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2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 20-26
Yanli Sun

The construction of high-density primary schools in Shenzhen is facing new challenges. Therefore, it is essential to look for ways to meet the demand for degrees, realize education and teaching reform, eliminate the shackles of design code, and adapt to the local climate. From the perspective of design methodology, this article discusses the design strategy of Shenzhen’s high-density primary school campus from four aspects: compact layout, multiple functions, open space, and personalized design, aiming to provide ideas for the construction of primary school campuses.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 489
Alexander Dolgoborodov ◽  
Boris Yankovsky ◽  
Sergey Ananev ◽  
George Valyano ◽  
Galina Vakorina

The results of experiments to determine the role of structural schemes for the ignition of a mechanically activated thermite mixture Al–CuO and the formation of its combustion flame are presented. The reaction initiated in the bulk of the experimental assembly transforms into torch combustion in an open space. The dynamics of the volume of the flame reaction region was determined. The stage of flame formation has a stochastic character, determined by the random distribution of the reaction centres in the initial volume of the components. A high-speed camera, a pyrometer and electro contact sensors were used as diagnostic tools. The ultimate goal of the study was to optimize the conditions for the flame formation of this mixture for its effective use with a single ignition of various gas emissions.

R. Fakhira ◽  
A. Cahyono

Abstract. The establishment of Batam City as a Free Trade Zone (FTZ) encourages the city’s growth, as manifested in massive built-up area expansion. The aim of this paper was to analyze the pattern of built-up area expansion in FTZ Batam in 2035 based on the corresponding pattern from 2000 to 2015. Land Change Modeler (LCM) was the instrument used to determine and analyze land cover changes in 2000–2015, from which future changes or built-up area expansion in 2035 were predicted using the validated 2020 land cover map as reference. The validation test based on the Kappa Index of Agreement yielded 96%. The prediction results showed that, compared with 2020, the built-up area in 2035 would have increased by 31.8% and expanded towards the outskirts of FTZ Batam. This sprawl follows the location of the primary activity centers in the FTZ, as allocated in Presidential Regulation of the Republic of Indonesia No. 87 of 2011. A new expansion is expected to continue into existing open space and extensive untouched forest areas. These research findings provide a concept that can be utilized to formulate certain policies and regional planning in the future.

2022 ◽  
De-ming Xie ◽  
Tianyu Wang ◽  
Hai Liu ◽  
Pan Jiang

Abstract This article analyzes the impact of large-scale mass activities and extreme weather on the outbreak of COVID-19 in Wuhan, confirming that the South China Seafood Market is indeed the origin of the Wuhan epidemic, and found that the probability of respiratory transmission is low in open space, while food transmission is possible. At the same time, it was found that the outbreaks of SARS in Beijing in 2003 and COVID-19 in Wuhan in 2019 were both related to extreme weather. By investigating genomics and epidemiological data, it was determined that the first COVID-19 case in Wuhan was in November, and the beginning of the epidemic was in late November. Comparing the climate of November, December and January in Wuhan from 2011 to 2020, it is found that there are a lot of extreme weather events in Wuhan from the end of 2019 to the beginning of 2020, including strong winds, heavy rains, large cooling after continuous high temperature, and continuous low temperature and rainy after large cooling, the temperature suddenly rises and then drops rapidly, the wind continues to weaken for many days and then suddenly increases, and long rainy days, etc.

Bambang Pudjoatmodjo ◽  
Amir Hasanudin Fauzi ◽  
Sazilah Salam ◽  
Tio Ahmad Muluk ◽  
Dendy Syahreza Maulana

Gobak Sodor is a traditional game that came from Indonesia. Gobak Sodor is also known as a different name in Indonesia and Malaysia, such as Panjang tangan in Riau-Sumatra, Asing in Makassar, Galah Asin in West Java, and Galah Panjang in Malaysia. Gobak Sodor is a game that is played in two groups and has a rule that one group must prevent the opponent through the line back to back. However, Indonesia's open area has gradually reduced so that people difficult to play gobak Sodor. The loss of open land for playing Gobak Sodor and game technology advances make children slowly forget the gobak sodor. In the present time, technology is common for people to support their daily life activities. One of technology implementation form is electronic game, where peoples can play without the limitation of time and space. The electronic game also give pleasure and fun as much as conventional game activities. With the form of electronic game, this research develop a game application which implements all of the gobak sodor rules. Where the players can play the gobak sodor using their mobile device and without the trouble to play on a field or open space. Using electronic game for playing Gobak Sodor gives people satisfaction, awareness. In the hope that this will preserves the traditional game Gobak Sodor. The survey found that 80% of people have an interest to play The Gobak Sodor game.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (4) ◽  
Nora Ratzmann ◽  
Anita Heindlmaier

Under EU law, EU citizens constitute a particular group of immigrants, as they can, mostly without restrictions, move to, and reside in, another EU country, enjoying equal treatment with nationals in terms of accessing employment and social rights. However, as this article demonstrates, the settlement of EU citizens in another member state does not happen without hurdles. Through a careful in‐depth study of access to transnational welfare rights in practice, we analyse knowledge and resulting power asymmetries impacting interactions between certain EU migrant claimants and street‐level bureaucrats in Austrian and German social administrations. Following an inductive approach, based on an extensive data set of 144 qualitative interviews, this article first unpacks the different types of knowledge asymmetries relating to administrative procedures, formal social entitlements and the German language. We then analyse how such knowledge asymmetries may open space for welfare mediation in order to compensate for a lack of German language skills and to clarify misunderstandings about legal entitlements and obligations embedded in the claims system. Finally, our contribution offers a typology of welfare mediators and their characteristics, as not all types can be regarded as equally effective in reshaping power asymmetries. Overall, this article allows for insights into how welfare mediators, as more or less institutionalised opportunity structures, can shift policy outcomes in unexpected ways, enabling access to social benefits and services for otherwise excluded EU migrant citizens working, or seeking to work, in another EU member state.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Michael B. Tchintcharauli-Harrison ◽  
Mary V. Santelmann ◽  
Hattie Greydanus ◽  
Omar Shehab ◽  
Maria Wright

We used the EPA SWMM-5. 1 model to evaluate the relative impact of neighborhood design and constructed Low Impact Development (LID) features on infiltration, evaporation, and runoff for three future scenarios. In the Current Course (CC) future, current regulations and policies remain in place under lower rates of climate change and population growth. In the Stressed Resources (SR) future, rapid rates of population growth and climate change stress water systems, and conventional development patterns and management actions fail to keep pace with a changing environment. In the Integrated Water (IW) future, with the same rapid rates of climate change and population growth as the SR future, informed water management anticipates and adapts to expected changes. The IW scenario retains public open space, extensive use of constructed LID features, and has the lowest proportion of impervious surface. Neighborhood designs varied in the number of dwelling units, density of development, and spatial extent of nature-based solutions and constructed LID features used for stormwater management. We compared the scenarios using SWMM-5.1 for a set of NRCS Type 1a design storms (2-yr, 25-yr, 20% increase over 25-yr, 30% increase over 25-yr) with precipitation input at 6-min time steps as well as a set of 10-year continuous runs. Results illustrate the importance of neighborhood design in urban hydrology. The design with the highest proportion of impervious surface (SR future) produced runoff of up to 45–50% of precipitation for all variations of the 25-year storm, compared to 34–44 and 23–39% for the CC and IW futures, respectively. Evaporation accounted for only 2–3% of precipitation in the 25-year design storm simulations for any scenario. Results of continuous 10-year simulations were similar to the results of design storms. The proportion of precipitation that became runoff was highest in the SR future (33%), intermediate in the CC (16%), and lowest in the IW future (9%). Evaporation accounted for 6, 11, and 14 of precipitation in the SR, CC, and IW futures with LID, respectively. Infiltration was higher in scenarios with LID than for the same scenario without LID, and varied with the extent of LID employed, accounting for 59, 71, and 74% of precipitation in the SR, CC, and IW scenarios with LID. In addition to differences in performance for stormwater management, the alternative scenarios also provide different sets of co-benefits. The IW and SR future designs both provide more housing than the CC, and the IW future has the lowest cost of development per dwelling unit.

Land ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 89
Elke Mertens ◽  
Richard Stiles ◽  
Nilgül Karadeniz

Green infrastructure is presented as a novel and innovative approach in the current environmental planning discourse, but how new is it really? An historical overview of planning ideas in both the urban and the rural contexts indicates that the concept, if not the term, “green infrastructure” has a very long and distinguished pedigree in the field of landscape and open space planning. To determine how far the concept is indeed new, definitions of green infrastructure from the literature are examined. While “green” has long been loosely used as a synonym for natural features and vegetation in the planning context, “infrastructure” is the part of the term which is really novel. Infrastructure is otherwise understood as being either “technical” or “social”, and the common features of these otherwise very different forms are considered in order to gain a better understanding of how they might also relate to a new interpretation of green infrastructure. A number of international case studies of different “green infrastructure” projects are then presented, again to better understand their common features and potential relationship to other infrastructure types. Finally, the necessity to consider green and blue areas together and to take them as seriously as other forms of infrastructure is emphasized. The developing climate and biodiversity crises underline the urgency of implementing a flexible and multifunctional green-blue infrastructure system. This must be carefully integrated into the existing fabric of both urban and rural landscapes and will require an appropriately resourced administration and management system, reflecting its beneficial impacts.

2022 ◽  
V. Alisin

Abstract. The issues of sapphire friction and wear in contact with chrome steel and zirconium ceramics are discussed in this article. The kinetic microindentation method is used to study the mechanical properties of sapphire in frictional contact in modelling experiments on the indentation of a Vickers indent. Taking into account the anisotropy of the mechanical properties of sapphire, the influence of the load and orientation of the indent on the modulus of elasticity and hardness is analyzed. It has been established that, under dry friction conditions it is promising the use of zirconium ceramics in the supports of devices operating under conditions in which the use of lubricants is impossible. The possibility of using a friction couple of sapphire-zirconium ceramics in friction units operating in open space is noted.

2022 ◽  
Uttama Barua ◽  
Mehedi Ahmed Ansary ◽  
Ishrat Islam

Abstract Risk-Sensitive Land Use Planning (RSLUP) is the process of mainstreaming disaster risk management parameters in land use planning. To ensure the effectiveness and sustainability of RSLUP, it is necessary to identify and understand the existing risk sensitivity of the land use plan. This research aims to develop a GIS-based multi-criteria zoning approach for mapping earthquake risk sensitivity of the land use plan of a local level area. For this purpose, Uttara Residential Model Town (URMT) (third phase), Dhaka, Bangladesh has been selected as the study area considering its earthquake risk for exposure to a potential earthquake. The methodology applied in this research is comprised of two steps. Firstly, assessment of the spatial earthquake risk sensitivity of the proposed land use plan of the study area based on the risk themes and corresponding risk attributes including both natural characteristics as well as built environment factors. They are macro-form risks (seismic hazard assessment), risks in urban texture (proximity from primary roads), special risk areas (geomorphic suitability and proximity from waterbody), open space scarcity risk, and risks in critical facilities (potential temporary disaster shelter and health facilities). Secondly, preparation of earthquake risk sensitivity zoning map by overlaying the spatial risk attribute maps based on weights determined through Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP). This research brings out the importance and a methodology to assess risk sensitivity of the land use of an area at the local level, which can further foster sustainable RSLUP reflecting the risk sensitivity accordingly and effectively.

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