformed from the compression of the resin matrix to tension in the fibers. The elastic modulus of glass fiber was much lower than that of the resin matrix. After tension occurred, increased deformation led to a rapid increase in lateral bending, which resulted in the phenomenon of the bearing platform. At ultimate deformation, brittle failure of the specimen occurred. The buckling load of the specimen decreased sharply with an increase in the slenderness ratio, and stress ratios decreased from 34.95% to 6.73%. It is suggested that the slenderness ratio not exceed 80. Finally, based on experimental results, a practical method for calculating the stable bearing capacity of solid GFRP poles is proposed.