Annular tuned sloshing dampers equipped with damping screens are studied experimentally and analytically. A nonlinear multimodal model is presented to simulate the coupled response among the lowest order sloshing modes in a tank equipped with damping screens, which leads to velocity-squared damping. Shake table tests are conducted on annular tanks with various inner radii, water depths, screen orientations, and base excitation amplitudes. The proposed model is evaluated by comparing the predicted and measured sloshing forces, energy dissipation per cycle, and wave heights. The predicted sloshing forces and energy dissipation per cycle are in good agreement with the measured results. The wave heights show larger discrepancies, including phase shifts; however, the peak amplitudes are captured with reasonable accuracy for the tests conducted. Secondary resonances lead to multiple peaks in the frequency response plots when higher order sloshing modes become excited through modal coupling. Plots created to indicate which secondary resonances are likely to occur for a given liquid depth ratio indicate that it may not be possible to avoid all secondary resonances. Radial damping screens can be strategically positioned within the tank to provide the desired level of damping to the fundamental sloshing modes, as well as a reasonable amount of damping to higher order modes that are susceptible to secondary resonance excitation. Since existing linearized models for annular tuned sloshing dampers equipped with damping screens do not capture the important nonlinear response characteristics of these devices, the proposed model fills an important research gap necessary to facilitate their effective design.
We report on measurements of resonant three-step, two-colour ionization of atomic molybdenum, using a hollow cathode lamp (HCL) with optogalvanic detection. Wavelength scans were made for two specific transitions involved in the ionization pathways under investigation, namely 4d5(6S)5s 7S3 - 4d5(6S)5p 7P4 and 4d5(6S)5p 7P4 - 4d5(6S)6d 7D5.So-called ‘slow’ and ‘fast’ optogalvanic signals were observed for each pathway. Results confirm the HCL as a cost effective spectroscopic investigation tool. In particular its use in the optogalvanic mode of operation allows one to precisely, easily and reliably tune the wavelength of one or more lasers to resonances of interest for experiments in the general domain of atomic vapour laser isotope selection (AVLIS). The measurements are closely related to the Selective Production of Exotic Species (SPES) project at the ISOL facility and were performed in the recently established laser laboratory in Legnaro National Laboratories of INFN.
Insect wings are an outstanding example of how a proper interplay of rigid and flexible materials enables an intricate flapping flight accompanied by sound. The understanding of the aerodynamics and acoustics of insect wings have enabled the development of man-made flying robotic vehicles and explained basic mechanisms of sound generation by natural flyers. This work proposes the concept of artificial wings with a periodic pattern, inspired by metamaterials, and explores how the pattern geometry can be used to control the aerodynamic and acoustic characteristics of the wing. For this, we analyzed bio-inspired wings with anisotropic honeycomb patterns flapping at a low frequency and developed a multi-parameter optimization procedure to tune the pattern design in order to increase lift and, simultaneously, manipulate the produced sound. Our analysis is based on the finite-element solution to a transient three-dimensional fluid-structure interactions problem. The two-way coupling is described by incompressible Navier-Stokes equations for viscous air and structural equations of motion for a wing undergoing large deformations. We manufactured three wing samples by means of 3D printing and validated their robustness and dynamics experimentally. Importantly, we showed that the proposed wings can sustain long-term resonance excitation that opens a possibility to implement resonance-type flights inherent to certain natural flyers. Our results confirm the feasibility of the metamaterial patterns to control the flapping flight dynamics and can open new perspectives for applications of 3D-printed patterned wings, e.g., in the design of drones with the target sound.
Commercially available headforms, such as the Hybrid-III and EN 960 headforms, have been used effectively to investigate the mechanics of head impacts. These headforms may result in accelerations that are unrepresentative of a human head in some impact scenarios. This may be important when considering impacts that produce areas of high pressure, since skull deformation and resonance excitation may influence the dynamic response. The National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE) headform may produce a more suitable response during these types of impacts due to the more representative skull component. However, permanent deformation may occur in some unprotected impact scenarios, resulting in the entire headform needing to be replaced. This paper outlines the development of a novel, modular and destructible headform (LU headform) that can be used in potentially destructive testing, where individual components can be replaced. The LU headform was modelled after a UK 50th percentile male. The inertial properties of the LU headform were within 6% of those observed in humans. The skull simulant properties were within the range of values reported for human tissue in two build orientations, but lower in one build orientation. The lowest and highest resonance frequencies observed in the headform model were within 5% of those observed in humans. Drop and projectile tests were conducted in line with previous cadaver tests with the observed accelerations within the range reported for post-mortem human subjects. The LU headform offers a practical means of simulating head dynamics during localised unprotected impacts or in protected impacts where local deformation and/or resonance frequency excitation remains possible.
AbstractLocalized surface plasmon resonance excitation presents tremendous opportunities for light-harvesting in the field of photocatalysis. Notably, the use of plasmon-generated hot carriers to drive chemical reactions offers the opportunity to control the selectivity of the reaction, unlike temperature-driven catalysis. There has been extensive development of photocatalysts based on plasmon-induced hot electron transfer. However, the equally important hole transfer process has been largely understudied mainly because of the ultrafast dynamics and shorter lifetime of holes compared to electrons. The electron and hole transport asymmetry to the catalytic site introduces additional challenges in extracting holes as oxidants for chemical adsorbents/reactants. This review provides a fundamental overview of plasmonic catalysis, emphasizing recent hot hole extraction and catalysis advancements by exploring different nano-heterointerfaces through which energetic holes can be localized to the catalytic sites. We also highlight some of the critical parameters which must be considered to address the limitations and introduce new possibilities to the field.
This article explores the applicability of utilizing different equivalent diameter (Deq) equations to estimate the vortex shedding frequency and onset of self-excited acoustic resonance for various types of finned cylinders. The focus is on three finned cylinder types that are commonly used in industrial heat exchangers: straight, twist-serrated, and crimped spirally finned cylinders. Within each type of fins, at least three different finned cylinders are investigated. The results indicate that at off-resonance conditions, utilizing the appropriate equivalent diameter collapses the Strouhal number data within the typical Strouhal number variations of an equivalent diameter circular, bare cylinder. However, when acoustic resonance is initiated, the onset and the peak of resonance excitation in all of the finned cylinder cases generally occurred at a reduced flow velocity earlier than that observed from their equivalent diameter bare cylinders. This suggests that although utilizing the appropriate equivalent diameter can reasonably estimate the vortex shedding frequency away from acoustic resonance excitation, it cannot be used to predict the onset of acoustic resonance in finned tubes. The findings of this study indicate that the effective diameter approach is not sufficient to capture the intrinsic changes in the flow-sound interaction mechanism as a result of adding fins to a bare cylinder. Thus, a revision of the acoustic Strouhal number charts is required for finned tubes of different types and arrangements.
The nonlinear dynamic features of compression roller batteries were investigated together with their nonlinear response to primary resonance excitation and to internal interactions between modes. Starting from a parametric nonlinear model based on a previously developed Lagrangian formulation, asymptotic treatment of the equations of motion was first performed to characterize the nonlinearity of the lowest nonlinear normal modes of the system. They were found to be characterized by a softening nonlinearity associated with the stiffness terms. Subsequently, a direct time integration of the equations of motion was performed to compute the frequency response curves (FRCs) when the system is subjected to direct harmonic excitations causing the primary resonance of the lowest skew-symmetric mode shape. The method of multiple scales was then employed to study the bifurcation behavior and deliver closed-form expressions of the FRCs and of the loci of the fold bifurcation points, which provide the stability regions of the system. Furthermore, conditions for the onset of internal resonances between the lowest roller battery modes were found, and a 2:1 resonance between the third and first modes of the system was investigated in the case of harmonic excitation having a frequency close to the first mode and the third mode, respectively.
Terbium (Tb) is a promising element for the theranostic approach in nuclear medicine. The new CERN-MEDICIS facility aims for production of its medical radioisotopes to support related R&D projects in biomedicine. The use of laser resonance ionization is essential to provide radioisotopic yields of highest quantity and quality, specifically regarding purity. This paper presents the results of preparation and characterization of a suitable two-step laser resonance ionization process for Tb. By resonance excitation via an auto-ionizing level, the high ionization efficiency of 53% was achieved. To simulate realistic production conditions for Tb radioisotopes, the influence of a surplus of Gd atoms, which is a typical target material for Tb generation, was considered, showing the necessity of radiochemical purification procedures before mass separation. Nevertheless, a 10-fold enhancement of the Tb ion beam using laser resonance ionization was observed even with Gd:Tb atomic ratio of 100:1.