risk sensitivity
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2022 ◽  
Uttama Barua ◽  
Mehedi Ahmed Ansary ◽  
Ishrat Islam

Abstract Risk-Sensitive Land Use Planning (RSLUP) is the process of mainstreaming disaster risk management parameters in land use planning. To ensure the effectiveness and sustainability of RSLUP, it is necessary to identify and understand the existing risk sensitivity of the land use plan. This research aims to develop a GIS-based multi-criteria zoning approach for mapping earthquake risk sensitivity of the land use plan of a local level area. For this purpose, Uttara Residential Model Town (URMT) (third phase), Dhaka, Bangladesh has been selected as the study area considering its earthquake risk for exposure to a potential earthquake. The methodology applied in this research is comprised of two steps. Firstly, assessment of the spatial earthquake risk sensitivity of the proposed land use plan of the study area based on the risk themes and corresponding risk attributes including both natural characteristics as well as built environment factors. They are macro-form risks (seismic hazard assessment), risks in urban texture (proximity from primary roads), special risk areas (geomorphic suitability and proximity from waterbody), open space scarcity risk, and risks in critical facilities (potential temporary disaster shelter and health facilities). Secondly, preparation of earthquake risk sensitivity zoning map by overlaying the spatial risk attribute maps based on weights determined through Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP). This research brings out the importance and a methodology to assess risk sensitivity of the land use of an area at the local level, which can further foster sustainable RSLUP reflecting the risk sensitivity accordingly and effectively.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 317
Safik Faozi ◽  
Bambang Sudiyatno ◽  
Elen Puspitasari ◽  
Rr Tjahjaning Poerwati

This study aims to examine the effect of legal compliance on the health of commercial banks and Islamic banks in Indonesia, to the extent that compliance with the provisions and standards set by Bank Indonesia has an impact on improving bank performance. This study uses micro banking data listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX) for the period 2015- 2019. The data used is panel data that is tested in the relationship between measures of bank health legal compliance with indicators of capital, asset quality, management, earnings, and market risk sensitivity (CAMELS). The results of this study indicate that compliance with earnings and compliance with market risk sensitivity has a negative effect on bank performance, while compliance with liquidity has no effect on bank performance. Furthermore, three control variables used in this study, namely capital, asset quality, and corporate governance, were able to produce results as predicted.   Received: 19 August 2021 / Accepted: 6 November 2021 / Published: 3 January 2022

2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (07) ◽  
pp. A05
Sedona Chinn ◽  
Ariel Hasell

Despite scientific consensus that genetically modified (GM) food is safe to eat, the American public remains skeptical. This study (N=73) investigates the proposed role of disgust in driving opposition to GM food, which is debated in extant literature. Using physiological measures of disgust, alongside self-report measures, this study suggests that disgust plays a role in driving skepticism toward GM food, but not other food and health technologies. We further discuss the possible influence of risk sensitivity and perceptions of unnaturalness on attitudes toward novel science.

2021 ◽  
Johannes Rodrigues ◽  
Patrick Ruthenberg ◽  
Patrick Mussel ◽  
Johannes Hewig

Two different reasons to show risky behavior have been identified: Risk proneness and the lack of loss aversion. So far, the number of empirical studies investigating the influence of trait greed, anxiety, and age on risky decision behavior, differentiating between risk sensitivity and loss aversion, is very limited and inconsistent findings exist. The present study investigated this issue using variants of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) in an online study. Risky decision-making behavior was then assessed by administering two versions of the BART, a gain only and a mixed gambling BART. A total of 54 male and 51 female subjects participated in the study. It could be shown that individuals with a high expression of the personality trait greed show an increased risky decision behavior due to an increased risk sensitivity and not due to a reduced loss aversion. This is partly in contrasts with previous findings in other tasks assessing risk sensitivity and loss aversion. These differences may be due to the changes of perception during the gain only task.No significant effect was found between the personality trait anxiety or age and risky decision-making behavior. This could be since no pathologically anxious subjects were used for the sample, or respectively due to an unbalanced distribution of age.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Hirotaka Osawa ◽  
Atsushi Kawagoe ◽  
Eisuke Sato ◽  
Takuya Kato

The authors evaluate the extent to which a user’s impression of an AI agent can be improved by giving the agent the ability of self-estimation, thinking time, and coordination of risk tendency. The authors modified the algorithm of an AI agent in the cooperative game Hanabi to have all of these traits, and investigated the change in the user’s impression by playing with the user. The authors used a self-estimation task to evaluate the effect that the ability to read the intention of a user had on an impression. The authors also show thinking time of an agent influences impression for an agent. The authors also investigated the relationship between the concordance of the risk-taking tendencies of players and agents, the player’s impression of agents, and the game experience. The results of the self-estimation task experiment showed that the more accurate the estimation of the agent’s self, the more likely it is that the partner will perceive humanity, affinity, intelligence, and communication skills in the agent. The authors also found that an agent that changes the length of thinking time according to the priority of action gives the impression that it is smarter than an agent with a normal thinking time when the player notices the difference in thinking time or an agent that randomly changes the thinking time. The result of the experiment regarding concordance of the risk-taking tendency shows that influence player’s impression toward agents. These results suggest that game agent designers can improve the player’s disposition toward an agent and the game experience by adjusting the agent’s self-estimation level, thinking time, and risk-taking tendency according to the player’s personality and inner state during the game.

2021 ◽  
Cody A Freas ◽  
Antoine Wystrach ◽  
Sebastian Schwarz ◽  
Marcia A Spetch

Many ant species are able to establish routes between goal locations by learning views of the surrounding visual panorama. Route formation models have, until recently, focused on the use of attractive view memories, which experienced foragers orient towards to return to the nest or known food sites. However, aversive views have recently been uncovered as a key component of route learning. Here, Cataglyphis velox rapidly learned aversive views, when associated with a negative outcome, a period of captivity in brush, triggering an increase in hesitation behavior. These memories were based on the accumulation of experiences over multiple trips with each new experience regulating foragers hesitancy. Foragers were also sensitive to captivity time differences, suggesting they possess some mechanism to quantify duration. Finally, we characterized foragers perception of risky (variable) versus stable aversive outcomes by associating two sites along the homeward route with two distinct schedules, a fixed duration of captivity or a variable captivity duration, with the same mean time over training. Foragers exhibited significantly less hesitation to the risky outcome compared to the fixed, indicating they perceived risky outcomes as less severe. Results align with a logarithmic relationship between captivity duration and hesitation response, suggesting that foragers perception of the aversive stimulus is a logarithm of its actual value. We conclude by characterizing how view memory and risk perception can be executed within the mushroom bodies neural circuitry.

2021 ◽  
pp. 174569162110013
Tomás Lejarraga ◽  
Ralph Hertwig

Loss aversion has long been regarded as a fundamental psychological regularity, yet evidence has accumulated to challenge this conclusion. We review three theories of how people make decisions under risk and, as a consequence, value potential losses: expected-utility theory, prospect theory, and risk-sensitivity theory. These theories, which stem from different behavioral disciplines, differ in how they conceptualize value and thus differ in their assumptions about the degree to which value is dependent on state and context; ultimately, they differ in the extent to which they see loss aversion as a stable individual trait or as a response to particular circumstances. We highlight points of confusion that have at least partly fueled the debate on the reality of loss aversion and discuss four sources of conflicting views: confusion of loss aversion with risk aversion, conceptualization of loss aversion as a trait or as state dependent, conceptualization of loss aversion as context dependent or independent, and the attention–aversion gap—the observation that people invest more attentional resources when evaluating losses than when evaluating gains, even when their choices do not reveal loss aversion.

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