permanent deformation
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Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 621
Solomon Adomako ◽  
Christian John Engelsen ◽  
Rein Terje Thorstensen ◽  
Diego Maria Barbieri

Recycled Excavation Materials (REM) are becoming viable alternative construction resources due to their economic benefits. However, REM may be composed of weak rocks, e.g., phyllites, limiting the use in a base layer. The present paper attempts to further the knowledge of the mechanical performance of REM by performing Repeated Load Triaxial Tests (RLTT). REM are mixed with Recycled Phyllite Materials (RPM) in systematic blends of 0%, 25%, 50%, and 100%. The batches’ resilient modulus (MR) and permanent deformation (PD) characteristics were assessed to establish the maximum RPM allowed into REM while maintaining the required performance. Hicks and Monismith’s and Uzan’s models were used to characterize the stiffness behavior. A wide variation in the stiffness between the two materials was observed. Batches comprised of 0% RPM–100% REM and 25% RPM–75% REM showed high stiffness performance. The Coulomb model assessed the PD behavior, and the results showed a similar response for all batches. Unlike the stiffness, blended mixtures did not show sensitivity to increased RPM content in the PD. This study may help end-users to understand the performance of REM given the documented threshold on the allowable quantity of RPM in REM.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 490
Caroline Moura ◽  
Lucas Nascimento ◽  
Carlos Loureiro ◽  
Mafalda Rodrigues ◽  
Joel Oliveira ◽  

Steel slag is a byproduct generated as waste during the steelmaking process and can be considered a cost-effective and environmentally acceptable alternative to replace natural aggregates. Using steel slag aggregates (SSA) to produce asphalt mixtures promotes sustainability and circular economy principles by using an industrial byproduct as a raw material. Thus, this work mainly aims to design more sustainable asphalt mixtures with high amounts of SSA that fit the circular economy expectations. This work developed two asphalt mixtures with SSA for surface (AC 14 surf) and binder/base (AC 20 bin/base) courses. Initially, the excellent wearing and polishing resistance of SSA and their good affinity with bitumen demonstrated the potential of this byproduct to be used in asphalt mixtures. Then, when analyzing the influence of using two different SSA incorporation rates (50% and a percentage close to 100%) in both asphalt mixtures, it was concluded that the use of SSA should be limited to 75% to avoid excessive air void contents and durability problems. The importance of considering the different particle densities of SSA and natural aggregates was highlighted during the mix design by defining a relationship between an effective and equivalent binder content. Finally, the mechanical performance of AC 14 and AC 20 with 75% SSA incorporation was compared to identical conventional mixtures produced with natural granite aggregates. The results obtained showed that the asphalt mixtures with 75% SSA have some workability problems due to the rough and porous surface of SSA. However, they present an excellent water sensitivity and permanent deformation resistance, surpassing the performance of the conventional asphalt mixtures.

Ana Paula Maran ◽  
Maria Fernanda Fávero Menna Barreto ◽  
Denise Carpena Coitinho Dal Molin ◽  
João Ricardo Masuero

ABSTRACT Adequate cover thickness contributes to the correct performance of reinforced concrete structures. Spacers are recommended in standards to maintain a concrete cover; however, many regulations do not provide sufficient guidelines for their use, resulting in poor construction. A research program was developed for solid slabs through computational and experimental simulations to minimize errors in the cover by assessing different reinforcement bar diameters and spacer distribution, considering realistic element construction and standards, combining theory with practice. The results show that the use of spacers does not guarantee the design cover for some reinforcement bar diameters, as 4.2 and 5.0 mm, and regardless of the spacer distribution configuration assessed, these meshes undergo permanent deformation, thereby damaging the cover and consequently impact structural performance. Meshes of 6.3 and 8.0 mm diameters present deformation within the cover tolerance. Therefore, it is preferable to choose bigger diameters and larger mesh spacing to guarantee the projected cover, contributing to the correct performance of the structures, solving one of the major problems in this type of construction.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2152 (1) ◽  
pp. 012029
Junjie He ◽  
Yonggang Guo

Abstract It is commonly believed that the permanent deformation is introduced by the meizoseismal impacts of embankment dams, which is impossible to be reinstated and will further endanger the safety and normal use thereof. In this study, a three-dimensional finite element model of the dam have been established with the equivalent nodal force approach to calculate the permanent deformation of the dams under seismic protection. It was indicated by the results that the acceleration response of dams was not intense in the meizoseismal areas and the vertical seismic permanent deformation mainly occurred at the top of the dams, of which the collapse rate is less than 1% with small lateral and horizontal seismic permanent deformation. Moreover, the dam profile has been indicated with inward shrinkage upon the seismic permanent deformation, which is beneficial to the stability of the dam slopes. However, seismic measures are required to improve the seismic performance of the dam area because of the large acceleration and permanent seismic deformation at the dam tops. The research results provide a decision basis for seismic hazard assessment and reinforcement solutions of similar dams.

2022 ◽  
Vol 961 (1) ◽  
pp. 012049
Noor Sadiq ◽  
Miami M. Hilal ◽  
Mohammed Y. Fattah

Abstract Pavement is a complex structure consisting of several layers of different materials that influence its stressful behavior. Permanent deformation can occur in pavement layers of insufficient hardness at high temperatures. Significant rutting normally only occurs during hot weather, especially when the flexible pavement surface temperature is 60 ° C or higher. 2D model analysis using ABAQUS software can predict the rutting behavior. The modeling procedure assumes that all materials performance is a linear elastic. Surface, base, subbase and subgrade layers consist of models. Models in every pavement model, subgrade layers are supposed to have endless depth. This paper presents an element-finite model (FE) for the behavior analysis of the dynamic loading unreinforced and geogrid reinforced paving. Increased loading of the model and critical pavement responses for unreinforced or geogrid-reinforced flexible paving, such as vertical stress and vertical surface deflection, were determined. The results indicated a difference in the displacement results when adding the geogrid layer. The results also showed a significant improvement in the behavior of the pavement system. A parametric study was carried out on a type of Truck (3-S1) and the applied pressure was 36 tons with different thicknesses of the asphalt layer once 150 mm and again 25 cm at different temperatures of 20, 40 and 60 ° C. It was found that the higher the temperatures, the higher the displacement as well.

2022 ◽  
Vol 961 (1) ◽  
pp. 012014
Z A Alkaissi

Abstract A research aim was to achieve a finite element model for predictive pavement cracking implementing ABAQUS software ver.6.12.1. A simulation model for pavement structure was implemented to analyze the propagation of cracks within flexible pavement. The X-FEM method adopted in this research based on the functions of interpolation that can characterize the displacements near the crack zone, initial crack was defined at the bottom of asphalt layer. The estimated results illustrated that X-FEM was efficient for the simulation of cracks in pavement structures without the need for re meshing during crack propagation evolution process. Finally, inclusive simulation results probed the considerable effect for improvement of bonding layers to enhance the service life of pavement in terms of decreasing the rate of crack propagation. The crack was propagated upwards from depth end of asphalt layer to pavement surface and deviated from center of applied pressure with an inclination of almost 300 in the third upper zone of asphalt layer while the pre-crack point was always located in the bottom of asphalt layer in pavement model because of the different characteristics of their bonding bases. In the crack zone the permanent deformation was increased gradually from the crack edge along vertical direction of crack spread due to tensile stresses concentration at the crack zone. The action of horizontal and vertical stresses affect crack propagation and growth vertically to the direction of higher horizontal tensile stresses, and along direction of higher compression vertical stresses.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Rong Chang ◽  
Aimin Sha ◽  
Pinxue Zhao ◽  
Songchang Huang ◽  
Cong Qi

Using modified asphalt binder is one of the most effective methods to solve the rutting problem of asphalt pavement, but the traditional G ∗ / sin     δ parameter is not enough to characterize the rutting resistance of modified asphalt in field use. In order to accurately evaluate the high temperature performance of asphalt and establish the relationship between the rutting resistance of binder and mixture, two kinds of matrix asphalt and three kinds of modified asphalt were selected for DSR and MSCR tests. G ∗ / sin     δ , nonrecoverable creep compliance Jnr, recovery rate R, and other parameters were used to characterize the permanent deformation resistance of the binder, and the correlation between these parameters and the results of rutting test was analyzed. The results show that Jnr3.2 can accurately characterize the permanent deformation resistance of asphalt, while the stress sensitivity index Jnrdiff is not applicable to all types of modified asphalt. In contrast, Jnrslope can better reflect the stress sensitivity of asphalt, and Jnrslope is significantly correlated with the results of rutting test.

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 195
Lubomír Lapčík ◽  
Martin Vašina ◽  
Barbora Lapčíková ◽  
Yousef Murtaja

This article deals with the characterization of the thermal-induced aging of soft polyurethane (PU) foams. There are studied thermal and mechanical properties by means of thermal analysis, tensile, compression and dynamic mechanical vibration testing. It was found in this study, that the increasing relative humidity of the surrounding atmosphere leads to the initiation of the degradation processes. This is reflected in the observed decreased mechanical stiffness. It is attributed to the plasticization of the PU foams wall material. It is in agreement with the observed increase of the permanent deformation accompanied simultaneously with the decrease of Young’s modulus of elasticity. The latter phenomenon is studied by the novel non-destructive forced oscillations vibration-damping testing, which is confirmed by observed lower mechanical stiffness thus indicating the loss of the elasticity induced by samples conditioning. In parallel, observed decreasing of the matrix hardness is confirming the loss of elastic mechanical performance as well. The effect of conditioning leads to the significant loss of the PU foam’s thermal stability.

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